psy 3 example #21558

15 June 2023
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question
Viewing a pencil as only a writing instrument is an example of a. a mental set b. functional fixedness. c. a phoneme. d. an algorithm.
answer
b. functional fixedness.
question
A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be ___________. a. reliable b. normed c. standardized d. valid
answer
d. valid
question
Thinking is defined in the textbook as the a.discovering the relationships between concepts and theories. b. process involved in solving problems. c. use of knowledge to accomplish some sort of goal. d. unconscious processing of mental symbols.
answer
c. use of knowledge to accomplish some sort of goal.
question
Which of the following professions would be most likely to require a high degree of spatial intelligence? a. store clerk b. a surveyor c. waitress d. accountant
answer
b. a surveyor
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Which of the following is the best example of a well-structured problem? a. balancing your checkbook b. choosing the right outfit to wear on your next date c. deciding what to major in at college d. finding the best layout for the furniture in your apartment
answer
a. balancing your checkbook
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Determining that your psychology teacher is very intelligent because he has a doctoral degree from a prestigious, New England university would be an example of a. the availability heuristic. b. common sense c. inductive reasoning d. deductive reasoning.
answer
d. deductive reasoning.
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According to Daniel Goleman, if you have a high degree of self-confidence, self-control, achievement motivation, initiative, and a sense of optimism, you have high a. practical intelligence. b. interpersonal intelligence. c. intrapersonal intelligence. d. emotional intelligence.
answer
d. emotional intelligence.
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Crytallized intelligence is most likely to involve a. accumulation of knowledge. b. memory capacity. c. speed of learning. d. efficiency in problem solving.
answer
a. accumulation of knowledge.
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The ability to understand the world, think rationally or logically, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges or problems is the psychologist's working definition of ___________. a. intelligence b. divergent problem solving c. heuristic usage d. creative thinking
answer
a. intelligence
question
Before enrolling in an abnormal psychology course, Gary's idea of psychological disorders had been influenced primarily by talk shows. He expected to hear the same kinds of stories he had heard on talk shows. What an eye-opening experience the course turned out to be! How would a cognitive psychologist describe the influence the course had on Gary's idea of psychological disorders? a. The course altered Gary's concept of psychological disorders. b. Gary learned the value of algorithms. c. Gary now uses heuristics. d. The course increased Gary's ability to use visual imagery.
answer
a. The course altered Gary's concept of psychological disorders.
question
Divergent thinking is most closely associated with which of the following? a. deductive reasoning b. natural concepts c. creativity d. algorithms
answer
c. creativity
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What systematic problem-solving method guarantees a solution, provided that one exists? a. heuristic method b. cognitive shortcut c. mnemonic device d. algorithmic method
answer
d. algorithmic method
question
An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________. a. 8; 80 b. 10; 125 c. 10; 100 d. 8; 125
answer
b. 10; 125
question
When you learn the specific criteria or rules that psychologists use to diagnose attention deficit disorder in children, you are learning the _______________________ involved in this type of diagnosis. a. validated concepts b. structured concepts c. formal concepts d. normal concepts
answer
c. formal concepts
question
Dr. Abaee is developing a new intelligence test. She gives her test to a group of 100 participants and records their scores. Six months later, she retests the same participants on the test and finds that their scores match well with the scores they earned when tested six months earlier. What can we conclude about Dr. Abaee's test based on this study? a. Her test is a good one. b. Her test is reliable. c. We can conclude nothing about his test. d. Her test is valid.
answer
b. Her test is reliable.
