Chapter 08 Metamorphism

25 July 2022
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question
Burial metamorphism produces ____________. a. foliated rocks only b. nonfoliated rocks only c. both foliated and nonfoliated rocks
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b. nonfoliated rocks only
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The process of low-grade metamorphic rocks being altered to form high-grade metamorphic rocks is termed ____________ metamorphism. a. foliated b. prograde c. retrograde d. dynamic
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b. prograde
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The mineral assemblage within metamorphic rock is ____________. a. always identical to that found within the protolith b. dependent only on the mineral assemblage of the protolith c. dependent only on the temperature and pressure of formation d. dependent on both the mineral content of the protolith and the temperature and pressure of formation
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d. dependent on both the mineral content of the protolith and the temperature and pressure of formation
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____________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of slate. a. Limestone b. Sandstone c. Shale d. Slate
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c. Shale
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Squashing a fly with a flyswatter is an application of ____________. a. normal stress b. shear stress
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a. normal stress
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A buried body of aragonitic limestone is recrystallized at low temperatures and pressures, producing calcite; this is an example of ____________. a. diagenesis b. erosion c. metamorphism d. weathering
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a. diagenesis
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Metamorphism, in broadest terms, involves ____________. a. the settling of crystals in a melt as it cools b. the sorting of grains by size, as is accomplished by rivers and beach waves c. cementation of loose grains and precipitation of new minerals into pore spaces d. changes in mineralogy and texture in response to heat and stress
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d. changes in mineralogy and texture in response to heat and stress
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Differential stress will cause crystals to align in a preferred orientation unless the crystals are ____________. a. primarily mica b. platy c. equant d. elongate
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c. equant
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Dynamothermal (regional) metamorphism occurs when ____________. a. rock becomes buried deeply during continental collision and mountain building b. regression of the sea leads to erosion of sedimentary cover atop a body of rock c. the upper surface of a body of rock develops a thick soil profile d. a pluton causes metamorphism in a small surrounding region
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a. rock becomes buried deeply during continental collision and mountain building
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____________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of phyllite. a. Limestone b. Sandstone c. Shale d. Slate
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d. Slate
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The process of high-grade metamorphic rocks being altered to form low-grade metamorphic rocks is termed ____________ metamorphism. a. foliated b. prograde c. retrograde d. dynamic
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c. retrograde
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At the surface, potassium feldspar reacts with water to form clay; this is an example of ____________. a. diagenesis b. erosion c. metamorphism d. weathering
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d. weathering
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____________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of marble. a. Limestone b. Sandstone c. Shale d. Slate
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a. Limestone
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Consult the figure below. Spreading peanut butter on bread is an application of ____________. a. normal stress b. shear stress
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b. shear stress
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A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form a (an) ____________. a. metamorphic rock b. igneous rock c. sedimentary rock
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b. igneous rock
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Marble and quartzite are nonfoliated rocks because ____________. a. they are never found beneath fault zones or collisional mountain ranges b. both are dominated by minerals that produce equant grains c. both are dominated by minerals with crystalline structures that cannot be dissolved d. dynamothermal metamorphism can break down the structures of their constituent minerals, but neither of these minerals is stable in that metamorphic environment
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b. both are dominated by minerals that produce equant grains
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In the formation of gneiss from granite, the distinctive compositional bands form due to ____________. a. crystals migrating within the rock b. crystals dissolving, and atoms and ions migrating and reorganizing as new crystals c. crystals melting, with new crystals solidifying in color bands d. the bizarre and seemingly unknowable nature of the blueschist metamorphic facies
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b. crystals dissolving, and atoms and ions migrating and reorganizing as new crystals
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Which of the following is part of the process that leads to the exhumation of metamorphic rocks? a. continents squeezing together b. mountain belts collapsing c. erosion d. All of the above are correct
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d. All of the above are correct
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Net chemical change in metamorphic rock induced by reaction with hot groundwater is termed ____________. a. foliation b. metasomatism c. anachronism
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b. metasomatism
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Mylonites, formed from dynamic metamorphism, typically display ___________. a. foliation roughly parallel to a fault b. very fine grains c. shear zones d. All of the above are correct
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d. All of the above are correct
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Precambrian metamorphic rocks are exposed at the surface ____________. a. on Mars and Venus, but nowhere on Earth b. at places in continental interiors termed platforms c. at places in continental interiors termed shields d. at the bottom of the deep sea
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c. at places in continental interiors termed shields
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Consult the figure below. The region of thermally metamorphosed rock surrounding a cooled pluton is called a (an) ____________. a. shear zone b. aureole c. oriole d. oleo
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b. aureole
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Consult the figure below. Hot water reacting with crust is the basis for what type of metamorphism? a. contact b. hydrothermal c. regional d. shock
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b. hydrothermal
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Metamorphism brings changes in mineral arrangement and the texture of rocks, but it never leads to new mineral assemblages. a. true b. false
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b. false
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Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are ____________ and ____________. a. slate; phyllite b. gneiss; migmatite c. quartzite; marble d. schist; metaconglomerate
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c. quartzite; marble
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The development of a preferred orientation of large, flaky mica crystals within metamorphic rock is termed ____________. a. slaty cleavage b. phyllitic luster c. schistosity d. compositional banding
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c. schistosity
