Identify the proper region for each pressure label.
Identify the skeletal muscles of breathing listed by correctly placing the labels.
1. If intrapulmonary pressure was 760 mm Hg, what would you expect the intrapleural pressure to be?
756 mm Hg
2. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles results in ____________ in the thoracic volume which results in _______________ of the intrapulmonary pressure.
an increase; a decrease
1. Negative pressure ventilation, demonstrated by iron lungs, allows a person to breathe by producing an intermittent negative pressure that moves across the chest and diaphragm. This specific action would artificially induce the intrapulmonary pressure to _____________ atmospheric pressure thus resulting in ______________
drop below; inspiration.
2. When this negative pressure stops being applied, the lungs __________________and the intrapulmonary pressure __________________
3. When using positive pressure ventilators, what triggers the elastic recoil of the lung, and what does this action cause?
airway pressure reaching zero; expiration
Identify each of the cell types listed that are associated with the alveoli of the lungs.
Identify the structures listed that are associated with the respiratory membrane.
1. Respiratory gases cross the respiratory membrane by ___________________
2. Which environment separated by the respiratory membrane would display the highest oxygen partial pressure?
1. Surfactant is produced by __________________
Type II pneumocytes.
Type I pneumocytes.
red blood cells.
2. Increased production of surfactant would __________________
not impact the rate of diffusion of respiratory gases.
result in an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane, which would decrease diffusion of respiratory gases.
result in a decrease in the thickness of the respiratory membrane, which would increase diffusion of respiratory gases.
result in an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane, which would increase diffusion of respiratory gases.
3. Insufficient surfactant production would result in __________________
a decrease in the intrapulmonary pressure.
an increase in pulmonary compliance.
an excessive reduction in surface tension of the alveolar wall.
a tendency for the lungs to collapse.
an increase in air flow.
1. Oxygen molecules bind ___________________ of the hemoglobin.
either to the heme or to the globin region
specifically to the globin region
specifically to the heme region
neither to the heme nor to the globin region
2. A single hemoglobin displaying a saturation level of 75% would be bound to ___________________________
one oxygen molecule.
four oxygen molecules.
three oxygen molecules.
two oxygen molecules.
Place each label at the proper location on the graph to indicate appropriate oxygen saturation levels.5
1. The binding of CO to hemoglobin causes the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to ___________________
shift to the left, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is more likely to release bound oxygen.
shift to the left, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is less likely to release bound oxygen.
shift to the right, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is less likely to release bound oxygen.
shift to the right, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is more likely to release bound oxygen.
2. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning would result in ____________________ of the tissues because oxygen ____________________
hypoxia; is released from hemoglobin to a greater than normal degree at the tissues.
hyperoxia; is released from hemoglobin to a greater than normal degree at the tissues.
hyperoxia; is not released from hemoglobin in sufficient amounts at the tissues.
hypoxia; is not released from hemoglobin in sufficient amounts at the tissues
Oxygen unloading occurs at the _________________________ This process causes a(n) _________________ in the oxygen partial pressure of the blood leaving this region.
Place the following in order from highest to lowest expected partial pressure oxygen levels.
1. Hyperpnea would result in ___________________________ within the blood.
an increase in Pressure (oxygen) and a decrease in Pressure (carbon dioxide)
a decrease in both Pressure (oxygen) and Pressure (carbon dioxide)
an increase in both Pressure (oxygen) and Pressure (carbon dioxide)
a decrease in Pressure (oxygen) and an increase in Pressure (carbon dioxide)
2. Decreased Pressure (carbon dioxide) results in an increase in blood pH levels. Both of these conditions result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the ______________________. This shift _______________ hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.
3. Increased levels of 2,3 BPG occur in response to decreased blood pH levels. With all other variables unchanged, an increased concentration of 2,3 BPG in the blood would _____________________.
result in the shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the left reducing the unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right enhancing unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right reducing unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
have no impact on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin association curve to the left, enhancing unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
4. Using the graph provided, determine the correct oxygen partial pressure associated with the classification of "high altitude."
89 mm Hg
112 mm Hg
130 mm Hg
617 mm Hg
77 mm Hg
365 mm Hg
534 mm Hg
426 mm Hg
5. The altitude of Kabul, Afghanistan, is approximately 6000 feet. What is the approximate alveolar oxygen partial pressure found here?
18 mm Hg
130 mm Hg
85 mm Hg
617 mm Hg
104 mm Hg
6. Under normal conditions, the alveolar oxygen partial pressure is ______________________ than the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure.
