A&P Chapter 6

25 July 2022
4.7 (114 reviews)
50 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (46)
question
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________. -interstitial growth -calcification -hematopoiesis -appositional growth
answer
interstitial growth Interstitial growth occurs when chondrocytes divide and form new matrix, thereby expanding the cartilage tissue from within. (Note: the word inter means between, and stitial means space; these are common roots for anatomical terms.)
question
Choose the FALSE statement. -The sternum is an example of a flat bone. -Irregular bones include the vertebrae and hip bones. -Sesamoid bones form within certain tendons. -Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.
answer
Long bones include all limb bones except the patella. This is false; long bones include all limb bones except the patella, tarsals and carpals
question
Which of the following is stored in bones? -glycogen -calcitonin -phosphate -vitamin C -iodine
answer
Phosphate Bone is a reservoir for calcium and phosphate.
question
Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT? -Osteoblasts secrete collagen and calcium-binding proteins. -Bone lining cells on the internal surfaces of bone are also called endosteal cells. -Osteoclasts secrete digestive enzymes and hydrogen ions. -Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.
answer
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are derived from the same hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate into macrophages; they are not derived from osteogenic cells.
question
The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________. -the presence of collagen fibers -the presence of cartilage -the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites -the presence of glycoproteins -the presence of proteoglycans
answer
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites The exceptional hardness of bone, which allows it to resist compression, is attributed to the presence of mineral salts called hydroxyapatites. The hydroxyapatites, mainly calcium phosphates, form the inorganic matrix of bone.
question
What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length? -closure of the epiphyseal plate -the presence of osteoblasts -the presence of hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bone -the presence of osteons
answer
closure of the epiphyseal plate The epiphyseal plate is a zone of hyaline cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone. When the cartilage is replaced with bone and the plate closes (becoming an epiphyseal line), the bone has reached its maximum length.
question
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________. -hematoma formation, bony callus formation, bone remodeling, and fibrocartilaginous callus formation -bone remodeling, hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, and bony callus formation -hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling -bony callus formation, hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, and bone remodeling
answer
hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling From start to finish, a fracture is repaired by: (1) formation of a hematoma, (2) formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus, (3) formation of a bony callus, and (4) bone remodeling. Use the pneumonic HFBR (His Femur Better Repair!) to help you remember the order. H = hematoma, F = fibrocartilaginous callus, B = bony callus, R = remodeling.
question
Choose the CORRECT pairing. -osteoporosis: increased bone density -osteomalacia: excessive mineralization of the bone -rickets: deficiency of vitamin A -paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
answer
paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption Paget's disease is associated with excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption.
question
Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________. -insufficient vitamin D levels in the body -hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone -reduced parafollicular cell activity -All of the listed responses are correct.
answer
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone functions to stimulate the activity of osteoclasts in bone tissue.
question
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints? -elastic cartilage -hyaline cartilage -fibrocartilage -both hyaline and elastic cartilage
answer
hyaline cartilage Hyaline cartilage covers the ends of long bones as articular cartilage, providing springy pads that absorb compression at joints.
question
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth? -along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger -growth at the epiphyseal plate -the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage -the lengthening of hyaline cartilage
answer
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
question
Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes? -release of minerals into the blood -energy storage in fat tissue -bone formation during growth -blood cell formation
answer
blood cell formation Red bone marrow found within certain regions of spongy bone is the site of blood cell formation from the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells.
question
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system? -houses the bone marrow which produces blood cells (hematopoiesis) -support -communication -storage of minerals
answer
communication
question
In adults, yellow marrow is located ________. -primarily in flat bones -in the epiphyseal plates of long bones -in the medullary cavity of long bones -in the central canals of osteons
answer
in the medullary cavity of long bones In adults, much of the yellow marrow is located in the medullary cavity of the long bones.
question
Osteoclasts ________. -calcify bone matrix -form new bone -form skeletal cartilage -break down bone
answer
break down bone Osteoclasts are bone-breaking (bone-resorption) cells.
question
The osteon is ________. -the structural unit of compact bone -a network of red marrow -the structural unit of spongy bone -a fibrous membrane that covers and protects bone
answer
the structural unit of compact bone The osteon, also called the Haversian system, is the structural unit of compact bone.
question
The epiphyseal plate is ________. -the site of red bone marrow production -where long bone lengthening occurs -where yellow bone marrow is produced -the long axis of a bone
answer
where long bone lengthening occurs Long bones elongate from growth at the epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage between the epiphyses and diaphysis of long bones.
question
What is osteoid? -one of the cell types found in bone -the outer surface of bone -the organic part of the matrix of bone -the inorganic part of the matrix of bone
answer
the organic part of the matrix of bone Osteoid is the organic part of the (extracellular) bone matrix and includes ground substance, composed of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, and collagen fibers.