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Which type of metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock? a. thermal metamorphism b. dynamothermal metamorphism c. dynamic metamorphism
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b. dynamothermal metamorphism
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The blueschist facies is a metamorphic realm of ____________. a. high temperature and pressure b. low temperature and pressure c. high temperature but relatively low pressure d. high pressure but relatively low temperature
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d. high pressure but relatively low temperature
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Within a single mountain range, ____________. a. only low-grade metamorphic rocks are likely to be found b. only high-grade metamorphic rocks are likely to be found c. it is possible to find a variety of metamorphic rocks produced in distinct facies, including high-, low-, and intermediate-grade rocks
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c. it is possible to find a variety of metamorphic rocks produced in distinct facies, including high-, low-, and intermediate-grade rocks
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Thermal (contact) metamorphism occurs ____________. a. in areas surrounding igneous intrusions b. only where gneiss is in contact with schist c. as a consequence of the sinking of a broad region to great depth d. only at the surface, where rock is in contact with the atmosphere
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a. in areas surrounding igneous intrusions
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All metamorphic rocks are formed within a fairly narrow range of temperature, approximately 400 to 600Ā°C. a. true b. false
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b. false
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Clay minerals within a buried body of slate are recrystallized at high temperatures and pressures to form mica, producing a rock called phyllite; this is an example of ____________. a. diagenesis b. erosion c. metamorphism d. weathering
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c. metamorphism
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Slaty cleavage, schistosity, and compositional banding are all examples of ____________. a. mineral cleavage b. foliation c. recrystallization d. sedimentary structures
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b. foliation
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Dynamothermal (regional) metamorphism produces ____________. a. foliated rocks only b. nonfoliated rocks only c. both foliated and nonfoliated rocks
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c. both foliated and nonfoliated rocks
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A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress, causing clay minerals to realign and produce slate; this is an example of ____________. a. diagenesis b. erosion c. metamorphism d. weathering
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c. metamorphism
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Regional metamorphism ____________. a. takes place at cool temperatures and low pressure b. takes place at cool temperatures but high pressure c. is another name for thermal metamorphism d. is another name for dynamothermal metamorphism
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d. is another name for dynamothermal metamorphism
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Thermal (contact) metamorphism produces ____________. a. foliated rocks only b. nonfoliated rocks only c. both foliated and nonfoliated rocks
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b. nonfoliated rocks only
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____________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of quartzite. a. Limestone b. Sandstone c. Shale d. Slate
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b. Sandstone
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Which list properly orders metamorphic rocks from lowest to highest grade? a. conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, shale b. shale, slate, phyllite, quartzite c. slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss d. gneiss, phyllite, schist, slate
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c. slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
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Rocks resulting from thermal (contact) metamorphism will not possess ____________. a. a new mineral assemblage distinct from that found prior to intrusion b. larger crystals than those characterizing the country rock prior to intrusion c. foliation d. silicate minerals
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c. foliation
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Which of the following processes CANNOT occur in the formation of metamorphic rock? a. realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation b. segregation of minerals into layers of different compositions c. solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals d. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock
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d. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock
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The preexisting rock that is subsequently altered to form a metamorphic rock is termed a ____________. a. parent rock b. source rock c. protolith d. premetarock
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c. protolith
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A primary difference between phyllite and schist is ____________. a. schist contains mica, whereas phyllite contains only clay b. phyllite contains mica, whereas schist contains only clay c. mica crystals within schist are larger than those within phyllite d. mica crystals within phyllite are larger than those within schist
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c. mica crystals within schist are larger than those within phyllite
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Foliated metamorphic rocks possess ____________. a. leafy plant fossils (ancient foliage) b. a homogenous texture resulting from randomly oriented grains c. a planar fabric consisting of mineral grains in preferred orientations or preferred patterns of association (banding) d. minerals precipitated directly from sea water
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c. a planar fabric consisting of mineral grains in preferred orientations or preferred patterns of association (banding)
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Consult the figure below. Compared to low-grade metamorphic rocks, high-grade rocks ____________. a. always contain more quartz and feldspar b. are produced closer to the surface, high in the stratigraphic column c. are produced at greater temperatures and pressures d. are produced at cooler temperatures, but greater pressures
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c. are produced at greater temperatures and pressures
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The protolith subjected to metamorphism ____________. a. is always metamorphic rock to begin with b. is always igneous rock c. is always sedimentary rock d. may belong to any of the three primary rock types
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d. may belong to any of the three primary rock types
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Consult the figure below. As compared to the amphibolite metamorphic facies, the greenschist facies ____________. a. consist of lower-grade rocks b. consist of higher-grade rocks c. is an identical temperature and pressure regime; greenschists and amphibolites bear different mineral assemblages only because of differences in protolith chemistry
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a. consist of lower-grade rocks
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Consult the figure below. A mineral within a metamorphic rock that can be used to provide a narrow constraint on the temperature and pressure of formation of the rock is termed a (an) ____________. a. thermineral b. index mineral c. mafic mineral d. halide mineral
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b. index mineral
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Metamorphism may be induced by ____________. a. contact with a hot pluton b. contact with hot groundwater c. heat and pressure associated with deep burial d. All of the above are correct.
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d. All of the above are correct.
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Meteorite impacts have been known to induce metamorphism of sediments and rocks. a. true b. false
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a. true