APES PACKET REVIEW

25 July 2022
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question
Describe what happens when two tectonic plates collide along a subduction zone.
answer
One plates moves under another and sinks into Earth's mantle. A trench may be formed
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Explain how subduction leads to volcanic activity
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One plate is pushed down and melted as molten material/ magma rises to the surface near the zone
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What areas exhibit island arcs
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Coast of Asia (Philippines, Ryukyu, Japan, Kuril, and Aleutian)
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What areas exhibit a growing nonvolcanic mountain chain due to uplift
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The Rockies (North America), The Andes (South America), The Alps (Europe), and The Himalayas (Asia)
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What area represents where new crust is being created at a divergent plate boundary
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Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Central Indian Ridge, Southeast Indian Ridge, Pacific Antarctic Ridge, East Pacific Ridge, and Juan de Fuca Ridge (near Canada and California)
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What causes seasons to change in temperate zones
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The tilt of the Earth causes summer sun to become more direct in the Northern hemisphere during summer months leading to warmer temperatures. In the winter, the sun is more indirect as the Earth's tilt points away. The opposite is true in the Southern Hemisphere where warmest temperatures are in Dec.
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Describe how solar insolation affects wind currents and precipitation patterns
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Direct sun warms the air, causing it to rise. As it rises, the altitude causes the temperature to fall. The cooler air becomes more dense forming condensation and eventually precipitation. The cold, dry air will sink; creating a convection current.
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Where is the equator?
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0 degrees latitude
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Where is the Arctic Circle?
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66.5 degrees North
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Where is the Antarctic Circle?
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66.5 degrees South
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Where is the Tropic of Cancer?
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23.5 degrees North
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Where is the Tropic of Capricorn?
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23.5 degrees south
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Where is the Northern Hemisphere?
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North of the equator
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Where is the Southern Hemisphere?
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south of the equator
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Describe the earths atmosphere related to altitude and temperature
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Troposphere: At first Temperature decreases as Altitude increases Stratosphere: Then temperature increases as altitude increases Mesosphere: Temperature decreases as Altitude increases Thermosphere- Exosphere: Temperature increases
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What are the layers of the atmosphere?
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troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere
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Where does the greenhouse effect occur
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Troposphere
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Where is the ozone layer?
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Stratosphere
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Rainshadow
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dry region on side of mountain that is sheltered from wind 1. Moist warm air blows onshore 2. As air rises over mountain it cools causing moisture to condense and fall as precipitation 3. Dry air descends and warns promoting evaporation
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What is the Corilois Effect? How does solar intensity and atmospheric convection currents influence the location of the major biomes?
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As air rises and condenses, it causes precipitation leading to forested regions (trees require more water so you find them in regions with higher precipitation. Deserts typically form at 30 degrees because the dry air sinks there and little water is available to support plant life. This repeats itself with rain at 60 and dry biomes at 90. The temperature is influenced by direct sun so it's hot at the equator and colder at the poles.
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Describe how the ocean currents, temperature and gas concentrations are directly related to those of the atmosphere
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Convection currents form in the ocean just as they do with the atmosphere. Warmer water rises (upwelling) and cold water sinks creating currents. Salt in the water makes it more dense, similar to temperature. Cold arctic regions draw large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and draws it down to deep ocean. Therefore, CO2 is highest concentration within sinking currents.
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The acronym ENSO refers to _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________, which occurs in the _____________ ocean.
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el nino southern oscillation; Tropical eastern pacific
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Explain what an El Niรฑo event is and why it's significant
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Normal conditions: northward flowing currents bring cold water from the Southern Pacific up to South America's tropical west coast. Upwelling occurs along coast of Peru. Along the equator trade winds cause the upwellings to draw deeper ocean water to the surface to cool leading to warmer sea surface in the western Pacific compared to the Eastern Pacific. ElNino: Pressure systems shift leading to little to no upwellings. The cold water weakens or disappears completely causing warm water in Central and Eastern Pacific as well as in the west; leading to more rainfall events.
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What percent of the earth is covered with water? What percent of this is salt water? Frozen? Available and relatively accessible?
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71% - covered with water 96.5% - saltwater 1.7% - frozen 2.5% - available
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Explain what evapotranspiration is and why it's significant
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Evaporation of water off plants. This water is an important source of water to determine climate.
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Explain what a watershed is and why it is significant
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watershed includes all the area of land water travels across on its way to a body of water. It can move via percolation/infiltration and/or surface runoff. The route the water takes determines the water quality. Surface runoff tends to pick up more sediment, nutrients and pollution depending on the land use. The more development and impervious surfaces (paved land) creates more pollution and runoff, typically. The more infiltration and percolation leads to cleaner water since the ground/rock can filter it. This is more common in natural settings, especially those with plants.
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What surface and ground water issues occur at the Colorado river basin
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lack of water; The Colorado river basin has many dams and irrigation canals that draw water from the river. This creates water shortages and even prevents the river from reaching the ocean. Since the Colorado river moves through arid portions of the country, there is greater pressures for water rights and use.
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What surface and ground water issues occur at The Ogallala aquifer
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In the Midwest; Large aquifer spans many Midwestern states within the breadbasket. The water from the aquifer is being withdrawn faster than it can recharge- causes subsidence (collapse of land/sink holes) and water shortages.
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What surface and ground water issues occur at The Aral Sea
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Large sea in the middle east that supported a huge fishing industry until the 1960s. In the arid region, farmers began to grow cotton monocultures that overdrew large amounts of water from the sea for irrigation leading to salinization. Today the sea is only 10% of its original size; biodiversity is low- food webs have crashed- and diseases in the region are rampant due to lack of freshwater and food security
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Why is freshwater considered an eco-service? An economic service? A global security issue? A natural capital?
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Ecosystem service- Include all the benefits humans gain from healthy ecosystems- ecosystem services are food production, water security, control of climate and disease and nutrients available for food. They are benefits the environment gives us for survival. Freshwater is essential for all living organisms making it an ecosystem service. Economic service- economic services are resources from the environment that humans can use for business; to make money. Some water sources are commons but many have private rights and/or are bottled for sale or economically support industry such as hydroelectric dams, irrigation canals or reservoirs. Global security issue- Water is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Some locations have it in excess and others have too little. Many arid countries; especially those with high rates of poverty have poor water security. The water may be contaminated with pathogens and/or too far or too limited to support the population. Natural capital- the world's stocks of all the natural assets in the geology, soil, air, water, living organisms, that provide services to support human life. Water is a valuable resource and rights to water or maintaining water quality so it can be used can be complicate the amount of water that can be used
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What are some specific water conservation strategies for irrigation in agriculture
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drip irrigation; delivers water directly to plants to reduce surface runoff or evaporation.