question
Researchers have found that despite the number of color names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive color are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of ___________. a. Tolman and Thorndike b. Skinner and Watson c. Sapir and Whorf d. Piccard and Worf
answer
c. Sapir and Whorf
question
Jane is 22 years old. For her job, she needs to take an intelligence test. Which would be the most appropriate test for her age group? a. DSM-IVR b. WPPSI-R c. WAIS-III d. WISC-III
answer
c. WAIS-III
question
You ask a student to describe the path to his dorm room. The most likely way in which he will do this is to ___________. a. none of these b. give you the GPS location of his dorm room c. walk a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it d. recite a rote list of directions he memorized
answer
c. walk a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it
question
Which of the following is NOT part of Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence? a. analytical intelligence b. emotional intelligence c. practical intelligence d. creative intelligence
answer
b. emotional intelligence
question
Which of the following is an ill-structured problem? a. deciding how much wallpaper to buy when redecorating your bedroom b. determining how much soap you need to put in a load of laundry c. figuring out how to program your DVR d. deciding where the best place to eat in town is
answer
d. deciding where the best place to eat in town is
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Dualistic thinking is to _________________, as relativistic thinking is to _________________. a. Americans; Asians b. adolescents; adults c. children; adolescents d. males; females
answer
b. adolescents; adults
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Your little brother has a big ball of clay. While he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. He begins to cry because he thinks he has less clay now. Which of Piaget's stages is your brother likely to be in? a. sensorimotor b. preoperational c. concrete operational d. formal operational
answer
b. preoperational
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that outside environmental forces, such as over-the-counter medications, might have on the development of her unborn child. Paz is referring to the potential harm of ________ on development. a. neonates b. critical periods c. teratogens d. genetics
answer
c. teratogens
question
Like any 4-month-old, Amy depends on her parents to feed her and to change her diapers. When Amy cries, her devoted parents quickly respond to her needs. According to Erikson, Amy is developing a sense of ___________. a. trust b. autonomy c. initiative d. mistrust
answer
a. trust
question
Alisha blames her terminal illness on inept doctors and medical personnel. It is MOST likely that Alisha is in which Kรผbler-Ross stage of dying? a. depression b. denial c. anger d. bargaining
answer
c. anger
question
The greatest vulnerability to teratogens occurs in the ______________ stage. a. germinal b. fetal c. zygotic d. embryonic
answer
d. embryonic
question
Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He doesn't like it when new people pick him up, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. What temperament does he exhibit? a. active b. difficult c. easy d. slow-to-warm-up
answer
b. difficult
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If your four.-month-old infant appears to quickly lose interest in a pacifier that you have just hidden under a blanket, Piaget would say that the infant lacks an understanding of a. egocentrism. b. conservation. c. accommodation. d. object permanence.
answer
d. object permanence.
question
Trey wants to play basketball in a local league. He and his mom sit down and discuss what grades he will have to maintain in order to play on the basketball team. They also agree on what the consequences will be if Trey does not maintain his grades. Trey's mom is most likely a(n) __________ parent. a. indulgent b. permissive c. authoritarian d. Trey wants to play basketball in a local league. He and his mom sit down and discuss what grades he will have to maintain in order to play on the basketball team. They also agree on what the consequences will be if Trey does not maintain his grades. Trey's mom is most likely a(n) __________ parent. a. indulgent b. permissive c. authoritarian d. authoritative
answer
d. authoritative
question
A child that is not stimulated with a normal environment is likely to show a. fewer neural synapses compared to a stimulated child. b. less synaptic pruning than a stimulated child. c. no deficits in brain function as long as there is adequate stimulation in later years. d. rapid growth in neural pathways.
answer
a. fewer neural synapses compared to a stimulated child.
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Clive touches the side of his infant daughter's cheek and she turns in that direction. His infant daughter is demonstrating the ____ reflex. a. crawling b. Babinski c. Moro d. rooting
answer
d. rooting
question
Dr. Cortez believes that heredity influences development more so than one's environment. Dr. Cortez is emphasizing ________ over __________. a. nature; nurture b. nurture; nature c. situation; nurture d. nurture ; situation
answer
a. nature; nurture
question
The "empty" nest tends to be associated with a. decreased marital satisfaction for women, but increased marital satisfaction for men. b. decreased marital satisfaction. c. increased marital satisfaction. d. large amounts of stress.
answer
c. increased marital satisfaction.
question
Older adults who look back on their lives with regrets, wishing they could relive their lives, have not successfully resolved Erikson's psychosocial crisis of? a. generativity versus stagnation b. intimacy versus isolation c. integrity versus despair. d. identity versus identity confusion
answer
c. integrity versus despair.
question
Which of the following illustrates Vygotsky's concept of scaffolding? a. Physical interaction with the environment is a key to learning, so teachers require students to run and play a great deal. b. A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more skilled. c. Several children work together to overcome an obstacle they could not conquer individually. d. Learning in one area, such as language, tends to reinforce learning that occurs in other areas, such as mathematics.
answer
b. A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more skilled.
