Chapter 3: Marine Provinces (questions)

25 July 2022
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question
Satellite measurements of the ocean surface can be used to make maps of the seafloor. True False
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True
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Satellites are used to map the ocean floor because: they are unaffected by surface weather. they can "see" large areas of the seafloor at one time. the shape of the ocean surface itself reflects large features on the seafloor below. they can cover areas where ships have not produced surveys. All the above statements are correct.
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All the above statements are correct.
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The two relatively flat areas on the hypsographic curve represent: continental slopes and deep-sea trenches. continental mountains and abyssal plains. continental mountains and mid-ocean ridges. some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains on the ocean floor. some interior continental areas/coastal plains and mid-ocean ridges.
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some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains on the ocean floor.
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The measurement of ocean depth and the charting of seafloor topography is called __________. navigation bathymetry cartography tomography hydrology
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bathymetry
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Measurement of ocean floor bathymetry from satellites relies on ___________. Select only one answer. density differences of ocean waters calculations of how much water versus rock there is at any ocean location sea surface elevation, which varies depending on the shape of the underlying sea floor water temperature, which is higher in areas of shallow ocean waters and can easily be detected by satellites water flows off the high areas and into the low areas, making the ocean surface topography the exact inverse of the shape of the sea floor
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sea surface elevation, which varies depending on the shape of the underlying sea floor
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Match the term with the appropriate phrase. submarine canyon shallow-water areas close to continents deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
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narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes
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The three major provinces of the ocean floor are continental margins, deep-ocean basins, and submarine canyons. True False
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False
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Oceans with passive plate margins have continental slopes with more gradual slopes than oceans with active plate margins. True False
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True
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A sediment-laden current that flows off the continental shelf is called a turbidity current. True False
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True
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Sediments of the continental rise can exhibit characteristics similar to those formed by rivers on land. True False
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True
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The correct order of seafloor features from the coast to the mid-ocean ridge is: slope, rise, shelf, abyssal plain. abyssal plain, shelf, slope, rise. rise, abyssal plain, slope, shelf. abyssal plain, rise, slope, shelf. shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain.
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shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain.
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All the following are considered part of the continental margin except the: submarine canyon. continental rise. continental shelf. fracture zone. continental slope.
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fracture zone.
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Submarine canyons were most likely formed by: scouring by glaciers during the last ice age. earthquake activity. erosion by major rivers in the past. deposition of terrestrial sediment. erosion by turbidity currents.
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erosion by turbidity currents.
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Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. continental margin B. active margin C. convergent active margin D. transform active margin E. rift valley
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E. rift valley
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Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. abyssal plain B. continental flood basalt C. continental rise D. continental shelf E. continental slope
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B. continental flood basalt
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A ship's fathometer (an echo sounder) transmits a sound pulse and records the return of an echo 7.4 seconds later. If the speed of sound in water is 1,500 m/second, what is the water depth in meters? 5,550 meters 11,100 meters 7,400 meters 4,550 meters 3,000 meters
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5,550 meters
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What statement correctly distinguishes an ocean trench from a submarine canyon? Trenches occur only in the Pacific Ocean. Submarine canyons occur in all oceans. Trenches are formed by erosive currents. Submarine canyons are drowned, ancient river valleys. Trenches descend deep beyond the abyssal plains. Submarine canyons are part of the shallower continental margins. Trenches are only located along active margins. Submarine canyons are only located along passive margins.
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Trenches descend deep beyond the abyssal plains. Submarine canyons are part of the shallower continental margins.
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Match the term with the appropriate phrase. abyssal plain shallow-water areas close to continents deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes
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flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins
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Abyssal plains are more extensive on the seafloor of the Atlantic Ocean basin as compared to those on the seafloor of the Pacific Ocean basin. True False
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True
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Ocean trenches are deep linear scars in the ocean floor caused by the divergence of plates along divergent plate boundaries. True False
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False
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Volcanic features on the ocean floor that are less than 1,000 meters (0.6 miles) tall are called: seamounts. abyssal hills or seaknolls. oceanic trenches. tablemounts. oceanic ridges.
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abyssal hills or seaknolls.
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Along the margins of the Pacific are found most of Earth's: seamounts. tablemounts. oceanic trenches. abyssal hills or seaknolls. oceanic ridges.
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oceanic trenches.