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What are some specific water conservation strategies for Municipal use
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consumer saving strategies (such as turning off water when brushing; taking shorter showers and only running dishwashers/laundry when full), harvesting rainwater in barrels for grass/plants; auditing fixtures in homes for leaks; reducing use if irrigation by planting native plants/xeriscaping, installing low water demand toilets, faucets and showerheads.
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What are some specific water conservation strategies for hydroelectric energy production
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reducing energy use in the municipality will require the power plant to generate less
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What are some specific water conservation strategies for industrial use
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use systems that recycle water for repeated use; cooling towers to reduce evaporation; modify equipment to reduce water consumption, used recycled materials which use less water to purify the materials
question
Explain the rock cycle. what are the three types of rocks and the forces that convert one form to another
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settles overtime creating layers. Upper layers apply pressure to lower layers pressing them into sheets/stratified rock= sedimentary rock. As sedimentary rock gets pushed deeper it heats up. The heat and pressure melts and molds it into metamorphic rock. Magma and molten rock reaches the surface such as a volcanic eruption and cools forming igneous rock.
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Contrast the processes of weathering and erosion
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock into soil by a physical/mechanical force (such as tree roots or freezing/thawing cycles), chemical reaction (such as through oxidation or acids). Erosion is the movement of rocks and soils often caused by wind or water.
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Which Horizon do you find the following layers: eluviation, topsoil, parent material, subsoil, leaf litter
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Elluviation: layer B- mineral horizon that accumulates salts, clay and/or iron; often exposed due to erosion or development. Top soil: A- Mineral horizon that forms at the surface; contains the most nutrient rich soil due to decomposition at the surface. Can experience leaching of nutrients to clay horizons below. Parent material: C- material that hasn't had exposure to weathering Sub soil: B Leaf litter O: organic material such as leaf litter exist at surface; may cover topsoil.
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What are three examples of organic compounds
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Proteins, lipids (fats) and carbs (glucose)
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What are three examples of inorganic compounds
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Water oxygen and nitrogen oxides
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Arrange the following particles in order of smallest to largest: clay sand silt
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clay, silt, sand
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Describe how anthropogenic agricultural practices contribution to erosion and what strategies can be used to conserve soil nutrients while preventing erosion, desertification and salinization?
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Conventional tilling practices harvests the crops by removing the entire plant from the soil; can expose soil and remove plants which anchor it. Planting crops in rows down hillsides creates gullies that allow soil to move via water. Instead: Intercropping, contour planting, strip cropping, polyculture, shelter belts, crop rotation, no-till or conservation tillage
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Describe how anthropogenic urban development contributes to erosion and what strategies can be used to conserve soil nutrients while preventing erosion, desertification and salinization?
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Moving soil to build homes/businesses exposes subsoil and removes topsoil; often sits disturbed for long periods to time leading to erosion; urban areas also have more impervious surfaces (paved) which can carry soil INSTEAD: Using porous pavement; Avoiding development on flood plains, urban gardens; phytoremediation (using plants to control/filter water); rooftop gardens; use filters or traps to prevent soil from entering storm drains
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Describe how anthropogenic River channelization contributes to erosion and what strategies can be used to conserve soil nutrients while preventing erosion, desertification and salinization?
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Rivers are dredged (dug deeper), straightened, contained by levees (hills that are built along flood plains) and currents are manipulated by dikes that prevent sediment to build up along river edges; makes water swifter and carries more sediment downstream to the mouth of the river. Instead: Building levees outside perimeter of flood plains to preserve flood plains; using parks and agriculture for flood plains; stabilize banks of rivers by planting or preserving forests and grasses (maintain a riparian zone);
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Describe how anthropogenic deforestation contributes to erosion and what strategies can be used to conserve soil nutrients while preventing erosion, desertification and salinization?
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Removing forests by clear cutting or burning exposes soil; No tree root systems to anchor the soil Instead: sustainable forestry practices; avoid clear cutting; selective logging thins the forest; only removing the most valuable/useful tree species;
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Describe how anthropogenic mining contributes to erosion and what strategies can be used to conserve soil nutrients while preventing erosion, desertification and salinization?
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surface mining (especially mountaintop removal); large amounts of rock and soil are moved and deposited along hillsides (tailings); these piles can erode easily down the mountain. Instead: use of covers that hold back soil such as degradable covers or vegetation; use of terraces to minimize slopes; shelterbelt
question
What humans activity leads to desertification and salinization?
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Desertification- the loss of nutrients in the soil due to overuse; caused often by overgrazing; which removes plants and organic matter from surface that would have decomposed and nourished the soil; also can be caused by monocultures; too many plantings of the same type of crops over many growing seasons removes nutrients from soil; often plants such as corn can be "nutrient hungry" drawing too much of a nutrient from the soil and never replacing it. Salinization- Often due to over-irrigation in arid regions; Overdrawing water from a water source can cause salts to leach up from the subsoil and contaminate water; hinders plant growth
question
Contrast what biotic and abiotic factors would be studied in a population community and ecosystem
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Population is a group of like species that live in the same habitat (biotic factors only). Community is a collection of all living (biotic) organisms in every trophic level who live in the same habitat. Ecosystem is the only level in this listing that includes abiotic and biotic factors. It includes all living organisms in a habitat and the land, water and air resources that make up their environment.
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What types of factors would determine a species ecological niche? What is the purpose of a niche?
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ecological niche is the combination of all behaviors that an organism uses to decrease competition and increase access to resources, leading to its survival. Factors include but are not limited to: feeding behaviors- trophic level, interactions with others species (such as mutualism, commensalism, parasitism), predation behaviors, mating behaviors, migration, hibernation, etc.
question
Organisms use resource partitioning to avoid competition?
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when species feed in a separate territory or region to avoid competition. For example, different species of birds may feed on different levels or heights of a plant.
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How does a species range of tolerance directly relate to competition?
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Range of tolerance represents the gap of acceptable conditions the species will feed, live, migrate to. Defines the upper and lower limits where a species cannot survive. These might be physical ranges of territory, preferred temperatures, water availability, etc. Often competing species will have ranges that do not overlap in order to avoid competition or organisms with very wide ranges adapt that way to increase their options.
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If a Forest is fragmented due to deforestation, explain how the edge effects impact species diversity and population size
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Forest fragmentation reduces the range organisms have to migrate, it reduces the availability of nutrients and resources for the food web. It also changes many abiotic factors- less shade/more sun changes the types of plants that grow on the edges of forests, essentially changing the types of primary producers in the forest, its temperature and can affect water and soil quality with increased erosion and sedimentation. Fragmented forests often have more small, opportunist species and pests which can lead to the spread of disease- for example lyme disease is found in higher rates in fragmented ecosystems due to the increase of rodents who have little to no predators. (The rodent predators need larger territory).
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ecosystem biodiversity
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ecosystem biodiversity is a variety of microecosystems or habitats for organisms to occupy- more opportunity for specialization and resource partitioning;
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Tropical rain forest
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Biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
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Temperate deciduous forest
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forest in a temperate region, characterized by trees that drop their leaves annually
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Taiga forest
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Characterized by coniferous forests; has a subarctic continental climate with very large temperature range between seasons, but the long and cold winter is the dominant feature.
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Tropical grassland
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grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
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Temperate grass land
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Short and tall grasses adapted to cool climates
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Tundra
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a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line
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Desert
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An extremely dry area with little water and few plants
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What climatic patterns determine the type of biomes an area will have?
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Convection cells for when warm air rises and condenses in the upper atmosphere; the cold air becomes more dense leading to precipitation. As it cools it sinks and moves across the land; this dry cell of air causes drier climates. It evaporates moisture from land and gains water, heating and then rises again. This process repeats itself across the globe. Biomes near the equator receive more direct sunlight and have higher atmospheric temperatures than those at the poles who receive indirect sun and lower temperatures.
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Environmental benefits of wetlands
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Important filters of river water; when water floods or flows through wetlands, the sediment and pollution is filtered by the trees and grasses and then returns to the stream through percolation through the soil (phytoremediation) and Important nesting sites for animals of the riparian zone; large amount of biodiversity; plants provide protection and cover for many organisms
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Temperate lake zones
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Littoral Zone and Limnetic Zone Euphotic Zone Benthic Zone
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Photosynthesis equation
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6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Respiration equation
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C6H12O6 + 6O2 --โ†’ 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy
question
Explain how the law of conservation of matter relates the cycling of carbon through a food web
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The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed. Hence, the quantity of mass is conserved over time. Therefore, when carbon is converted- say from glucose to carbon dioxide the total mass is never lost but changes state
question
Explain how preserving biodiversity is directly related to the availability of natural capital
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Natural capital is all the world's stocks or resources that are available to make life possible. Humans, being organisms, need resources for survival (and take more than that for comfort or collection). This is classified as ecosystem services and include lumbar, minerals, ore, water, food, etc. The more biodiversity= the more variety of quality resources available for us.
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Explain how biodiversity increases the survival of the species during the process natural selection and evolution
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Natural selection is the process of fit organisms surviving longer and obtaining resources needed for survival. With survival comes opportunity for reproduction and more offspring. The offspring inherit the fit genes and the cycle repeats. Overtime, the number of organisms with that fit gene are majority of the population leading to evolution. The more biodiversity, the greater the gene pool. Variety within the genetic makeup allow species to have better ability to withstand sickness and adapt to change, making a stronger population.
question
Two islands different distances from the mainland have different rates of extinction this is explained by the theory of island
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biogeography. (Isolated populations without gene flow will evolve in different ways in response to their unique environments. The closer the island is to the mainland, the greater species richness it'll have.
question
Strengthen this weak statement: protecting endangered species like giant panda cost too much and should be stopped
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Biodiversity and the protection of forest habitats in an important factor of stable and productive ecosystems. Preservation of forest leads to greater species richness and species eveness, cleans the air and water through filtration and provides humans with economic services such as food, lumber, and fuel. By investing money to protect the bamboo habitat, you would protect your forest investment while protecting the Panda populations as well. The benefits of this strategy would outweigh the costs involved.
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Explain what evapotranspiration is and why it's significant
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evaporation of water off the surface of plant leaves. Evapotranspiration contributes to weather and climate.
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primary ecological succession
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ecological succession in an area without soil or bottom sediments
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secondary ecological succession
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ecological succession in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil or bottom sediment has not been destroyed
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carbon cycle
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Life importance: Building blocks for major macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, fats and nucleic acids) Reservoir: rocks Transport: long; Gas (atmosphere), photosynthesis and respiration, sediment, fossil fuels
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Nitrogen cycle
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Life importance: Important element in proteins and DNA Reservoir: atmosphere Transport: short; Nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, denitrification
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Phosphorus Cycle
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Importance to life: Used to produce ATP; important mineral for bone and teeth strength Reservoir: Rock Transport: longest; No atmosphere! Erosion, soil, assimilation, decomposition
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Water cycle
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Importance to life: Universal solvent; drives chemical reactions within the body for metabolism and energy production Reservoir: Ocean Transport: short; Evaporation/ transpiration to condensation to Precipitation to surface runoff /infilatration/percolation
question
What are the four most populated countries in the world?
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(1) China; (2) India; (3) U.S.; (4) Indonesia
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In what regions of the world is population density the greatest concern? how is population distribution of food and water security issue?
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Bangladesh, India, China. With dense urban areas, competition for quality food, water and shelter resources is high and pollution builds up creating health issues due to sewage, waste and urban degradation. There tends to be more poverty... wealth equals health.
question
Explain why a population can continue to grow even if fertility rates decrease
answer
Immigration causes increases in population size even if native citizens are having less children (this is why the USA has high populations and lower fertility rate). Population momentum can cause increase in population size- when generations have high fertility rates and then the following generation reduces their rate; there are still a lot of people having children.
question
What is the green revolution and why is it important
answer
large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of fertilizer, pesticides and high-yield crop varieties; helped provide food security throughout the world; lead to a large spike in exponential human population growth by increasing biotic potential
question
Contrast the types of disease you find in developed countries versus undeveloped countries
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Developed countries have more diseases related to advanced age (cancers), pollution, and heart disease (due to diet and lifestyle). Developing countries tend to have infectious diseases due to contaminated water and under or malnutrition.
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How was the stage of demographic is directly related to the economy of the country
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As countries progress through the demographic transitions, poverty reduces and economic and social advances progress due to lower family size, women in the workforce, more advanced education and access to technology.
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Contrast resource use in each demographic stage
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As a country becomes more developed, they tend to acquire more material goods and have more wealth to afford luxuries including a variety of food from many regions of the world. Imported goods are common and overall resource consumption and single use items are used.
question
Describe some strategies for sustainability in urban regions
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Mass transit in the form of subways, bus systems; green spaces break up impervious surfaces; reclamation of brownfields (hazardous waste sites); use of renewable fuels; urban and roof top gardens for fresh food and reduction of heat island effect; LEED buildings- use of efficient lighting systems; low-VOC emitting carpets and furniture; low flow water systems; ventilation to reduce indoor air pollution; properly placed windows for temperature maintenance and daylight
question
Contrast national policies of the United States China and India that directly impact the population growth rates of those countries
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US- provides citizens with health care systems that give options for family planning; reproductive health is taught in schools; avenues that make legal immigration possible- creates a low fertility rate but population is still growing due to immigration China- One child policy (now being phased out)- families are only to have only one child in exchange for government incentives including better job and education opportunities, access to healthcare and food security; fined for having more than one child; lead to high abortion/adoption rates for girls (culture prefers men) but overall an effect program to reduce fertility rate. India- largely unsuccessful family planning policy; aggressive female sterilization and family planning campaigns for poorly educated women;
question
The acronym CAFO refers to what? Why is this important
answer
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation which is important because It is the designation for industrial animal production where large amounts of animals are raised in confinement for food. CAFOs have a significant impact on environmental health including nutrient runoff into water sources, spread of contagious disease due to conditions (and the use of antibiotics and growth hormones). Pros- increases the amount of food available to population (food security); industrialized farming can be accomplished cheaper than other types
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What is different about growing plants hydroponically?
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Plants are grown without soil; in a mineral nutrient rich water solution
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The acronym GMO refers to _____________ _____________ _____________, which are:
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Genetically Modified Organism which is: Any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques-
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GMOs pros and cons
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Pros- often used as artificial selection for drought/ pest resistant crops; increases crop yield; tolerant to herbicides; produce fruits without seeds, increases shelf life or enrich nutrients, increases food security; can grow GMOs in less than optimal conditions Cons- can threaten biodiversity (especially insects); can lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria; unstudied health impacts (allergies, cancers, gene ownership of modified seeds creates political and property conflict
question
Arrange the following foods in order of highest to lowest in terms of global production: corn (maize); rice; wheat.
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corn, wheat, rice
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Lost four innovations that led to the green revolution
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artificial selection of GMO, Synthetic pesticides/herbicides, Irrigation and Syntheticfertilizers
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Explain what two issues can result from over irrigation of crops in arid regions of the world
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Erosion- high amounts of water sprayed on the crops can cause erosion of top soil- increases sedimentation and nutrient load in bodies of surface water and Often irrigation overdraws from surface or groundwater source causing subsidence (caving/sinking of land) and draws salts from the soil into the water/surface of soil leading to salinization
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What is a monoculture? What issues result from planting monocultures?
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When farms grow only one type of crop year after year; creates an increase in pests (due to constant source of food) and often leads to the need for more pesticides; the crop will consistently need the same nutrient leading to desertification (loss of nutrients) in the soil and requiring fertilization; Often examples (like cotton in the Aral Sea regions) require irrigation and overdrawing from water source.
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Explain four methods of sustainable agriculture practices that help reduce erosion and desertification
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Intercropping- plantings between the rows of crops that stabilize the soil and if they are legumes; enrich nitrogen into the soil. Planting - contour planting (planting around hills); terracing (building flat steps on the hill to eliminate the slope); shelter belts- strips of trees planted to block wind and prevent erosion. Crop rotation- changing the type of crops you plant year to year Strip cropping- alternating rows or regions of the type of crops you plant within the same year Tilling- conservation tillage mulches plant to return nutrients to soil; no-till collects only the portion of the plant needed for food and leaving the roots behind to anchor soil
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Contrast industrial versus integrated pest management strategies of controlling Pests
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Industrial methods will use synthetic pesticides (chemicals) which create issues with biodiversity; persistence, resistance and toxicity IPM strategies use first: cultural control- crop choice (rotation), second: biological control- natural predators (like breeding lady bugs), third: mechanical control- monitoring for pests, use of indicator species, trapping and cultivation;, finally: chemical control (pheromones, pesticides)
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Wha are the main types of pesticides? What does it mean when a pesticide is persistent?
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Named after the type of pest they kill (herbicides- plants; rodenticides- rodents; fungicides- fungus); first-generation pesticides- used prior to 1940s and banned due to high toxicity or ineffectiveness (arsenic, mercury, lead); Second generation are synthetic organic compounds; persistence- means the chemical persists (doesn't decompose) for in the environment; dangerous because it can travel with erosion into waterways and builds up in the food chain leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
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What are the costs and benefits of pesticide use?
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Costs- Pesticides are soluble; travel to places they were no intentionally used; fat soluble in organisms causes them to accumulate within the body- increasing toxic effects, genetic resistance, pesticide treadmill (increase amount we spray as resistant bugs populate), reduces biodiversity Benefits- increases crop yield, food security, saves money,
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Explain what the FIFRA law protects you from
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US federal law (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) that regulates pesticides to protect applicators, consumers and the environment. EPA uses the law to protect environment and public health; restricts pesticides of different formulas and mixtures and restricts where they are used or applied; requires pesticides to be registered with appropriate doses, intended use and label with proper usage; restricts which pesticides are available to general public
question
A company is importing rare tropical hardwood to manufacture furniture, list three laws, regulations, treaties, or acts that the company may have violated.
answer
(1) CITES- Treaty on the International Trade of Endangered Species (2) Lacey Act- prohibits the interstate transport of wild animals without a federal permit (3) Kyoto Protocol- commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions- (harvesting of the lumbar would increase those gases)
question
In terms of biodiversity, contrast the health of an old growth forest vs a tree plantation that has remediate a deforested region
answer
An old growth forest will have greater species richness as age distribution within the forest will vary more; species within the forest will vary more and many organisms who rely on the old growth tree stands will be found in that habitat. The old growth forest will be in the climax community stage of succession which is a more stable environment; Remediated forests often have large stands of one type of tree; all of the same age. They will be earlier in succession.