question
Which of the following represents the sequence of reactions to death developed by Elisabeth Kรผbler-Ross? a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance b. denial, bargaining, anger, acceptance, depression c. acceptance, denial, bargaining, anger, depression d. depression, denial, bargaining, anger, acceptance
answer
a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
question
Aaron is a middle-aged physician. He gives back to the community by acting as a mentor to teenagers interested in entering the medical profession. Erikson would say that Aaron is experiencing ___________. a. generativity b. integrity c. intimacy d. identity
answer
a. generativity
question
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of Erik Erikson's childhood stages of psychosocial development? a. initiative, trust, autonomy, industry b. autonomy, industry, initiative, trust c. trust, autonomy, initiative, industry d. industry, initiative, trust, autonomy
answer
c. trust, autonomy, initiative, industry
question
Newborn infants lack convergence, which means that they a. have difficulty focusing both eyes on an object. b. have poor peripheral vision. c. are farsighted. d. cannot see color.
answer
a. have difficulty focusing both eyes on an object.
question
If a child believes that only a woman can be a kindergarten teacher, she may think that the man in her class must be a friend of the teacher, and not the real teacher. This attempt to explain the man's presence in terms of the child's existing schema is called a. transference. b. disequilibrium. c. assimilation. d. accommodation.
answer
c. assimilation.
question
Your friend is contemplating a divorce but is concerned about the negative effects of the divorce on the children. Your friend should be aware of the research showing that a. the negative effects of divorce are largely a thing of the past. b. the negative effects of divorce are greater for the parents than they are for the children. c. the divorce itself is the most important factor in the later difficulties among children from homes where divorce occurred. d. two parents who fight with each other create as much distress in children as the experience of divorcing parents.
answer
d. two parents who fight with each other create as much distress in children as the experience of divorcing parents.
question
___________ babies in Ainsworth's study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother's presence, protested mightily when the mother left, were hard to soothe, and had mixed reactions upon mother's return. a. Disorganized/disoriented b. Avoidant c. Resistant d. Secure
answer
c. Resistant
question
Greta's child has facial deformities, a smaller than normal head, heart defects, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and delayed growth. If these defects can be traced to a teratogen used by Greta when she was pregnant, which was she most likely abusing? a. cocaine b. alcohol c. nicotine d. marijuana
answer
b. alcohol
question
Why is Freud's theory of personality difficult to disprove? a. It is so widely accepted that few scientists are willing to attempt any research that would disprove the theory. b. The major concepts of Freud's theory are based on the unconscious and are therefore difficult to measure. c. The research to disprove the theory would require such large investments of time and money that the research would be impractical. d. Freud's theory is so well constructed that it is difficult to find substantial flaws within it.
answer
b. The major concepts of Freud's theory are based on the unconscious and are therefore difficult to measure.
question
Evan takes a personality test and it reveals that he is extraverted. Evan takes the same personality test six months later and it reveals that he is introverted. This personality test has a. high reliability. b. low reliability. c.high validity. d. low distinctiveness.
answer
b. low reliability.
question
When Wendy kissed James she said, "I love you Bill." Followers of Freud would say that this was a. a reality principle. b. rationalization. c. sublimation d. a freudian slip
answer
d. a freudian slip
question
Hans Eysenck's originally proposed two personality factors called a. sociability/isolation and anxious/calm. b. aggressive/passive and loud/soft. c. introversion/extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism. d. feminine/masculine and stable/unstable.
answer
c. introversion/extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism.
question
Stella believes that the events of her life are determined largely by a supreme being. Rotter would say that Stella has a(n) a. internal locus of control. b. reciprocal determinism. c. well-developed superego. d. external locus of control
answer
d. external locus of control
question
Rosalinda wants a new Bratz doll, but she has no money. The thought of stealing the doll crosses Rosalinda's mind, but she decides not to steal because stealing is wrong. According to Freud, Rosalinda's decision not to steal is most influenced by the a. superego b. ego c. eros d. id
answer
a. superego
question
Before reading this question you probably were not thinking of the events surrounding your last birthday. If you can now remember your last birthday, Freud would most likely say that its memories existed in your a. preconscious b. unconscious c. conscious d. anteconscious
answer
a. preconscious
question
Dr. Rodriquez believes that personality results from our drive toward uniqueness and self-actualization. Dr. Rodriquez is emphasizing the ________ perspective on personality. a. trait b. humanistic c. psychoanalytic d. social cognitive
answer
b. humanistic
question
Ziyi believes that she cannot master Spanish. She avoids doing her Spanish homework and does not study for Spanish tests since she believes she will not do well. According to Bandura, Ziyi is most likely low in a. self-efficacy. b. external locus of control. c. reciprocal determinism d. extraversion
answer
a. self-efficacy.