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Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. passive margin B. ocean trench C. volcanic arc D. island arc E. continental arc
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A. passive margin
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Identify the major feature of a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. submarine canyon rift valley trench volcanic arc oceanic rise
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rift valley
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Mid-ocean ridges are rises that occupy a small portion (around 10%) of the deep ocean basins. True False
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False
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Due to the very harsh environmental conditions, very few types of organisms are found in association with hydrothermal vents. True False
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False
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Hydrothermal vents are seafloor cold seeps with high concentrations of sulfur and salts. True False
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False
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Oceanic ridges and rises result from seafloor spreading along: transform plate boundaries. divergent plate boundaries. convergent plate boundaries. none of the above
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divergent plate boundaries.
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Warm water (From 30Ā°C to 350Ā°C) hydrothermal vents form: abyssal hills. white smokers. turbidity currents. cold seeps. black smokers.
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white smokers.
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Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. rift valley B. oceanic ridge C. oceanic rise D. seaknoll E. seafloor spreading
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D. seaknoll
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An oceanographic vessel is mapping a section of the ocean floor stretching for tens of miles in all directions. The seafloor is extremely flat, with a slope of less than one degree, and the water depth is about 4,500 meters. The area being mapped is most likely a(n) __________. continental rise abyssal plain continental slope continental borderland continental shelf
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abyssal plain
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Nearly all oceanic islands are __________. (Choose the best answer.) parts of volcanic island arcs parts of continents separated from continents formed at high-standing areas of mid-ocean ridges formed at hot spots as lithospheric plates pass over mantle plumes volcanic in origin
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volcanic in origin
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Where a mid-ocean ridge is offset, the linear feature connecting and between the crests of the ridge segments is called a __________. transform fault fracture zone seismic fissure hydrothermal vent central rift valley
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transform fault
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Sediments deposited by the process of suspension settling produce the main sediment found on ___________. Select only one answer. the continental shelf abyssal plains shallow islands in tropical seas the continental slope and rise submarine fans
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abyssal plains
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Which of the following feature(s) is/are associated with the mid-ocean ridge? thick layers of sediment a trench hydrothermal vents a central rift valley basalt volcanism and pillow lavas volcanoes
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hydrothermal vents a central rift valley basalt volcanism and pillow lavas volcanoes
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The majority of ocean trenches are associated with ___________. very deep ocean water depths the mid-ocean ridge volcanic arcs and active continental margins subduction zones and associated faults narrow or no continental shelves the Pacific Ring of Fire
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very deep ocean water depths volcanic arcs and active continental margins subduction zones and associated faults narrow or no continental shelves the Pacific Ring of Fire
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Match the term with the appropriate phrase. bathymetry uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography a method of mapping the topography of the ocean floor along a strip up to 60 km used to determine ocean structure beneath the sea floor cumulative plot of area versus depth or elevation
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measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography
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Match the term with the appropriate phrase. precision-depth recorder (PDR) used to determine ocean structure beneath the sea floor uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth a method of mapping the topography of the ocean floor along a strip up to 60 km cumulative plot of area versus depth or elevation measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography
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uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
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Echo sounding is not a very reliable way to measure ocean depth because water is a poor transmitter of sound. True False
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False
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The method that is used most frequently to investigate sediment and rock layers of the sea floor is: light waves. sound waves (specifically seismic reflecting profiling). drilling. direct observation. satellite observation
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sound waves (specifically seismic reflecting profiling).
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Of the following techniques, which one(s) can be used to map the sea floor? using satellites to measure the sea surface sending sound through water (sonar) direct visitation of the sea floor measuring sea water clarity recording many depths using a long cable
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using satellites to measure the sea surface sending sound through water (sonar) direct visitation of the sea floor recording many depths using a long cable
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Consider a continental margin that has a very broad, flat continental shelf and a slope that descends 1 km to the deep ocean basin. Based on this information, this margin is ___________________. lacking a continental rise seismically active a continental borderland far from an oceanic ridge near an offshore fault
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far from an oceanic ridge
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Match the term with the appropriate phrase. continental margin shallow-water areas close to continents a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes
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shallow-water areas close to continents
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Passive continental margins are characterized by all the following except: broad continental shelves. deep-sea trenches. shallow coastal waters. very little volcanic and earthquake activity. thick sediment accumulation.
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deep-sea trenches.
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Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. continental shelf B. abyssal hill C. shelf break D. continental rise E. continental slope
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B. abyssal hill