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Describe the impact of natural forest fires on the health of a coniferous ecosystem. How have humans learned to manage controlled burns to maximize the fire's benefits?
answer
Many conifers are adapted to fires; their cones open in the fires to distribute seeds for regrowth; fires burn underbrush and tree debris that decompose slowly in the cooler environments of the Taiga which returns nutrients to the soil and enriches the seeds for optimal growth; suppression of the fires limits seed germination and limits new growth. It also allows the dry wood debris to build so when accidental fires burn, they often grow uncontrollable creating property loss and massive forest fires to spread. Controlled burns are now used to maximize the fire's benefits in controlled conditions to protect property and prevent the spread to inhabited areas.
question
Describe the different methods of deforestation. Rank them from most damaging to forest health to least damaging.
answer
Clear cutting- an entire forested area is cut down- most damaging; completely destroys area down to the soil Strip cutting- portions of the forest is harvested- next most damaging- creates fragmented forests that limits gene flow and territory for organisms; increases edge effect because light conditions change on the edges of the forest, changing what can grow there Selective cutting- trees are harvested individually from diverse forests- can be sustainable as long as the harvested trees are not most or all of the largest; maintains the forest ecosystem; can potentially encourage new growth because of the thinning
question
Explain how national forest land is managed by the US Forest service. Would you consider this land a common? Why or why not?
answer
National forests are used for forest products including commercial use of lumber, herbs, fungi, fruits, nuts etc; removal of which is managed by government; manages region to conserve and restore forests to be more resilient to climate change and enhance water resources; goal- maintain and improve health of forests and grasslands to meet resource needs of current and future generations; manages vegetation, restores ecosystems, reduces hazards
question
Explain how overgrazing can lead to desertification and a collapse of a grassland ecosystem. What methods are used to avoid this issue?
answer
Overgrazing reduces grass cover, exposes soil to erosion and enhances invasion of invasive species due to animals exceeding the carrying capacity of the grassland; moderate levels can stimulate regrowth and greater diversity so larger ranglelands (like BLM lands) and moving livestock to give grasses time to regenerate is the healthiest management strategy
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Transportation infrastructure
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Issue: encourage independent driving which uses more fossil fuels and creates more air pollution and oil/litter debris and road salts (nonpoint pollution); impervious surfaces increase surface water runoff leading to more water pollution Sustainable alternative: Mass transit decreases cars on the road and pollution; permeable pavement increases percolation of water into soil; build phytoremediation on roadways to filter pollution runoff; manage storm water
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Federal highway system
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Issue: Highway systems segment habitats making it difficult for organisms to have range and gene flow; Sustainable alternative: greenways over highways provide paths for wildlife to move safely across road ways; urban planning evaluates migration routes and avoids them when building highways
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Canals and channels
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Issue: Diverts water from natural surface water causing overdraw; pollution can travel to channels; often made of impervious surfaces; washes sediment, oils and litter into water systems; changes water flow, speed and depth which affects biodiversity and creates algae blooms; also separates habitats limiting migration, range/territory and gene flow Sustainable alternative: Channel liners limit the algae growth; riparian zones and greenways to connect habitats, phytoremediation
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What economic and environmental issues are related to suburban sprawl?
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commuting increases leading to more pollution, job dispersal shifts; requires building traffic infrastructure, parking, police, emergency services etc. Less integration of impoverished portions of city creating a larger gap in segregation and can lead to environmental degradation in the impoverished portions of the city. Sprawl leads to development of natural ecosystems, fragmentation of forested areas and more impervious surfaces
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Wilderness areas
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Preserves land in its natural state and keeps human activities to a minimum. No harvesting of resources in these areas; often source of much political debate due to economic potential
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National parks
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Protect and preserve land and conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of the country; open to public use and used to educate public Highly visited regions can have issues related to high traffic and pollution
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National wildlife refuges
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Protected region managed by US fish and wildlife service; to protect and manage public lands and waters to conserve America's fish, wildlife and plants; open to public for recreational use Often not as developed as national park systems; managed public use for hunting, fishing, hiking etc. Often in threatened habitats or migration routes.; conservation management for misuse important
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National forests
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Forests managed by National forest service for resource preservation- conservation of timber, grazing, wildlife fish, etc. Land is open for public, often with basic/minimal infrastructure; commercial harvesting is allowed through permits and can still cause issues with biodiversity
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Wetlands
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National wetlands inventory managed by FWS to monitor and provide information on location and state of wetlands. Endangered ecosystems due to development, sedimentation
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Bureau of Land Management
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Management of grasslands and mining of public lands to conserve soil and mineral resources while preserving the health, diversity and productivity of the public lands Conflict over land use and allowable mining operations are often source of political debate.
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Preservation
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Preservation - deep ecology- land is kept as natural; no human visitation allowed; seeks protection of nature from use (as opposed to conservation which is the proper use of nature)
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Remediation
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b) Remediation - the removal of pollution or contaminants from the environment such as soil, groundwater sediment or surface water
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Mitigation
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Mitigation - projects intended to offset known impacts to an existing natural resource; used to reduce land use impacts of a project such as reducing acid mine drainage during coal mining.
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Restoration
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Restoration - Reversing damage to an environment by making it safe for humans, wildlife and plant communities and recovering communities (especially plants)
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Where can you find coal
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1) USA (Northern states, Appalachia); 2) Russia; 3) China
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Where can you find oil
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1) Venezuela; 2) Saudi Arabia; 3) Canada
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Where can you find natural gas
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1) Russia; 2) Iran 3) Qatar
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Open pit mining
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Removing minerals such as gravel, sand or metal ores by digging from the Earth's surface and leaving an open pit behind. Land above cleared/ habitat destruction; erosion and runoff into surface water; acid mine drainage
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Subsurface mining
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Extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from deep underground deposits Cave ins, explosions, fires, black lung disease, subsidence
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Strip mining
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Form of subsurface mining in which bulldozers power shovels or stripping wheels move large chunks ofo the Earth's surface in strips Leaves a series of spoils banks; promotes erosion and acid mine drainage
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Mountaintop removal
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Type of surface mining that uses explosives massive power shovels and large machines to remove the top of a mountain and expose the seams of coal underneath. Waste rock and dirt destroys forests, buries streams, toxic mining materials leach arsenic and mercury into water from dam structures contaminating surface water
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Drilling
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Used in the harvest of natural gas and oil requires drilling deep into subterranean (shale deposits) and using hydraulic fracturing Ground instability, contamination of water; earthquakes
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What laws prevent mining issues such as acid drainage and the displacement of tailings?
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NEPA- National Environmental Policy Act- evaluate and communicate environmental consequences; RCRA- Resource
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Dredging
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technique typically used to harvest scallops, crabs, and shrimp from the sea floor.
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Contrast the environmental impact of dredging, bottom trawling and longline fishing.
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Longline- lines up to 80 miles long; hooked and baited left free floating for days; high by-catch of dolphins, sea turtles, whales and birds Bottom trawling- dragging nets along bottom of seafloor- Unselective fishing has high rate of bycatch; damages seafloor, leads to overfishing; harm coral reefs, sharks, and sea turtles Dredging- type of bottom trawling for benthic species such as oysters, scallops, oysters and clams/crabs; destroys benthic ecosystems; overfishing; bycatch, sediment distribution changes in water supply
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Aquaculture pros and cons
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Pros= economic opportunity; protects natural ecosystems from overfishing Cons- reduces diversity, introduces disease to local ecosystems, unpredictable, increased risk of water contamination,
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What relevant laws and treaties prevent overfishing and preserve ocean species
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ESA- Endangered species act; marine mammal protection act; National Environment Policy Act
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Explain the world bank and how it has helped reduce people overpopulation and issues related to poverty.
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Goal to end extreme poverty in developing countries and promote prosperity by fostering income growth- provides small loans to women for business; involves education on money management, business, family planning and family structure; Supports sustainable development and population management.
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5. Explain how the major types of energy use have changed in the following historical circumstances: Industrial Revolution Exponential growth of developing nations Periods of energy crisis such as the gasoline shortage in 1970's
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Before the industrial revolution we used biomass energy (burning wood), wind energy, and water energy, after the industrial revolution we started burning fossil fuels (start with coal), As developing nation acquire access to modern medicine and improve their infrastructure death rates decrease leading to exponential population growth and exponentially increasing use of energy (and a switch from using biomass/wind/water energy to fossil fuel use, During energy crises the costs of energy use increase (increased oil prices, etc.) and businesses are driven to innovation (people look to other sources for energy)
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A t present, what are the top five types of energy used globally?
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Oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric, nuclear
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the future, how will energy needs and sources expected to change?
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Energy needs will increase, demand for energy not associated with fossil fuels in particular will increase. Coal production will decrease and natural gas use will increase
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list the ranks of coal in order from highest to lowest energy content.
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(lowest) PeatLigniteBituminous coalanthracite (highest)
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List seven products that are derived primarily from crude oil:
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Gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, asphalt, jet fuel, heating oil, tar, paraffin wax, plastics,
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ANWR refers to.....which is important because:
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which is important because: There is oil in a portion on ANWR but drilling for it will harm the wildlife (particularly the caribou). The debate weighs the potential economic benefit of recovering the oil against the potential harm to wildlife
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Fracking is a common name for hydraulic fracturing and it is a concern because...
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Causes earthquakes, often drinking water is used to drill (a waste of freshwater), drilling fluids can seep into surface water or groundwater (groundwater contaminationdrinking water contamination), groundwater can be contaminated with methane, waste stored on site can leak into the ground, toxic wastewater can return to the surface (sometimes with radioactive materials), methane is initially vented into the atmosphere (methane is a greenhouse gas), VOCs and other air pollutants can be released
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What are the advantages and disadvantages to using synfuels?
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Advantages - produces fewer air pollutants when burned than coal, potential large supply, can be used as vehicle fuel, we have lots of coal in the US Disadvantages - It's made from coal or natural gas, so it still involves burning fossil fuels and putting CO2 into the atmosphere, it's expensive to make, low to moderate energy yield, higher cost than coal, required mining more coal, increased surface mining of coal, high water use, higher CO2 emissions than coal
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Nuclear fission
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Inside the reactor neutrons are hurled at high speeds at the nuclei of uranium atoms. This causes the uranium atom to divide into two new nuclei (as well as release more neutrons) and release heat energy. Excess released neutrons are absorbed by control rods (to prevent the reaction from accelerating out of control).
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Nuclear fission safety issues and solutions
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Safety issues include highly reactive radioactive waste (control rods) as well as low quality radioactive waste (rags used for cleaning, etc.). Most radioactive waste produced is stored in site. However, radioactive waste needs to be moved and buried off site someplace far from human habitation, where it won't leak into groundwater, and where it's not vulnerable to natural disasters or terrorist attack. The other safety issue is nuclear meltdown, which can be prevented through routine maintenance and up to date safety procedures
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Contrast nuclear fusion and fission
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In nuclear fission we use accelerated neutrons to split large atoms (uranium) and use the heat generated to create electricity. In nuclear fusion (which happens naturally in the sun) we fuse small atoms (hydrogen) into larger atoms to generate electricity. Fusion produces no radioactive waste and when the reaction proceeds unregulated it burns out like a candle rather than accelerates like an unregulated nuclear fission reaction.
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How are hydroelectric power plants used for flood control? What issues are related concerning flooding and sediment at dams?
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During periods of heavy rain dams can impound floodwater and then release them under control. They can also store or divert water for other uses. Dams can also exacerbate flood issues upstream, or fail and cause flooding downstream. Dams also tend to accumulate sediment deposits, which reduces the lifespan of the dam. As river water reaches the reservoir created by the dam, the water slows and sediments deposit which lifts the riverbed and increases the vulnerability to flooding
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How do hydroelectric power plants affect salmon populations? What strategies do they use to account for this?
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Dams negatively impact organisms, like salmon, that migrate upstream. Fish ladders can remediate this problem by allowing salmon to migrate upstream. Fish ladders are a series of pools that are built like steps.
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List some species that may be threatened by the construction of a solar power tower in the California Desert.
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California desert tortoise, California patch butterfly, Western banded gecko, Desert iguana, Kangaroo rat
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Silicon
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active element in most photovoltaic cells.
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Identify significant sources of Formaldehyde
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indoor air pollutants (furniture, wooden produces, foam insulation- primary pollutant
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Identify significant sources of radon
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Radon: source- byproduct of radioactive decay of uranium; can naturally escape from soil into basements of homes- primary
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Identify significant sources of mercury
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naturally released from volcanos, forest fires; released when fossil fuels, especially coal, are burned; primary pollutant
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Identify significant sources of carbon monoxide
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Carbon monoxide: released when burning any fuel such as in a vehicle or furnace; primary pollutant
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Identify significant sources of nitrous oxide
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Nitrous oxide: naturally released by lightning; released when fossil fuels are burned; such as in power plants and car exhaust- primary pollutant
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List three specific health effects of lead on humans.
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Memory loss, high blood Pressure, and abnormal kidney function
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NO2 is converted to N2 and O2 in a.......... which also converts ? to ? and ?
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catalytic converter; CO to CO2 and H2O
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Explain the causes of an urban heat island.
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Impervious surfaces such as roads and buildings replace porous surfaces. Sun heats the roofs and asphalt which radiate much warmer air temperatures; increased levels of pollutants in the air (such as greenhouse gases) trap that heat; creates a polluted dome of warm air over urban centers.
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Acid depositon
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wet or dry airborne acids that fall to the earth Acid deposition is caused by nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emissions from burning fuels. Acid deposition can cause the water and soil pH to become acidic. In soils, this leaches heavy metals that interrupt nutrient absorption by plants and affects photosynthesis. In water, the acid can cause acid shock in fish; disrupting their gills function; it can affect aquatic organisms. The acid rain also dissolves calcium carbonate (limestone) causing the degradation of concrete structures.
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How are heat islands (See #5) and temperature inversions formed? Why are they concerns related to smog?
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Temperature inversions are when coastal winds are trapped by an ocean causing a warm pocket/layer of air to hover between two cooler layers. This warm pocket restricts the transfer of pollution and heat to escape out into the atmosphere.
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Explain how ozone is "good up high but bad nearby".
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Stratospheric ozone is "good" because it absorbs UV radiation. The UV light causes the decomposition and formation of O3. This absorbs the cell damaging, UV light. In the troposphere, UV light causes the formation of O3 during photochemical smog. This, when inhaled, causes respiratory irritation and immunity issues.
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Why is indoor air pollution the most unregulated form of air pollution? What sources of indoor air pollution are the biggest issues?
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Indoor air pollution varies based on the products, ventilation and age of the building. Most indoor air pollution regulations are based on occupational hazards for companies. Top indoor air pollutants: second hand smoke, mold, radon, asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, lead, particulates and VOCs
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Explain the remediation and reduction strategies for controlling radon in the home.
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Mitigation systems (ventilators) can be used in homes to remove radon seeping into basements; seal cracks,
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Explain the main components of the Clean Air Act and other relevant air pollution laws
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US Federal law designed to control air pollution; requires the EPA to develop and enforce regulations against airborne pollutants known to be hazardous to human health
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Noise pollution
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Sources- industrial sources, traffic, household appliances (leaf blowers, etc), agricultural machines; public address systems (speakers) defense equipment; sonic impulses in ocean; Effects- causes psychological stress and behaviors- high blood pressure, hearing loss, sleep disturbances Control- Insulation materials, buffer materials such as trees
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Thermal pollution
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Water used to convert as steam and turn turbines should be cooled. The water used as a coolant; absorbs and readily holds heat. This hot water, if deposited into a stream, can reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen leading to hypoxia (loss of oxygen) in the water and fish/animal death.
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Watershed
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Water runs off the land into area streams as runoff and picks up sediment and water soluable substances (such as pollutants). This factor is important in determining water quality.
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Groundwater pollution
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pollutants can seep into groundwater sources, such as gasoline, oil, road salts and chemicals; most common sources- sewage disposal, sludge, brine disposal from petroleum industry, mining acid drainage, animal feedlot waste
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pH
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measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (less than 7 is acidic; 7 is neutral and over 7 is alkaline)
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Turbidity
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Turbidity: A measure of the water clarity (suspended particles like soil, algae, plankton, microbes, etc. will cloud the water.)
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Water hardness
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Water hardness: The measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water which enter from the weathering of rocks.
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Biological oxygen demand
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Biological oxygen demand: Biological oxygen demand- the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic organisms (like bacteria) in a body of water to break down the organic material present
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Organic waste
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Organic waste: Biodegradable waste that can be broken down in a reasonable amount of time into base compounds by microorganisms and other living things.
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three disinfectants that are commonly used to make drinking water safe during in the water treatment process.
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1) chlorine 2) UV light 3) peroxone (ozone/hydrogen peroxide)
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List four characteristics that will result in waste being classified as "hazardous":
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is flammable, corrosive, reactive/explosive, toxic/poisonous
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Disposing of waste via incineration
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Incineration: Benefit- reduces the amount of waste (bulk), less dependence on landfills (saves habitats, saving on transportation of waste; can be used as biomass; protects groundwater Disadvantage- releases toxins into atmosphere (mercury, dioxins, lead and other pollutants), climate impacts, emit more CO2 than coal power plants; not renewable
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Disposing of waste via sanitary landfill
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Sanitary landfill- Benefit- minimizes cost of exporting trash, methane vents can be burned for energy, safety from vectors and fires Disadvantage- forms leachate that can seep into and contaminate groundwater; flammable methane is formed; dust and pollution, NIMBY odors
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Disposing waste via a deep well injection
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iii. Deep well injection Pros- inexpensive way to dispose of hazardous waste; removes waste from accessible areas, cons- could leak into ground water or react; can cause earthquakes
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Disposing of waste via surface impoundment
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iv. Surface impoundment- pros- low cost, can be built quickly and waste can be retrieved, stored indefinitely with liners; cons- groundwater contamination, air pollution, flooding/overflow, disruption from earthquakes, promotes waste production; exposure to wildlife
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What are some reduction strategies used to reduce trash bulk and conserve materials? List them in order of greatest reduction to least
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Reduce (uses less overall material), Reuse (reuse of materials reduces demand), Recycle- (saves habitats from mining operations since material is used again)
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NIMBY refers to ..... which is:
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Not in my backyard which is: When communities fight against the construction of less than desirable but important public services, such as landfills, wind farms, etc.; challenging to find locations for trash disposal and often leads to environmental injustice issues where impoverished areas receive the bulk of the undesirable environmental hazards.