question
What is the structural unit of compact bone? osteon osteoid haversian canal canaliculus
answer
osteon The structural unit of compact bone is the osteon, an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.
question
Endosteum
answer
The lining of the marrow cavity.
question
Osteoclasts
answer
Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.
question
Lemallae
answer
Layers of bone matrix.
question
Canaliculi
answer
Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.
question
Osteoblasts
answer
Cells that can build bony matrix.
question
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________. -adipose tissue and nerve fibers -yellow marrow and spicules -blood vessels and nerve fibers -cartilage and interstitial lamellae
answer
blood vessels and nerve fibers
question
The structural unit of cancellous bone tissue is called ________. -lamellar bone -osteons -osseous lamellae -trabeculae
answer
trabeculae
question
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress? -compact bone -trabecular bone -irregular bone -spongy bone
answer
Compact bone
question
The term diploรซ refers to the ________. -fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue -internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones -two types of marrow found within most bones -double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone
answer
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
question
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________. -chondrocytes and osteocytes -marrow and osteons -cartilage and compact bone -osteoblasts and osteoclasts
answer
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
question
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________. -perforating (Sharpey's) fibers -Volkmann's canals -a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage -the struts of bone known as spicules
answer
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
question
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light. -True -False
answer
False
question
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________. -testosterone -the thyroid hormones -estrogen -growth hormone
answer
growth hormone During infancy and childhood the single most important stimulus for bone growth is growth hormone. It directly stimulates growth of the hyaline cartilage that forms the epiphyseal plates in long bones, causing the bones to lengthen.
question
Choose the TRUE statement. -Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation). -Endochondral ossification leads to the formation of the clavicles and cranial bones. -Most bones in the body are formed by intramembranous ossification. -Endochondral ossification occurs within fibrous connective tissue membranes.
answer
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation). Endochondral ossification is the formation of bone within hyaline cartilage. Hyaline cartilage "bones" are used as templates for the formation of true bone. Most bones below the base of the skull form by endochondral ossification.
question
What is endochondral ossification? -the formation of bone from pre-existing elastic cartilage models -the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models -the formation of bone from pre-existing fibrocartilage models -the formation of bone from fibrous membranes
answer
the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models Endochondral ossification is the formation of bone from hyaline cartilage models. The hyaline cartilage must be broken down and replaced with the bone tissue.
question
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________. -epiphyseal plate closure -closing of the epiphyseal plate -concentric growth -appositional growth
answer
appositional growth
question
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo? -elastic connective tissue -hyaline cartilage -dense fibrous connective tissue -fibrocartilage
answer
hyaline cartilage
question
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause? -inadequate calcification of bone -decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage -decreased osteoclast activity -increased osteoclast activity
answer
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
question
Cranial bones develop ________. -within osseous membranes -within fibrous membranes -from cartilage models -from a tendon
answer
within fibrous membranes
question
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause? -too much vitamin D in the diet -osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity -overproduction of thyroid hormone -elevated levels of sex hormones
answer
elevated levels of sex hormones
question
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children? -parathyroid hormone (PTH) -thyroid hormones -calcitriol -calcitonin
answer
calcitonin Yes, calcitonin is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in children and pregnant women.
question
PTH promotes the formation of which hormone? -calcitriol -thyroid hormones -calcitonin -vitamin D
answer
calcitriol Yes, parathyroid hormone promotes the formation of calcitriol.
question
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?) -increase osteoblasts on bone -increase reabsorption of calcium in the kidney -increase osteoclasts
answer
increase osteoblasts on bone Correct. This answer is false. PTH would NOT increase osteoblasts. Osteoblasts store calcium on bone, thus lowering plasma calcium levels
question
Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels? -calcitriol -calcitonin -parathyroid hormone (PTH)
answer
calcitriol Yes, parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates Vitamin D into calcitriol in the kidney. Calcitriol then increases absorption of calcium in the intestine.
question
greenstick
answer
An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.
question
Comminuted
answer
Bone fragments into many pieces.
question
spiral
answer
Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.
question
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream? -parathyroid hormone -estrogen -thyroxine -calcitonin
answer
parathyroid hormone
question
Wolff's law is concerned with ________. -the function of bone being dependent on shape -the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts -vertical growth of bones being dependent on age -the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
answer
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
question
Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder? -The child most likely has osteomalacia. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day. -The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day. -The child most likely has Paget's disease. Treatment includes drug therapy with administration of calcitonin and bisphosphonates. -The child most likely has osteoporosis. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and performance of weight-bearing exercises.
answer
The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
question
Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis? -Swimming is recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is considered a weight-bearing exercise. -Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as forces are applied in all directions on the bones simultaneously in swimming. -Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise. -Swimming is recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as forces are applied in all directions on the bones simultaneously.
answer
Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.