7. Within the Tibetan highlander population, genetic variation has been found to determine relative oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels. Individuals within this population may be homozygous for either the low oxygen saturation gene or the high oxygen saturation gene. Individuals may also be heterozygous, carrying one low and one high oxygen saturation gene. Based on this information, individuals within the population carrying __________________________ alleles are expected to demonstrate a physiological advantage for survival.
homozygous high oxygen saturation population
homozygous low oxygen saturation
heterozygous oxygen saturation
8. No genetic differences were found among the Andean population in either oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels, nor hemoglobin concentrations. However, this group as a whole displayed higher hemoglobin concentration levels than their lower altitude neighbors. The most accurate explanation for this finding is that individuals constantly exposed to lower atmospheric partial pressures for oxygen would have a physiologic response which would _______________________.
result in a higher than normal oxygen partial pressure gradient between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
increase the cumulative number of red blood cells
enhance the binding of oxygen to the hemoglobin
1. ___________________ is used to sustain metabolic activities within the cells, and ________________ is produced as a result of these activities.
Oxygen; carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide; oxygen
Carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide
2. Under normal conditions, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the tissues is _____________ than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the systemic capillaries.
3. The unloading of oxygen at the tissues results in the formation of ______________________ . This configuration of hemoglobin _____________________ carbon dioxide.
oxyhemoglobin; more readily binds to
deoxyhemoglobin; is less likely to bind to
oxyhemoglobin; is less likely to bind to
deoxyhemoglobin; more readily binds to
1. Under normal conditions, the region expected to have the lowest PCO2 is the ___________________
2. If the atmospheric Pressure(CO2) exceeded the alveolar Pressure(CO2) the pulmonary capillary Pressure(CO2) would ________________________
increase well above normal range.
drop well below normal range.
likely remain in normal range.
3. A person suffering from hypercapnia compensates by ____________________ ventilation.
Identify each compound based on its structural and empircal formula.
1. Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____________________ capillaries. Here, some of the carbon dioxide binds to the _____________ region of hemoglobin.
2. The empirical formula for bicarbonate is ________________.
3. Carbon dioxide goes through a series of reactions resulting in the formation of bicarbonate. Where does this reaction occur?
1. Carbonic anhydrase is found in the _______________ where it directly catalyzes the formation of ____________________
blood plasma; carbonic acid into bicarbonate.
red blood cells; carbon dioxide gas into carbonic acid.
blood plasma; carbon dioxide gas into carbonic acid.
red blood cells; carbonic acid into bicarbonate.
2. Blood pH decreases in response to ________________________
the combination of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid.
a decrease in blood carbon dioxide levels.
the dissociation of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water.
the dissociation of carbonic acid into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
3. Renal retention of bicarbonate _______________ blood pH acting as a compensatory mechanism for the condition of respiratory ____________________________
4. Hypoventilation results in a(n) _________________ in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which may result in respiratory ___________________________
Place the labels in the correct sequence indicating the order this reversible reaction will occur within the PULMONARY CAPILLARIES. You should start with, and end with, either carbon dioxide or bicarbonate.
1. Which of the following are bicarbonate ions exchanged for when they diffuse from plasma back into red blood cells?
carbon dioxide molecules
2. At the respiratory membrane, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma is _____ than in the _____ of the lungs.
lower; tertiary bronchioles
higher; tertiary bronchioles
1. The inspiratory muscles ____________ during normal exhalation resulting in a(n) __________________ in the thoracic volume.
2. The intrapulmonary pressure is _______________ than the atmospheric pressure during exhalation.
Identify the image that best represents each type of ventilation.
Indicate whether an increase or decrease of each of the following physiologic situations would result in an increase or decrease in the rate of ventilation.
1. The reason tetrodotoxin causes death so quickly is directly related to __________________________
the loss of respiratory muscle function, which disables a person's ability to appropriately adjust thoracic volumes and associated intrapulmonary pressures.
its stimulation of the respiratory nerves inducing hyperventilation.
its ability to bind oxygen, thereby removing it from the tissues.
the large increase in the pulmonary Pressure (CO2), which is detected by the chemoreceptors in the brain stem.
2. If four new drugs were discovered and each of them resulted in the unique physiologic responses indicated below, which drug do you think would hold the most promise as a cure for tetrodotoxin poisoning?
Drug 1: Stimulated an increase in the amount of neurotransmitters released from motor neuronsDrug 2: Inhibited action potentials of motor neuronsDrug 3: Caused hyper-exitability of nervous and muscle tissueDrug 4: Dilated the alveoli within the lungs
Classify the following muscles according to their principle action in respiration.
Match the levels of Po2 and Pco2 with the corresponding point in the circulatory route.
