AP Psych Unit 6 Learning

25 July 2022
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83 test answers
question
operant conditioning
answer
ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bed-wetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of ...
question
stimuli
answer
classical conditioning involves a learned association between two ______
question
reinforced behavior
answer
if a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he's up to the plate. Even if it is accidental, he is more likely to repeat this superstitious behavior due to....
question
extinction
answer
after Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
question
classical conditioning
answer
by directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates...
question
conditioned response
answer
a dog's salivation a the sight of a food DISH is a ----
question
unconditional stimulus
answer
for the most rapid acquisition of a conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus should be presented shortly before the---
question
experience
answer
according to the text, learning involves a relatively permanent change in behavior due to----
question
positive reinforcer
answer
because Mandisa always picked up her newborn daughter when she cried, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a _______ for crying
question
shaping
answer
five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of______
question
generalization
answer
after learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of---
question
discriminative stimulus
answer
a pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a picking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face in a----
question
shaping
answer
a rat in a Skinner box is reinforced with a food pellet only if the rat moves closer to the lever. Next, reinforcement is withheld until the rat stands on its hind legs, then until the rat touches the lever, and finally, until the rat presses the lever. This example best illustrates----
question
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
answer
extinction occurs when a ______ is no longer paired with a ______.
question
unconditioned stimulus
answer
little albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the ____
question
classical conditioning
answer
pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates.
question
classical conditioning
answer
last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Nat's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. What process accounts for the fact that Nat currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
question
learning
answer
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
question
habituation
answer
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
question
associative learning
answer
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response an its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
question
classical conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
question
behaviorism
answer
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
question
unconditioned response
answer
in classical conditioning, the unlearned. naturally occurring reopens to the unconditioned stimulus, such as the salivation when food is in the mouth
question
unconditioned stimulus
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response
question
conditioned response
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
question
conditioned stimulus
answer
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
question
acquisition
answer
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
question
higher-order conditioning
answer
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
question
extinction
answer
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
question
spontaneous recovery
answer
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
question
generalization
answer
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
question
discrimination
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
question
learned helplessness
answer
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
question
respondent behavior
answer
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
question
operant conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
question
operant behavior
answer
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
question
law of effect
answer
Threnodies' principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
question
operant chamber
answer
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
question
shaping
answer
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
question
discriminative stimulus
answer
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (n contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
question
reinforcer
answer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
question
positive reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food
question
positive reinforcement
answer
any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
question
negative reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
question
negative reinforcement
answer
any stimuli that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. NOT A PUNISHMENT
question
primary reinforcer
answer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (mother)
question
conditioned reinforcer
answer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through the association known as a secondary reinforcer
question
continuous reinforcement
answer
reinforcing the desire response every time it occurs
question
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
answer
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
question
fixed-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a SPECIFIC fixed number of responses
question
variable-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
question
fixed-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a SPECIFIED time has elapsed.
question
variable-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
question
punishment
answer
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
question
cognitive map
answer
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
question
latent learning
answer
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
question
insight
answer
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
question
intrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
question
extrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
question
observational learning
answer
learning by observing others (social learning)
question
modeling
answer
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
question
mirror neurons
answer
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
question
mirror neurons
answer
the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
question
prosocial behavior
answer
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Opposite of antisocial behavior
question
classical conditioning
answer
after repeated exposure to 2 stimuli occurring in sequences, we associate those stimuli wit each other
question
reinforced
answer
encouraging behavior (more)
question
punishment
answer
discouraging behavior (less)
question
operant conditioning
answer
"or else" - punishments
question
BF Skinner
answer
invented the operant chamber; operant conditioning
question
Pavlov and Watson
answer
classical conditioning scientists
question
positive
answer
adding something desirable
question
negative
answer
taking away; ending something unpleasant
question
discriminative stimuli
answer
a stimuli that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
question
PR
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: police stop drivers and give them a prize if their seatbelt are buckled; seat belt use increases in town
question
NP
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: a basketball player who commits a flagrant foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later games
question
PP
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors after that
question
NR
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: After completing an alcohol education lass the suspension of your driver's license if lifted. More DWI drivers now complete the program.
question
punishments
answer
have opposite effects of reinforcement. consequences make the target behavior less lily to occur in the future
question
severity
answer
not as helpful as making the punishments immediate and certain
question
strengthened
answer
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT: situation + positive response =
question
weakened
answer
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT: sitation + negative response =
question
Bobo
answer
name of the doll in Albert Bandura's experiment where kids saw adults punching the inflated doll
question
antisocial behavior
answer
actions that are harmful to individuals and society
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question
operant conditioning
answer
ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bed-wetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of ...
question
stimuli
answer
classical conditioning involves a learned association between two ______
question
reinforced behavior
answer
if a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he's up to the plate. Even if it is accidental, he is more likely to repeat this superstitious behavior due to....
question
extinction
answer
after Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
question
classical conditioning
answer
by directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates...
question
conditioned response
answer
a dog's salivation a the sight of a food DISH is a ----
question
unconditional stimulus
answer
for the most rapid acquisition of a conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus should be presented shortly before the---
question
experience
answer
according to the text, learning involves a relatively permanent change in behavior due to----
question
positive reinforcer
answer
because Mandisa always picked up her newborn daughter when she cried, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a _______ for crying
question
shaping
answer
five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of______
question
generalization
answer
after learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of---
question
discriminative stimulus
answer
a pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a picking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face in a----
question
shaping
answer
a rat in a Skinner box is reinforced with a food pellet only if the rat moves closer to the lever. Next, reinforcement is withheld until the rat stands on its hind legs, then until the rat touches the lever, and finally, until the rat presses the lever. This example best illustrates----
question
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
answer
extinction occurs when a ______ is no longer paired with a ______.
question
unconditioned stimulus
answer
little albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the ____
question
classical conditioning
answer
pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates.
question
classical conditioning
answer
last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Nat's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. What process accounts for the fact that Nat currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
question
learning
answer
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
question
habituation
answer
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
question
associative learning
answer
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response an its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
question
classical conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
question
behaviorism
answer
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
question
unconditioned response
answer
in classical conditioning, the unlearned. naturally occurring reopens to the unconditioned stimulus, such as the salivation when food is in the mouth
question
unconditioned stimulus
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response
question
conditioned response
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
question
conditioned stimulus
answer
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
question
acquisition
answer
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
question
higher-order conditioning
answer
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
question
extinction
answer
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
question
spontaneous recovery
answer
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
question
generalization
answer
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
question
discrimination
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
question
learned helplessness
answer
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
question
respondent behavior
answer
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
question
operant conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
question
operant behavior
answer
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
question
law of effect
answer
Threnodies' principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
question
operant chamber
answer
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
question
shaping
answer
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
question
discriminative stimulus
answer
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (n contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
question
reinforcer
answer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
question
positive reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food
question
positive reinforcement
answer
any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
question
negative reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
question
negative reinforcement
answer
any stimuli that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. NOT A PUNISHMENT
question
primary reinforcer
answer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (mother)
question
conditioned reinforcer
answer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through the association known as a secondary reinforcer
question
continuous reinforcement
answer
reinforcing the desire response every time it occurs
question
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
answer
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
question
fixed-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a SPECIFIC fixed number of responses
question
variable-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
question
fixed-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a SPECIFIED time has elapsed.
question
variable-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
question
punishment
answer
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
question
cognitive map
answer
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
question
latent learning
answer
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
question
insight
answer
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
question
intrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
question
extrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
question
observational learning
answer
learning by observing others (social learning)
question
modeling
answer
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
question
mirror neurons
answer
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
question
mirror neurons
answer
the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
question
prosocial behavior
answer
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Opposite of antisocial behavior
question
classical conditioning
answer
after repeated exposure to 2 stimuli occurring in sequences, we associate those stimuli wit each other
question
reinforced
answer
encouraging behavior (more)
question
punishment
answer
discouraging behavior (less)
question
operant conditioning
answer
"or else" - punishments
question
BF Skinner
answer
invented the operant chamber; operant conditioning
question
Pavlov and Watson
answer
classical conditioning scientists
question
positive
answer
adding something desirable
question
negative
answer
taking away; ending something unpleasant
question
discriminative stimuli
answer
a stimuli that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
question
PR
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: police stop drivers and give them a prize if their seatbelt are buckled; seat belt use increases in town
question
NP
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: a basketball player who commits a flagrant foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later games
question
PP
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors after that
question
NR
answer
PR, NR, PP OR NP?: After completing an alcohol education lass the suspension of your driver's license if lifted. More DWI drivers now complete the program.
question
punishments
answer
have opposite effects of reinforcement. consequences make the target behavior less lily to occur in the future
question
severity
answer
not as helpful as making the punishments immediate and certain
question
strengthened
answer
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT: situation + positive response =
question
weakened
answer
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT: sitation + negative response =
question
Bobo
answer
name of the doll in Albert Bandura's experiment where kids saw adults punching the inflated doll
question
antisocial behavior
answer
actions that are harmful to individuals and society