Which type of cartilage is NOT properly matched with its function?
A) elastic cartilage; withstand repetitive bending
B) skeletal cartilage; reinforce airways
C) fibrocartilage; withstand pressure and stretch
D) hyaline cartilage; cover the ends of bones
Skeletal cartilage is not a specific cartilage type but rather a description of the collection of cartilage in the body.
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called __________.
B) appositional growth
D) interstitial growth
Interstitial growth occurs when chondrocytes divide and form new matrix, thereby expanding the cartilage tissue from within. This causes the cartilage to lengthen.
Bones do NOT have a role in __________.
B) glycogen production
C) fat storage
E) blood cell formation
Glycogen production (glycogenesis) is not a role of bone; it takes place primarily in muscle and liver cells.
Which of the following pairs is MISMATCHED?
A) tarsals: short bones
B) femur: long bone
C) skull bones: flat bones
D) sternum: long bone
The sternum is a flat bone.
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
D) Haversian canal
The structural unit of compact bone is the osteon, an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.
An imbalance that activates these bone cells would lead to a loss of bone density.
Osteoclasts are the bone cells that break down bone. If they were activated more than normal, you should expect to see bone loss.
Which of the following statements is true?
A) Spongy bone is well adapted to accept stress in many directions, which makes it good for shock absorption.
B) Osteoclasts are important in removing calcium from the blood stream.
C) Bone would be more brittle with more collagen in the matrix.
D) The red marrow in the medullary cavity produces our red blood cells.
While not as strong as compact bone, spongy bone is a great shock absorber.
There are several components to a functional osteon. Changes to which of the following components would make the bones less strong overall and cause the bones to bend under a person's body weight?
B) articular cartilage
The hydroxyapatite is the rigid portion of the bone matrix. As hydroxyapatite is removed from the bone, more of the body's weight would be transferred to the collagen of the osteoid, which would bend under the weight.
What would be the physical sign that a bone CANNOT continue longitudinal growth?
A) an epiphyseal line
B) the presence of hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bone
C) the presence of osteons
D) the presence of osteoblasts
The epiphyseal plate is a zone of hyaline cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone. When the cartilage is replaced with bone and the plate closes, the bone has reached its maximum length. This is called the epiphyseal line.
What is intramembranous ossification?
A) the formation of bone from preexisting hyaline cartilage models
B) the formation of bone from fibrous membranes
C) the formation of bone from preexisting fibrocartilage models
D) the formation of bone from preexisting elastic cartilage models
The formation of bone from fibrous membranes is called intramembranous ossification.
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