Place each label in the correct position to indicate the muscular activation required to produce the designated volume.
Clinical terms for variations in respiratory rhythm are listed in the boxes below. Place each term in the proper location to identify the combination of factors (e.g. volume and rate) that characterizes each condition.
Which of these events lead to increased airflow and which lead to decreased airflow?
How do each of the following affect the level of oxyhemoglobin?
Which of the following events increase respiration and which decrease respiration?
Place each of the following muscles or actions in the location below that indicates their respective respiratory function.
Determine whether each of the conditions listed below would result from hyperventilation or hypoventilation.
Predict whether each condition would increase or decrease the delivery of oxygen to the tissues.
Determine which muscles are contracted with each of the respiratory volumes and capacities below.
Determine which set of capillaries each of the following processes would occur in.
Four conditions and conclusions are provided below. Identify the law that allows each conclusion to be made provided the list of known variables.
Determine if each characteristic is increased or decreased in someone who suffers from emphysema.
Determine if each characteristic is increased or decreased in someone who suffers from chronic bronchitis.
Inspiration begins as __________.
the diaphragm relaxes
the diaphragm contracts
the lungs expand
the lungs contract
the external and internal intercostals contract
What is the result of inspiration?
An increased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
An increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
A decreased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
A decreased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
An increased alveolar pressure causes decreased alveolar volume.
Which of the following occurs during expiration?
Increased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
Increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
Decreased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
Decreased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
Decreased alveolar pressure causes increased alveolar volume.
T/F: The alveoli never attain equal pressure with the ambient (outside) air.
T/F: If the volume of the alveoli increased, the pressure would decrease.
Which of the following is true at the arterial ends of the pulmonary capillaries?
The Po2 is higher in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
The Po2 is lower in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
The Po2 is equal in the capillaries and in the alveoli.
The Po2 is higher at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is lower in the alveoli than in the capillaries.
The Po2 is lower at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is higher in the alveoli than in the capillaries.
Which of the following is true at the venous ends of the pulmonary capillaries?
The Pco2 is higher in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
The Pco2 is lower in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
The Pco2 is equal in the capillaries and in the alveoli.
The Pco2 is higher at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is lower in the alveoli than in the capillaries.
The Pco2 is lower at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is higher in the alveoli than in the capillaries.
At the arterial end of a tissue capillary, rank the following structures from highest to lowest Po2.
Capillaries, tissue fluid, cells
Cells, tissue fluid, capillaries
Cells, capillaries, tissue fluid
Tissue fluid, capillaries, cells
The Po2 is the same in all three
T/F: When partial pressures for a given gas are equal between the capillaries and the tissue fluids, no net movement of that gas occurs.
T/F: Gases diffuse because of differences in partial pressures from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.
T/F: The partial pressure of a gas is measured in millimeters of mercury.
T/F: At the venous end of tissue capillaries, there is no net movement of O2 and CO2.
What determines the direction of gas movement?
The size of the gas molecule
The solubility of the gas in blood
The partial pressure differences
Which of the following statements about partial pressures of gases in the lungs is true?
Po2 in the lungs > Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs > Pco2 in the blood
Po2 in the lungs > Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs < Pco2 in the blood
Po2 in the lungs > Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs = Pco2 in the blood
Po2 in the lungs < Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs is < Pco2 in the blood
Po2 in the lungs < Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs > Pco2 in the blood
Which of the following statements about partial pressures of gases in the tissues is true?
Po2 in blood is > Po2 in tissues; Pco2 in blood > Pco2 in tissues
Po2 in blood > Po2 in tissues; Pco2 in blood < Pco2 in tissues
Po2 in blood > Po2 in tissues; Pco2in blood = Pco2 in tissues
Po2 in blood < Po2 in tissues; Pco2 in blood < Pco2 in tissues
Po2 in blood < Po2 in tissues; Pco2 in blood > Pco2 in tissues
T/F: Oxygen-rich blood is carried through pulmonary arteries from the lungs to the heart.
T/F: Oxygen-poor blood is carried through systemic veins from the body tissues back to the heart.
Correctly assign each of the following statements to one factor that affects resistance to airflow.
What is the definition of partial pressure?
The sum of the pressures contributed by each of the individual gases comprising air
The separate contribution of pressure by each each individual gas comprising air
The solubility of a gas
The difference of the contribution of nitrogen from oxygen in air
Determine whether the following conditions will increase or decrease the respiratory rate.
T/F: The partial pressure of oxygen usually has little effect on quiet respiration.
Match the following characteristics with the appropriate type of lung cancer.
The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity