Unit Exam 2

19 September 2022
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question
Identify a disadvantage of breast feeding in the context of impoverished African countries.
answer
There is risk of passing HIV to babies through breast milk if the mothers have the virus
question
In the context of the four lobes of the brain, which of the following statements is true of the occipital lobes?
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They function in vision.
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Most neuroscientists agree that complex functions such as reading or performing music involve
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both hemispheres of the brain.
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Which of the following is true of the prefrontal cortex of the brain?
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It is the area of the brain where higher-level thinking and self-regulation occur.
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Which of the following statements about infants and REM sleep is true?
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REM sleep might promote the brain's development in infancy.
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Identify a true statement about REM sleep in infancy.
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Compared with non-REM sleep, a much greater amount of time is taken up by REM sleep in infancy than at any other point in the life span.
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Amira is concerned about putting her baby on his stomach to sleep because of the risk that he might stop breathing, usually during the night, and die suddenly without an apparent cause. In other words, she is concerned about
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sudden infant death syndrome.
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Which of the following statements is true about circumstances when mothers should not breast feed their infants?
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Mothers should not breast feed when they are infected with HIV.
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Kyle and Amy want their baby to walk early. In order to accomplish that, they take the baby's favorite toy and place it where the child cannot reach it from a crawling position. Kyle and Amy believe that this will motivate the baby to stand upright to retrieve the toy and will, thus, result in him walking sooner. Their belief is most consistent with the _____ systems view of development.
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dynamic
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When Martha wants to feed her newborn son, she gently brushes her nipple against his cheek and, in the _____ reflex, he turns his head toward the side that was touched and immediately latches onto her breast.
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rooting
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Which of the following statements about reflexes is true?
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Some reflexes persist through life.
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Melanie, a 4-year-old child, ties her shoelaces on her own and skillfully uses a fork and a spoon. In the context of motor development, which of the following is most likely involved in this scenario?
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fine motor skills
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In the "sticky mittens" research project, it was found that
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the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier.
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Sheena wants to hang a picture above her baby's crib. She wants her baby to show interest in the picture. Which of the following pictures is the baby most likely to be interested in?
answer
a picture of an attractive face
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Which of the following statements is true of perceptual narrowing?
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It is a concept where infants are more likely to distinguish between faces to which they have been exposed than faces that they have never seen before.
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John believes that his six-month-old baby, Ali, was born with the ability to perceive the world in an organized way. In the field of perceptual development, John would be described as a(n)
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nativist
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Jean Piaget believed that children
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actively construct their own cognitive worlds.
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Research by Renée Baillargeon and her colleagues documents that infants as young as 3 to 4 months expect objects to be _____, in the sense that other objects cannot move through them, and _____, in the sense that objects continue to exist when they are hidden.
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substantial; permanent
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Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
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Infants are more competent than Jean Piaget thought.
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Which of the following statements about joint attention is true?
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Joint attention requires reciprocal interaction.
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Juno is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juno to use her memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically; this type of memory is referred to as _____ memory.
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implicit
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June knows the names of all the states that comprise the United States. The names of the states are part of June's _____ memory.
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explicit
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Renee remembers very little about the first three years of her life. Psychologists find this normal and refer to it as
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infantile amnesia.
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Identify a true statement about infant memory development.
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Most of young infants' implicit memory of perceptual-motor actions can be substantial.
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According to Jean Mandler, _____ refers to categorizations of objects by infants based on similar features of the objects, such as size, color, and movement, as well as parts of the objects, such as legs for animals.
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perceptual categorization Correct
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In the word "falling," both "fall" and "-ing" are considered
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morphemes
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Which of the following words is an example of a word with a single morpheme
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tram
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Kevin loves to say "da, da, da, da" repeatedly. What type of communication is Kevin using?
answer
babbling
question
identify a true statement about gestures in infant language development
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Some early gestures are symbolic, as when an infant smacks his or her lips to indicate food or drink.
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Which of the following indicates a significant problem in an infant's communication system
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a lack of pointing by 15 months of age
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As an infant, Mary suffered damage to the _____ of her brain. This injury severely affected her comprehension abilities; even though her speech is fluent, it remains incomprehensible.
answer
Wernicke's area
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Identify a true statement about the role of social interaction in language development.
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Researchers have found that a child's vocabulary development is linked to the family's socioeconomic status.
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Which of the following statements is true about emotions?
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Emotions are generally classified as positive or negative.
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The infant's ability to regulate emotions is tied to
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the gradual maturation of the frontal regions of the cerebral cortex.
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What is the opinion of experts on infant socioemotional development, such as Jerome Kagan, on an infant's capacity to display emotions like guilt, pride, despair, shame, empathy, and jealousy in the first year?
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The structural immaturity of the infant brain makes it unlikely that such emotions can be experienced in the first year.
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Three-month-old Zoey looks up at her mother and smiles. What do researchers call this smile?
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social smile
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An inhibited temperament has been associated with
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high activity in the right frontal lobe of the brain.
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in Canada, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) _____ temperament, whereas in China a(n) _____ temperament is more highly valued.
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active; inhibited
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Which of the following statements is true about Erik Erikson's trust-versus-mistrust stage of development?
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Children who leave infancy with a sense of trust can still have their sense of mistrust activated at a later stage, perhaps if their parents get divorced.
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Researchers are discovering that infants are more socially sophisticated and insightful at younger ages than previously envisioned. In which aspect is this sophistication and insight reflected?
answer
in infants' perceptions of others' actions as intentionally motivated and goal-directed
question
Anna is at a phase of attachment where she takes the feelings of others into consideration before acting. According to John Bowlby, what age range would Anna fall under?
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She is 24 months of age or olde
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Which of the following characterizes phase 1 of Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment?
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Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures.
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In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as being
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insecure avoidant.
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In the Strange Situation, Quentin cries mildly when his caregiver departs. However, he is happy upon reunion, and then he continues to explore once the caregiver has returned. He would be classified as being
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securely attached.
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Parker is in the Strange Situation, where he shows little interaction with his caregiver. He isn't distressed upon separation and does not reestablish contact upon reunion. He would be classified as being
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insecure avoidant.
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When a mother plays peek-a-boo with her baby, she moves from covering the baby and saying "peek-a-boo" to covering her own eyes and saying it. This illustrates
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scaffolding
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Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of
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scaffolding
question
Which of the following statements regarding paternal caregiving is true?
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Fathers tend to be ostracized when they take their children to playgrounds.
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Ryan is father to an 11-month-old baby boy. He loves spending time with his son when he is back from work. Which of the following activities is he most likely to engage in with his son?
answer
rough-and-tumble play
question
The longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in 1991 concluded that
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children who were given high-quality child care performed better on cognitive and language tasks.