# Chapter 9-10

## Unlock all answers in this set

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When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category.
prototype
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Dr. Mendoza is studying the mental strategies people use when solving problems. Dr. Mendoza is clearly a(n):
cognitive psychologist.
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When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n):
concept.
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We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.
prototype
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Having learned the rule that a triangle has three sides, we thereafter classify all three-sided geometric forms as triangles. This best illustrates the role of ______ in concept formation.
definitions
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Complete the following analogy: Rose is to flower as:
prototype is to concept.
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Which of the following is an example of the use of heuristics?
playing chess using a defensive strategy that has often been successful for you
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If you want to be absolutely certain that you will find the solution to a problem you know is solvable, you should use:
an algorithm.
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Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve:
strategy-based solutions.
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A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:
an algorithm.
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In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of:
a heuristic.
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Boris the chess master selects his next move by considering moves that would threaten his opponent's queen. His opponent, a chess-playing computer, selects its next move by considering all possible moves. Boris is using a(n) ________ and the computer is using a(n) ________.
heuristic; algorithm
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A fixation is most likely to inhibit:
creativity.
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The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a:
fixation.
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Functional fixedness is a type of:
fixation.
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Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates:
functional fixedness.
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Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of:
the representativeness heuristic.
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Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of:
the representativeness heuristic.
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The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to:
disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments.
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Jacquelyn suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Jacquelyn's conclusion best illustrates the influence of:
the representativeness heuristic.
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A prototype is a:
best example of a particular category.
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By dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings, we create:
category hierarchies.
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With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?
A robin is a bird.
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In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of:
prototypes.
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Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
heuristics.
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To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:
an algorithm.
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A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a(n):
algorithm.
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An algorithm is a:
methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
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Failing to solve a problem that requires using an object in an unusual way illustrates the phenomenon of:
functional fixedness.
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The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic.
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Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating?
cognition
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People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their nurse:
prototype.
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Research participants were asked to identify a word that could be associated meaningfully with each of three other words. Solutions that occurred with sudden insight were accompanied by a burst of activity in the brain's ________ lobe.
right temporal
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After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates:
insight.
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The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:
save time in arriving at solutions to problems.
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Experts in a field prefer heuristics to algorithms because heuristics:
often save time.
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Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving.
fixations
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A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of:
the representativeness heuristic.
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The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:
judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
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The text defines cognition as:
mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information.
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Rudy is 6 feet 6 inches tall, weighs 210 pounds, and is very muscular. If you think that Rudy is more likely to be a basketball player than a computer programmer, you are a victim of:
the representativeness heuristic.
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Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the:
availability heuristic.
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Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic.
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The indelible memories of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy unduly inflated many people's estimates of the risks associated with air travel. This best illustrates the importance of:
the availability heuristic.
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Airline reservations typically decline after a highly publicized airplane crash because people overestimate the incidence of such disasters. In such instances, their decisions are being influenced by:
the availability heuristic.
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Assume that Congress is considering revising its approach to welfare and to this end is hearing a range of testimony. A member of Congress who uses the availability heuristic would be most likely to:
base his or her ideas on the most vivid, memorable testimony given, even though many of the statistics presented run counter to this testimony.
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A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the:
availability heuristic.
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Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.
babbling
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Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.
babbling
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At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries "hoy" when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
one-word
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Telegraphic speech is typical of the ________ stage.
two-word
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At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to:
lose their ability to discriminate sounds they never hear.
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Children first demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of syntax during the ________ stage.
two-word
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Babies' receptive language ability is best illustrated by their capacity to:
match another person's distinctive mouth movements with the appropriate sounds.
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People's procedural memory of how to open the front door of their house is most likely to consist of:
a mental image.
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The isolated Piraha tribespeople of Brazil have no words for specific numbers higher than 2. If shown seven nuts in a row they find it difficult to lay out the same number from their own pile of nuts. This best illustrates the impact of:
language on thinking.
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It has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos' rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates:
linguistic determinism.
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We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.
prototype
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Contemporary psychologists are most likely to criticize Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis for:
underestimating the extent to which thinking occurs without language.
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Several studies have indicated that the generic pronoun "he":
tends for both children and adults to trigger images of males but not females.
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Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that:
words shape the way people think.
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Your stand on an issue such as the use of nuclear power for electricity involves personal judgment. In such a case, one memorable occurrence can weigh more heavily than a bookful of data, thus illustrating:
the availability heuristic.
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Representativeness and availability are examples of:
heuristics.
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We fear too little those events that will claim lives:
undramatically.
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Assume that Congress is considering revising its approach to welfare and to this end is hearing a range of testimony. A member of Congress who uses the availability heuristic would be most likely to:
base his or her ideas on the most vivid, memorable testimony given, even though many of the statistics presented run counter to this testimony.
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In order to correctly string words together to form sentences, we need to apply proper rules of:
syntax.
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The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
babbling
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The child who says "Milk gone" is engaging in ________. This type of utterance demonstrates that children are actively experimenting with the rules of ________.
telegraphic speech; syntax
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A listener hearing a recording of Japanese, Spanish, and North American children babbling would:
not be able to tell them apart.
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Six-month-old Ohmar recognizes the difference between squares and circles just as accurately as his 3-year-old brother, who can correctly name the different shapes. This fact would most directly challenge:
Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis.
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Introductory psychology students performed best on a midterm psychology test if they had previously spent five minutes a day visualizing themselves:
studying effectively.
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During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun he is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of:
language on thinking.
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Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of:
Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis.
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Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.
two-word
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Which of the following would be most characteristic of a 2-year-old's telegraphic speech?
"eat apple"
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Regarding the relationship between thinking and language, which of the following most accurately reflects the position taken in the text?
Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought.
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Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between thinking and language?
People sometimes think in images rather than in words.
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Bilingual children who inhibit one language while using the other, can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. This has been called:
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Melvin has been diagnosed as having savant syndrome, which means that he:
is limited in mental ability but has one exceptional ability.
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Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n):
mental ability to learn from experience.
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Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is mentally handicapped and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is:
someone with savant syndrome.
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Spearman's g factor refers to:
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.
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Most experts view intelligence as a person's:
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.
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Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual's mental capacities?
Spearman
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Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternberg's concept of practical intelligence?
Shelley, a newspaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources
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Vanessa is a very creative sculptress. We would expect that Vanessa also:
has a venturesome personality and is intrinsically motivated.
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The ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-term goals is most clearly a characteristic of:
emotional intelligence.
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When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor McGuire's perceptual skill best illustrates:
emotional intelligence.
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The first modern test of intelligence was developed in:
France.
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Object assembly, picture arrangement, and block design are three performance subtests of the:
WAIS.
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Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Wilbur's mental age is:
4.
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A 6-year-old child has a mental age of 9. The child's IQ is:
150.
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The WAIS consists of separate ________ subtests.
verbal and performance
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Originally, IQ was defined as:
mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
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To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:
reasoning skills.
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Current intelligence tests compute an individual's intelligence score as:
the amount by which the test-taker's performance deviates from the average performance of others the same age.
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A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.
aptitude
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Achievement tests are designed to:
assess learned knowledge or skills.
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Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:
Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences.
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Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ________ intelligence.
creative
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If you wanted to develop a test of musical aptitude in North American children, which would be the appropriate standardization group?
North American children
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The concept of a g factor implies that intelligence:
is a single overall ability.
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The existence of ________ reinforces the generally accepted notion that intelligence is a multidimensional quality.
savant syndrome
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The most creative scientists are those who:
approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.
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Gerardeen has superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for her friends and co-workers. Peter Salovey and John Mayer would probably say that Gerardeen possesses a high degree of:
emotional intelligence.
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Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to:
identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.
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For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as:
mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
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Benito was born in 1937. In 1947, he scored 130 on an intelligence test. What was Benito's mental age when he took the test?
13
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An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of:
125.
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A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of:
75.
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To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:
reasoning skills.
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Twelve-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is:
9.
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In order to determine whether a child's intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child's:
mental age.
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Before becoming attorneys, law students must pass a special licensing exam, which is an ________ test. Before entering college, high school students must take the SAT, which is an ________ test.
achievement; aptitude
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Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.
future performance; current competence
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Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as:
savant syndrome.
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Injury to the left ________ lobe damages the convergent thinking required for successful performance on intelligence tests.
parietal
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Twelve-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is:
9.
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Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called:
aptitude tests.
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A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.
high; low
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The bell-shaped distribution of intelligence scores in the general population is called a:
normal distribution.
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About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115.
68
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Before publishing her test of musical aptitude, Professor Reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. This was most clearly necessary for test:
standardization.
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If a test is standardized, this means that:
a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.
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Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.
reliability
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Which of the following is not a requirement of a good test?
reification
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Over the past 50 years, children with mental retardation have increasing been likely to:
be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms.
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Individuals with Down syndrome are:
born with an extra chromosome.
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The percentage of people diagnosed with mental retardation has ________ over the past 80 years because intelligence tests have been ________.
increased; restandardized
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(Close-Up) Twenty-two-year-old Dan has an intelligence score of 63 and the academic skills of a fourth-grader, and is unable to live independently. Dan probably:
is mentally retarded.
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Disproportionately more Whites than Blacks would be admitted into American colleges if performance scores on ________ were the only basis for college admissions.
any of the above
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Most psychologists believe that racial gaps in test scores:
are in large measure caused by environmental factors.
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Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that:
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.
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Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult ________ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult ________ test.
math problem solving; verbal fluency
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Which of the following is not true?
The gender gap in math and science scores is increasing.
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When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test:
is biased against members of their own ethnic group.
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Research on gender and emotional intelligence suggests that women are more skilled than men at:
interpreting others' facial expressions of emotion.
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Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a(n):
spelling bee.
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Males are most likely to outnumber females in a class designed for high school students gifted in:
math reasoning.
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Standardization refers to the process of:
defining meaningful scores relative to a representative pretested group.
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The normal curve would represent the distribution of:
American women in terms of their physical heights.
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If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of:
reliability.
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The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a:
normal curve.
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Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of a mentally retarded child. It is most likely that their child:
will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.
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Comparing average Wechsler and Stanford-Binet test performance levels between 1918 and 1989 provides convincing evidence of:
the Flynn effect.
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The contribution of environmental factors to racial gaps in intelligence scores is indicated by:
all of the above.
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Hiroko's math achievement score is considerably higher than that of most American students her age. Which of the following is true regarding this difference between Asian and North American students:
More than one alternative is correct.
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Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of:
spatial abilities.
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Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of:
stereotype threat.
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Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of:
stereotype threat.
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Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have:
helped limit reliance on educators' subjectively biased judgments of students' academic potential.
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Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a(n):
chess tournament.
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The Flynn effect refers to the fact that:
The IQ scores of today's better fed and educated population exceed those of the 1930s population.
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Sasha is mildly mentally retarded. She has achieved the equivalent of a fifth-grade education and will soon begin vocational training so that she can earn a living. Sasha's intelligence score is most likely between:
50 and 70.
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Experts who defend intelligence tests against the charge of being culturally biased and discriminatory would be most likely to highlight the ________ of intelligence tests.
predictive validity
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Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of:
reliability.
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When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a mathematical achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test taker. Brandon's concern was directly related to the issue of:
standardization
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Terman's observations of 1500 California children with IQ scores over 135 contradicted the popular notion that intellectually gifted children are typically:
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Which of the following statements is true?
All of the above are true.
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Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:
the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are higher than those of North American children.
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As he attempted to spell the word "receive," Tim reminded himself "i before e except after c." Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of:
a heuristic
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The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called:
functional fixedness.
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Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates
functional fixedness.
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Failing to see that an article of clothing can be inflated as a life preserver is an example of:
functional fixedness.
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The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:
judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
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By encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by winds from a hurricane, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners' policies. They are most clearly exploiting the influence of:
the availability heuristic.
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Which of the following is not true of babbling?
It is imitation of adult speech.
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Whorf's linguistic determination hypothesis states that:
our language shapes our thinking.
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Regarding the relationship between thinking and language, which of the following most accurately reflects the position taken in the text?