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What factors are considered when determining the magnitude of an environmental risk?
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Account for the Dose Response assessment (how toxic it is at various dosages; LD50- Lethal dose of 50% of sample), exposure mechanisms (how many people come into contact and how)
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Contrast acute and chronic effects of toxins. Which have more stringent laws governing them?
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Acute is short term effects, chronic is long term/permanent effects. Chronic has more law governing them since they are a greater threat to human health.
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Contrast a threshold dose-response curve versus a non-threshold response. What is the difference?
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Threshold dose response has a dosage where no adverse effects are noted. Then the effect will grow exponentially as the dose is increased. These toxins will be approved for use in low dosages. The non-threshold response causes adverse effects at any dose and will be restricted from use.
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Major air pollutants considered hazardous to humans
answer
Nitrogen oxides (lung damage), Sulfur oxides (eye irritation, lung damage), Mercury (cause neurological damage), Tropospheric ozone (lung damage (asthma), eye irritation), CFC- (cataracts, sunburn, skin cancer), Carbon dioxide (malnutrition), Lead (brain and kidney damage), Carbon monoxide (binds to hemoglobin in blood causing hypoxia),VOCs (respiratory issues, cancer), Particulates (lung damage, eye irritation)
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What are the two main causes of lung cancer?
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Smoking and radon
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What are the main sources of hazardous wastes? How do we classify them?
answer
Sources- industrial, agricultural pesticides and animal waste, municipal such as motor oil;
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Deep well injection pros and cons
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Pros- inexpensive way to dispose of hazardous waste; removes waste from accessible areas, cons- could leak into ground water or react; can cause earthquakes
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Surface impoundment pros and cons
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pros- low cost, can be built quickly and waste can be retrieved, stored indefinitely with liners; cons- groundwater contamination, air pollution, flooding/overflow, disruption from earthquakes, promotes waste production; exposure to wildlife
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What branch of government is responsible for the cleanup and remediation of contaminated sites? What laws govern this process?
answer
CERCLA- Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation and liability Act- (Superfund Act) gives the EPA the right to clean up hazardous waste events. Legally the polluting offender/company will pay for the mitigation cost and is liable for the cost of harm to the families- medical bills and relocation.
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acronym HCFC refers to ..... which is:
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hydro-chloro-fluro-carbons, which is: A class of synthetic chemicals that are used as refrigerants (they're more commonly known as Freon), aerosols, and propellants that evaporate readily and catalyze the breakdown of the ozone layer.
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Explain the dangers related to too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
answer
Exposure to UV light can mutate DNA leading to skin cancer, can cause cataracts, and can damage crops
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What are the environmental and economic effects of ozone depletion.
answer
Environmental damages come from the damage to organism (corneal damage, skin cancer, and crop damage [think plants getting "sun burned"]). Economic impacts can occur as a consequence of damaged crops and the cost of health care from damage to human eyes and skin
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What strategies and laws/treaties have reduced ozone depletion? Why do the effects of remediation take so long to occur?
answer
The Montreal Protocol has restricted the use of CFCs, but since they're very persistent the effect of the ban is gradual.
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List three consequences of global warming.
answer
Increase in sea level, increase in frequency and severity of weather events, increased frequency and severity of heat waves, decreased frequency and severity of cold spells, increased range of disease carrying organisms, glacier retreat, loss of biodiversity, warming of ocean surfaces, reduction in sea ice
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List three things you could do to decrease your contribution to global warming.
answer
Replace light bulbs with LEDs, drive less, carpool more, reduce resource consumption (reusable materials instead of disposable materials), recycle, install solar panels, buy energy efficient appliances, use less hot water, avoid products with lots of packaging, install a programmable thermostat, turn off lights and electronic devices, plant a tree, replace filters on air conditioners and furnaces, buy more fuel efficient car or an electric car, conserve water, don't idle your car, eat less meat, use a clothesline to dry your clothes, ride your bike instead of drive, use kitchen towels instead of paper towels, use Tupperware instead of zip lock bags, insulate your water heater, spread awareness and advocate change
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List four greenhouse gases
answer
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor (H2O), CFCs, ozone (O3)
question
Describe an example of a positive feedback loop.
answer
Higher temperatures increase the rate of decomposition, increased rates of decomposition leads to more CO2 output, which causes higher temperatures. Another positive feedback loop is the thawing of arctic permafrost: higher temperatures cause thawing of permafrost which increases rates of decomposition which releases increased CO2 and CH4 which contributes to increased warming
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Describe an example of a negative feedback loop
answer
Increased atmospheric CO2 leads to increase plant growth which removes CO2 from the atmosphere which slows temperature warming
question
What are the relevant laws and treaties that have attempted to solve climate change? Why is climate change so difficult to solve?
answer
International: Montreal protocol, Kyoto protocol. US: clean air act, clean water act Climate change is difficult to solve because we have a high energy demand and our infrastructure is already based on burning fossil fuels. Plus it requires international agreement. Plus the consequences of climate change are complex, sometimes hard to see, and disproportionate affect people in developing countries (developing countries and their people don't have the power to influence developed countries)
question
Give examples of organisms affected by the loss of biodiversity due to: Habitat loss, Overuse, Pollution, Introduced species, Endangered and extinct species
answer
Habitat loss - Orangutans Overuse - Black rhinos Pollution - Dolphins Introduced species - White-throated ground-dove Endangered and extinct species - Titanoboa
question
Strengthen this weak statement: "Protecting endangered species like the Giant Panda costs too much and should be stopped."
answer
We should not protect endangered species like the Giant Panda because protecting them limits economic development.
question
What relevant laws and treaties are used to protect species from loss of diversity?
answer
Endangered species act, Marine mammal protection act, Lacy act