Respiratory Mastering A&P HW

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following is not one of the functions of the respiratory system? assist with the flow of arterial blood produce speech and vocalizations olfaction maintain acid-base balance
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assist with the flow of arterial blood The respiratory system assists in the flow of venous blood and lymph in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
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Pulmonary gas exchange occurs in the:
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respiratory zone.
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Houses nasal conchae to enhance turbulence for filtering air
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nasal cavity
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Prevents food and liquid from entering the rest of the respiratory tract
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larynx
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The smallest airways of the bronchial tree
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bronchioles
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Simple squamous epithelium creates these air sacs
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alveoli
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Transports air from the larynx into the lower respiratory tract
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trachea
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The first branches of the trachea
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bronchi
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Carina is the last ring of this organ
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trachea
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Three regions are the naso-, oro-, and laryngo-
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pharynx
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What sweeps foreign debris from the lower respiratory passages?
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cilia
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What epithelium forms the alveolus?
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simple squamous epithelium
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What happens to the lungs if intrapleural pressure equals or increases above atmospheric pressure?
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collapse
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Which of the following muscles is involved in normal quiet inspiration?
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The external intercostal muscles, which are located between the ribs, contract and increase the size of the thoracic cavity. The other major inspiratory muscle is the diaphragm.
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What statement best describes tidal volume?
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Tidal volume is the air exchanged during normal breathing.
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The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood of pulmonary capillaries is approximately:
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45 mm Hg.
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One hemoglobin can bind a maximum of ___ oxygen(s).
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Hemoglobin can bind up to four oxygen molecules. When it carries four oxygen molecules, we say that it is 100% saturated.
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As hemoglobin saturation decreases:
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more oxygen is released from hemoglobin. Lower hemoglobin saturation means less oxygen molecules are bound to hemoglobin because they have been released. This happens in the tissues.
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Which of the following will cause increased oxygen unloading from hemoglobin?
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increase in BPG BPG produced by erythrocytes binds with hemoglobin, reducing its affinity for oxygen, which increases the unloading of oxygen into the tissues.
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A fully saturated hemoglobin molecule transports:
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4 molecules of oxygen.
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Respiratory acidosis results from:
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hypoventilation.
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Central chemoreceptors are most sensitive to changes in __________.
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PCO2 High PCO2 triggers hyperventilation and low PCO2 triggers hypoventilation.
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What is typical of restrictive lung diseases?
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decreased pulmonary compliance
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Which of the following diseases is characterized by loss of alveolar surface area __________.
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emphysema Emphysema is a type of COPD.
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In what order does air inhaled through the nose travel, from superior to inferior?
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nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
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Gas exchange occurs in all of the following EXCEPT: respiratory bronchioles. alveolar sacs. terminal bronchioles. alveolar ducts.
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terminal bronchioles.
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Compared to bronchi, bronchioles have __________.
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more smooth muscle The bronchioles are the main airways where resistance control takes place, since the smooth muscle controls air flow.
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What does Boyle's law state about pressure and volume at a constant temperature and a constant pressure?
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Pressure increases when volume decreases.
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What primarily determines airway resistance in the respiratory passageways?
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diameter of the conducting zone passageways
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There will be __________ carbon dioxide dissolved in water at partial pressure of 45 mm Hg than at partial pressure of 40 mm Hg.
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more According to Henry's law, at carbon dioxide partial pressure of 45 mm Hg as in tissues, there will be more carbon dioxide dissolved in water (or plasma) than at partial pressure of 40 mm Hg, such as in the lungs.
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What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
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partial pressure gradient
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The coupling of blood flow with the amount of air reaching the alveoli is known as:
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ventilation-perfusion matching
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Each of the following factors affects the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange EXCEPT:
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diameter of an alveolus.
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Carbon dioxide and water combine to form:
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carbonic acid.
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An increase in blood PCO2 will cause __________.
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decrease in blood pH An increase in blood PCO2 will result in more carbonic acid being formed and more hydrogen ions being released. When the excess hydrogen ions exceed the body's buffer systems, the pH of the blood decreases.
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The neurons that control the basic rhythm for breathing are located in the __________.
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RRG
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The most important stimulus that induces changes in ventilation is
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partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
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Which of the following is part of the respiratory zone?
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alveoli The respiratory zone is where gases are exchanged.
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During inspiration, after leaving the larynx, air enters the __________.
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trachea The inspired air passes from the larynx into the trachea, also called the "windpipe" because it delivers this air to the lower structures of the respiratory tract.
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Which of the following structures is NOT part of the upper respiratory system? trachea nasal cavity larynx pharynx
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trachea
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Which of the following is a component of the respiratory membrane? smooth muscle cells of capillaries type I cells of the capillary wall endothelial cells of the alveolus basal lamina
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basal lamina The middle part of the respiratory membrane is composed of the basal lamina of the type I alveolar cells, which is fused with the capillary basal lamina.
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The movement of air in and out of the lungs is called __________.
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pulmonary ventilation Pulmonary ventilation depends on volume and pressure changes in the lungs.
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During inspiration __________.
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the volume of the lungs increases and the intrapulmonary pressure decreases During inspiration the movement of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles causes the thoracic and lung volume to increase and therefore, according to Boyle's law, the intrapulmonary pressure decreases.
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Which of the following descriptions accurately describes Boyle's law?
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The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.
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Which muscles, when contracted, would increase the volume of air in the thoracic cavity?
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diaphragm and external intercostals
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Which pressure is the result of the natural tendency of the lungs to decrease their size (because of elasticity) and the opposing tendency of the thoracic wall to pull outward and enlarge the lungs?
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intrapleural pressure
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During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?
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epinephrine
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If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?
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lungs will collapse
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If the atmospheric pressure is 770 mm Hg and oxygen represents 13% of the total, then the partial pressure of oxygen is __________.
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100 mm Hg
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The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic arterial blood is __________.
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40 mm Hg
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Microvascular complications in diabetes lead to the walls of capillaries becoming abnormally thick. How will this affect tissue gas exchange?
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The greater distance for diffusion will decrease the efficiency of diffusion.
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During pulmonary gas exchange, oxygen moves from the alveoli, where its partial pressure is approximately 104 mm Hg, to pulmonary capillaries, where its partial pressure is approximately __________.
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40 mm Hg
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During inhalation,
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the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
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From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
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Alveoli
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Which statement is correct?
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In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
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After blood becomes oxygenated,
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it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
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Hemoglobin
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is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
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Which of the following chemical equations shows what happens to part of the CO2 picked up by blood in tissues?
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CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 - → H+ + HCO3- Most of the carbon dioxide entering the plasma diffuses into erythrocytes, where it encounters the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the above reaction.
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Most of the oxygen transported by blood is __________.
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bound to hemoglobin
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Hypoventilation causes __________.
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increase in PCO2
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Hyperventilation leads to __________.
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a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration Hyperventilation leads to an increase in pH, because more CO2 is lost and therefore, there is a lower concentration of hydrogen ions.