question
The phallic stage and the genital stage are similar in that they both a. involve conscious desires to have an intimate relationship with the opposite-sex parent. b. become repressed as one gets older. c. were added to Freud's stages by neo-Freudians. d. involve the genitals as the primary erogenous zone.
answer
d.involve the genitals as the primary erogenous zone.
question
In Jung's theory, persona is to ______________ as shadow is to ______________. a. inferiority complex; superiority complex b. personal unconscious; collective unconscious c. visible;hidden d. good; bad
answer
c. visible; hidden
question
Darnell is a psychologist who believes that personality is driven solely by unconscious motives and conflicts. From which perspective does Darnell most likely view human behavior? a. psychoanalytic b. behaviorism c. humanism d. eclectic
answer
a. psychoanalytic
question
Tomas has never felt very good about his accomplishments and typically will focus on any mistake he has made as a way of proving that he is not worthy. According to Adler, Tomas a. had difficulty resolving the trust vs. mistrust stage. b. has not yet developed a personal unconscious. c. is suffering from basic anxiety d. has developed an inferiority complex
answer
d. has developed an inferiority complex
question
Katrina was adopted as a newborn and has never had any contact with her biological parents. It would be expected that her personality is most similar to the personalities of her a. biological parents. b. adoptive parents. c. adoptive siblings. d. peers.
answer
a. biological parents
question
om and Maria are both outgoing in varying degrees. Tom can easily strike up a conversation with anyone. Maria is more likely to be outgoing with her friends. According to Cattell, if everyone has some degree of outgoingness in them like Tom and Maria, this would be considered a ______ trait. a. secondary b. source c. central d. cardinal
answer
b. source
question
Johanna is a very neat person whose apartment is very ordered. Johanna also is very frugal with her money, never wasting it on frivolous purchases. According to Freud, Johanna is most likely fixated at which psychosexual stage? a. genital b. phallic c. oral d. anal
answer
d. anal
question
If a researcher gives a personality test to several individuals and compares their resulting personality profiles with actual observations of the individuals' behavior, she is undoubtedly testing the ________________ of the personality tests. a. reliability b. standardization c. congruency d. validity
answer
d. validity
question
Five-year-old Mark states that he wants to marry his mom, and whenever his mom and dad get close to each other he tries to get in between them. Freud would describe this behavior as an expression of the a. superego. b. collective unconscious. c. Oedipal complex. d. shadow.
answer
c. Oedipal complex.
question
Daniel hits his sister when he is mad at her. According to Freud, Daniel's aggression is an impulse stemming from his a. superego. b. reality principle. c. ego. d. id.
answer
d. id
question
Tai Pen is reliable, hardworking, and punctual. Tai Pen would score high on which dimension in the five factor trait theory? a. openness b. conscientiousness c. neuroticism d. agreeableness
answer
b. conscientiousness
question
What three elements constantly interact with each other in Albert Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism? a. the ideal, the reality, the perceived b. thoughts, emotions, actions c. genes, environment, people d. environment, behavior, thoughts
answer
d. environment, behavior, thoughts
question
Jamie's parents try to help her feel that she is worthy of their love and acceptance no matter what she would ever do. Her parents could best be described as giving a. self-actualization. b. spontaneous reactions. c. unconditional positive regard. d. organismic transversal.
answer
c. unconditional positive regard.
question
Hans Eysenck's originally proposed two personality factors called a. introversion/extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism. b. feminine/masculine and stable/unstable. c. aggressive/passive and loud/soft. d. sociability/isolation and anxious/calm
answer
a. introversion/extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism.
question
Pedro has been arguing with his spouse lately, and this arguing has begun to cause Pedro serious problems in his marital relationship. Karen Horney would most likely say that Pedro's argumentative behavior stems from his a. drive toward self-actualization. b. basic need for power c. basic anxiety d. basic inferiority
answer
c. basic anxiety
question
What do Karen Horney, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler all have in common? a. They all emphasized the importance of birth order in personality development. b. They all disagreed with Freud's idea of operant conditioning. c. They all disagreed with Freud's emphasis on instinctual sexual drives d. They all emphasized the idea of a collective unconscious
answer
c. They all disagreed with Freud's emphasis on instinctual sexual drives
question
If your psychology teacher subscribes more to trait theory than to other personality theories, she is likely to believe that personality a. is a product of social and environmental situations. b. is largely shaped by personal choice and free will. c. has a strong biological basis. d. reflects unconscious forces.
answer
c. has a strong biological basis.
question
A 567-item true/false self-report test that compares individual responses to samples of others who are either "normal" or known to have a mental health disorder is the a. MMPI-2 b. thematic apperception test c. Myers-Briggs test d. rorschach inkblot test
answer
a. MMPI-2
question
As an infant, Angela knows that she likes to be snuggled tightly and to see interesting things. According to Rogers, these things that she likes form the basis for her future self-concept through the a. filter of the persona b. reality principle c. self-efficacy process d. organismic valuing process
answer
d. organismic valuing process
question
When Wendy kissed James she said, "I love you Bill." Followers of Freud would say that this was a. a freudian slip b. subimation c. rationalization d. a reality principle
answer
a. a freudian slip
question
Which type of thought does not begin until the stage of formal operational thought? a. thinking about whether an object exists when it is out of sight b. thinking about what is logical c. thinking about what is possible d. thinking about only one feature of an object rather than taking all features into consideration
answer
c. thinking about what is possible
question
At birth, newborns seem most responsive to ________. a. high pitches and low pitches b. hip hop music c. rock and roll music d. moderate voice pitches
answer
a. high pitches and low pitches
question
Christa and Sal are anticipating the birth of their first baby. Before the baby arrives, they want to fix up the nursery with new wallpaper. They seek the advice of a developmental psychologist. What is she likely to tell them? a. Newborns prefer to look at simple one-dimensional patterns rather than complex ones. b. Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones. c. Newborns do not see well enough to make any difference. d. Newborns prefer to look at animals rather than people.
answer
b. Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones.
question
Robert Sternberg's analytic intelligence reflects the ability to a. use knowledge in novel situations b. use logic to solve problems c. adapt to the environment d. understand patterns in nature
answer
b. use logic to solve problems
question
Research with bonobo chimpanzees, dolphins, and birds has shown that a. some animals are capable of learning communication elements that at least have the appearance of language. b. animals simply do not have the ability to learn language. c. animals clearly have the ability to learn language. d. animals having intellectual abilities that are more similar to those of humans can be taught language, but less intelligent species cannot benefit from language teaching.
answer
a. some animals are capable of learning communication elements that at least have the appearance of language.
question
Which of the following activities is most likely to exercise your fluid intelligence abilities? a. reading a comic book b. listening to a lecture on birds c. watching a movie on TV d. playing a fast-paced video game on your computer
answer
d. playing a fast-paced video game on your computer
question
Natural concepts a. usually use rigid rules to define their elements. b. are typically universally held by all people c. are usually learned formally d. have fuzzy boundaries
answer
d. have fuzzy boundaries
question
To Alfred Binet, mental age refers to a. the age level at which a child should score based on the child's chronological age. b. the age at which the average child should be able to pass his test. c. a child's mental abilities in comparison to the "average" child. d. a child's intelligence quotient.
answer
c. a child's mental abilities in comparison to the "average" child.
question
Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg agree to be interviewed together on the topic of intelligence. At the end of the interview, what do you conclude is their major point of agreement? a. The concept of intelligence serves no purpose in a society in which computers are so frequently used. b. Heredity is the major factor determining intelligence. c. There is no correlation between intelligence quotients and academic success in grade school. d. Standardized tests do not assess the many facets of intelligence.
answer
d. Standardized tests do not assess the many facets of intelligence.
question
Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ___________. a. analytical, creative, and practical intelligence b. general intelligence and specific abilities c. verbal and mathematical abilities d. crystallized and visual-motor abilities
answer
b. general intelligence and specific abilities
question
The finding that the constant use of male pronouns (he, him, his) when speaking about hypothetical people in general language can influence gender stereotyping provides support for the a. weaker version of Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis. b. nature side of the nature-nurture language debate. c. a strong form of Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis. d. language acquisition device theory formulated by Noam Chomsky.
answer
a. weaker version of Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis.