Nutrition CH 11

26 September 2022
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question
‚ÄčWhich of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins? ‚Äča.‚ÄčRequire bile for absorption ‚Äčb.‚ÄčFound in the fat and oily parts of foods ‚Äčc.‚ÄčTransported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water-soluble vitamins
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčTransported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
question
What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAlbumin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčCholesterol ‚Äčc.‚ÄčChylomicrons ‚Äčd.‚ÄčLiposoluble binding proteins
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčChylomicrons
question
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins? ‚Äča.‚ÄčMost of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIntestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation ‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet ‚Äčd.‚ÄčToxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
question
‚ÄčIf the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčEyes ‚Äčb.‚ÄčKidneys ‚Äčc.‚ÄčAdipose cells ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIntestinal cells
answer
d.‚ÄčIntestinal cells
question
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body? ‚Äča.‚ÄčTryptophan ‚Äčb.‚ÄčChlorophyll ‚Äčc.‚ÄčXanthophyll ‚Äčd.‚ÄčBeta-carotene
answer
d.‚ÄčBeta-carotene
question
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body? ‚Äča.‚Äč1 ‚Äčb.‚Äč2 ‚Äčc.‚Äč3 ‚Äčd.‚Äč5
answer
c.3
question
All of the following are forms of vitamin A except ‚Äča.‚Äčretinol. ‚Äčb.‚Äčretinal. ‚Äčc.‚Äčretinoic acid. ‚Äčd.‚Äčretinoquinone.
answer
d.‚Äčretinoquinone.
question
Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAlbumin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčRhodopsin ‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinol-binding protein ‚Äčd.‚ÄčTranscarotenoid protein
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinol-binding protein
question
As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBlood clotting ‚Äčb.‚ÄčGrowth of bones and teeth ‚Äčc.‚ÄčSynthesis of visual pigment ‚Äčd.‚ÄčMaintaining mucous membranes
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBlood clotting
question
10.‚ÄčWhat are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčGrowth is stunted ‚Äčb.‚ÄčBlindness develops‚Äč c.‚ÄčRetinal synthesis is stimulated ‚Äčd.‚ÄčRetinol synthesis is stimulated
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčBlindness develops
question
Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision? ‚Äča.‚ÄčRetinoic acid is the form required for synthesis of retinoblasts ‚Äčb.‚ÄčLight causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration ‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinol is the form bound to beta-carotene in the corneal membrane ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPigment molecules in the retina are composed of a molecule of vitamin A bound to an omega-3 fatty acid
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčLight causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
question
Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response? ‚Äča.‚ÄčOpsin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčKeratin ‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinal ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCarotene
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinal
question
Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process? ‚Äča.‚ÄčLight energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal ‚Äčb.‚ÄčLight energy strikes the cornea and excites pigments to release retinoic acid ‚Äčc.‚ÄčVisual pigments deep in the brain are excited by light transmitted through the retina ‚Äčd.‚ÄčEpithelial cells on the surface of the eye respond to light energy by transmitting opsin molecules along nerve pathways to the brain
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčLight energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
question
Approximately what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver? ‚Äča.‚Äč20 ‚Äčb.‚Äč50 ‚Äčc.‚Äč70 ‚Äčd.‚Äč90
answer
‚Äčd.‚Äč90
question
What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčLiver ‚Äčb.‚ÄčAdipose ‚Äčc.‚ÄčRetinal cells ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIntestinal mucosal cells
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčLiver
question
Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt stimulates uptake of calcium from the intestines ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt promotes synthesis of specific bone proteins involved in the mineralization process ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt inhibits oxidation of bone mucopolysaccharides thereby preserving bone crystal integrity and promoting growth
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
question
‚ÄčIf a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear? ‚Äča.‚Äč2 weeks ‚Äčb.‚Äč1 to 2 months ‚Äčc.‚Äč6 months ‚Äčd.‚Äč1 to 2 years
answer
d.‚Äč1 to 2 years
question
‚ÄčGreg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear? ‚Äča.‚Äč"Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!" ‚Äčb.‚Äč"As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes." ‚Äčc.‚Äč"Well, there isn't any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven't consumed vitamin A for some time now." ‚Äčd.‚Äč"Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects."
answer
d.‚Äč"Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects."
question
Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency? ‚Äča.‚Äč5 million ‚Äčb.‚Äč25 million ‚Äčc.‚Äč250 million ‚Äčd.‚Äč500 million
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äč250 million
question
Why does vitamin A status depend on the person's protein status? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAdequate protein intake is a marker for liberal intake of the vitamin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčDietary protein assures synthesis of the vitamin's GI tract transporter ‚Äčc.‚ÄčAdequate protein intake reduces the risk for infection from bacteria that degrade the vitamin ‚Äčd.‚ÄčTransport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
answer
d.‚ÄčTransport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
question
‚ÄčStudies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of ‚Äča.‚Äčiron. ‚Äčb.‚Äčvitamin A. ‚Äčc.‚Äčfolic acid. ‚Äčd.‚Äčphylloquinone.
answer
‚Äčb.‚Äčvitamin A
question
‚ÄčWhich of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E? ‚Äča.‚ÄčInhibition of oxidation ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPrevention of keratinization ‚Äčc.‚ÄčInhibition of bone calcium loss ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPrevention of hemolytic anemia
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčInhibition of oxidation
question
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually ‚Äča.‚Äčxerosis. ‚Äčb.‚Äčxerophthalmia. ‚Äčc.‚Äčnight blindness. ‚Äčd.‚Äčcorneal keratinization
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčnight blindness.
question
Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis? ‚Äča.‚ÄčToxicity of vitamin A ‚Äčb.‚ÄčToxicity of beta-carotene ‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeficiency of vitamin A ‚Äčd.‚ÄčDeficiency of vitamin D
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeficiency of vitamin A
question
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAcne ‚Äčb.‚ÄčRickets ‚Äčc.‚ÄčOsteomalacia ‚Äčd.‚ÄčNight blindness
answer
d.‚ÄčNight blindness
question
The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAdults ‚Äčb.‚ÄčElderly ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNewborns ‚Äčd.‚ÄčAdolescents
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčNewborns
question
Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčOsteomalacia ‚Äčb.‚ÄčOsteoporosis ‚Äčc.‚ÄčXerophthalmia ‚Äčd.‚ÄčProlonged blood-clotting time
answer
c.‚ÄčXerophthalmia
question
28.‚ÄčKeratinization is the result of ‚Äča.‚Äčtoxicity of vitamin A. ‚Äčb.‚Äčtoxicity of vitamin D. ‚Äčc.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin A. ‚Äčd.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin D.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin A.
question
What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBone ‚Äčb.‚ÄčLiver ‚Äčc.‚ÄčCornea ‚Äčd.‚ÄčImmune cells
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčCornea
question
‚ÄčKeratinization of lung cells may result from ‚Äča.‚Äčtoxicity of vitamin A. ‚Äčb.‚Äčtoxicity of beta-carotene. ‚Äčc.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin A. ‚Äčd.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin D.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčdeficiency of vitamin A.
question
Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane? ‚Äča.‚ÄčThey are teratogenic ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThey are highly toxic ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThey are usually taken orally ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThey have chemical structures similar to vitamin A
answer
d.‚ÄčThey have chemical structures similar to vitamin A
question
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity? ‚Äča.‚ÄčChildren ‚Äčb.‚ÄčAdolescents ‚Äčc.‚ÄčAdults ‚Äčd.‚ÄčElderly
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčChildren
question
Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčThey increase teratogenic risk ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThey are effective in treating acne ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThey lead to keratinization of tissue ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThey reduce risk for neural tube defects
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčThey increase teratogenic risk
question
The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is the ‚Äča.‚Äčmilligram. ‚Äčb.‚Äčglobal unit. ‚Äčc.‚Äčinternational unit. ‚Äčd.‚Äčretinol activity equivalent.
answer
‚Äčd.‚Äčretinol activity equivalent.
question
Which of the following is a feature of Accutane? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt is effective in treating rickets ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt is less toxic than pure vitamin A ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
answer
d.‚ÄčIt is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
question
All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except ‚Äča.‚Äčoverconsumption from foods is harmless. ‚Äčb.‚Äčoverconsumption from supplements is harmless. ‚Äčc.‚Äčdrinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements. ‚Äčd.‚Äčsmoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.
answer
‚Äčb.‚Äčoverconsumption from supplements is harmless
question
How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent? ‚Äča.‚Äč2 ‚Äčb.‚Äč4 ‚Äčc.‚Äč8 ‚Äčd.‚Äč12
answer
‚Äčd.‚Äč12
question
On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units? ‚Äča.‚Äč3 ‚Äčb.‚Äč5 ‚Äčc.‚Äč8 ‚Äčd.‚Äč10
answer
‚Äča.‚Äč3
question
Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBone pain ‚Äčb.‚ÄčDermatitis ‚Äčc.‚ÄčSkin yellowing ‚Äčd.‚ÄčVitamin A toxicity
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčSkin yellowing
question
Why shouldn't a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt may aggravate existing edema ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt may lead to prolongation of labor ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt contains high concentrations of vitamin D that can cause birth defects
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby
question
‚ÄčIn which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAdolescent women ‚Äčb.‚ÄčOverweight adults ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThose taking vitamin A supplements ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThose consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčThose taking vitamin A supplements
question
To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than ‚Äča.‚Äč5,000 RAE. ‚Äčb.‚Äč10,000 RAE. ‚Äčc.‚Äč4 times the RDA. ‚Äčd.‚Äč10 times the RDA.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äč4 times the RDA
question
The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately ‚Äča.‚Äč400 mg. ‚Äčb.‚Äč1,000 mg. ‚Äčc.‚Äč800 retinol activity equivalents. ‚Äčd.‚Äč5,000 retinol activity equivalents.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äč800 retinol activity equivalents
question
Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults? ‚Äča.‚ÄčEating beef liver once a month ‚Äčb.‚ÄčConsuming high-dose vitamin A supplements ‚Äčc.‚ÄčDrinking 2 quarts of vitamin A-fortified milk daily ‚Äčd.‚ÄčConsuming large amounts of dark green and deep orange vegetables
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčConsuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods? ‚Äča.‚ÄčMost carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThe carotenoid with the highest conversion rate to vitamin A is lycopene ‚Äčc.‚ÄčCarotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCarotenoid absorption is inhibited by foods rich in chlorophyll
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčCarotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAnthocyanin in beets masks the presence of beta-carotene ‚Äčb.‚ÄčMargarine made from corn oil is a poor source of vitamin A ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMost carotenoids can be converted in the body to active vitamin A ‚Äčd.‚ÄčChlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
answer
d.‚ÄčChlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
question
Which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in food? ‚Äča.‚ÄčMost carotenoids have vitamin A activity ‚Äčb.‚ÄčBioavailability depends in part on the presence of preformed vitamin A ‚Äčc.‚ÄčAbsorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing ‚Äčd.‚ÄčBioavailability is highest for alpha-carotene but this form is present in least amounts in the diet
answer
c.‚ÄčAbsorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing
question
‚ÄčYour sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition? ‚Äča.‚ÄčSweet potato ‚Äčb.‚ÄčOrange juice ‚Äčc.‚ÄčPeanut butter ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPowdered skim milk
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčSweet potato
question
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except ‚Äča.‚Äčliver. ‚Äčb.‚Äčbananas. ‚Äčc.‚Äčapricots. ‚Äčd.‚Äčsweet potatoes.
answer
‚Äčb.‚Äčbananas.
question
Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCorn ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPumpkin pie ‚Äčc.‚ÄčBaked potato ‚Äčd.‚ÄčWhole-grain bread
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčPumpkin pie
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods? ‚Äča.‚ÄčFast foods are generally considered good sources of vitamin A ‚Äčb.‚ÄčA regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children ‚Äčc.‚ÄčXanthophylls in certain vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the liver ‚Äčd.‚ÄčChlorophyll in vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the intestinal cell
answer
b.‚ÄčA regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
question
Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCorn ‚Äčb.‚ÄčSpinach ‚Äčc.‚ÄčCarrots ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCantaloupe
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčCorn
question
The plant version of vitamin D is known as ‚Äča.‚Äčergocalciferol. ‚Äčb.‚Äčfoliocalciferol. ‚Äčc.‚Äčcholecalciferol. ‚Äčd.‚Äčphyllocalciferol.
answer
‚Äča.‚Äčergocalciferol
question
The animal version of vitamin D is known as ‚Äča.‚Äčergocalciferol. ‚Äčb.‚Äčfoliocalciferol. ‚Äčc.‚Äčcholecalciferol. ‚Äčd.‚Äčphyllocalciferol.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčcholecalciferol
question
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the ‚Äča.‚Äčskin. ‚Äčb.‚Äčliver. ‚Äčc.‚Äčkidney. ‚Äčd.‚Äčintestines.
answer
d.‚Äčintestines.
question
Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCholecalciferol ‚Äčb.‚Äč7-Dehydrocholesterol ‚Äčc.‚Äč25-Hydroxy vitamin D ‚Äčd.‚Äč1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
answer
d.‚Äč1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
question
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCholesterol ‚Äčb.‚ÄčTryptophan ‚Äčc.‚ÄčBeta-carotene ‚Äčd.‚ÄčEicosapentanoic acid
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčCholesterol
question
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBone ‚Äčb.‚ÄčCarotene ‚Äčc.‚ÄčTryptophan ‚Äčd.‚ÄčExposure to sunlight
answer
d.‚ÄčExposure to sunlight
question
In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active? ‚Äča.‚ÄčLiver only ‚Äčb.‚ÄčKidney only ‚Äčc.‚ÄčLiver and kidney ‚Äčd.‚ÄčLiver and intestines
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčLiver and kidney
question
All of the following are other names for vitamin D except ‚Äča.‚Äčcalciferol. ‚Äčb.‚Äčcalcitonin. ‚Äčc.‚Äčcholecalciferol. ‚Äčd.‚Äčdihydroxy vitamin D.
answer
‚Äčb.‚Äčcalcitonin.
question
Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone? ‚Äča.‚ÄčVitamin D ‚Äčb.‚ÄčVitamin K ‚Äčc.‚ÄčPhylloquinone ‚Äčd.‚ÄčAlpha-tocopherol
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčVitamin D
question
The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the ‚Äča.‚Äčliver. ‚Äčb.‚Äčbone. ‚Äčc.‚Äčkidney. ‚Äčd.‚Äčintestine.
answer
‚Äča.‚Äčliver.
question
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčPromotes secretion of calcitonin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPromotes synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol ‚Äčc.‚ÄčPromotes synthesis of carotenoids and controls absorption of fat-soluble vitamins ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPromotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
answer
d.‚ÄčPromotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
question
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin ‚Äča.‚ÄčA. ‚Äčb.‚ÄčK. ‚Äčc.‚ÄčE. ‚Äčd.‚ÄčD.
answer
‚Äčd.‚ÄčD.
question
‚ÄčWhat is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults? ‚Äča.‚ÄčRickets ‚Äčb.‚ÄčOsteomalacia ‚Äčc.‚ÄčKeratomalacia ‚Äčd.‚ÄčHyperkeratosis
answer
b.‚ÄčOsteomalacia
question
What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia? ‚Äča.‚ÄčInfants ‚Äčb.‚ÄčElderly men ‚Äčc.‚ÄčAdult women ‚Äčd.‚ÄčChildren ages 2-12 years
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčAdult women
question
‚ÄčIn what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed? ‚Äča.‚ÄčNervous ‚Äčb.‚ÄčSkeletal ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMuscular ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCirculatory
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčSkeletal
question
Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBowed legs ‚Äčb.‚ÄčRupture of red blood cells ‚Äčc.‚ÄčFrequent respiratory infections ‚Äčd.‚ÄčAbnormally high blood calcium level
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBowed legs
question
Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient? ‚Äča.‚ÄčOsteomalacia and rickets ‚Äčb.‚ÄčXerophthalmia and breath pentane release ‚Äčc.‚ÄčKwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease ‚Äčd.‚ÄčHemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčOsteomalacia and rickets
question
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt causes a calcium deficiency ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt causes excess iron absorption ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt leads to overt signs only rarely ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt leads to low blood calcium which in turn promotes seizures
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt causes excess iron absorption
question
‚ÄčAll of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except ‚Äča.‚Äčdeficient intake may lead to altered bone composition. ‚Äčb.‚Äčexcessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys. ‚Äčc.‚Äčfortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population. ‚Äčd.‚Äčthe requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
answer
d.‚Äčthe requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
question
Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly? ‚Äča.‚ÄčConsumption of little or no milk ‚Äčb.‚ÄčExcessive use of hypertension medications ‚Äčc.‚ÄčWearing protective clothing and using sunscreen while outdoors ‚Äčd.‚ÄčDiminished capacity of liver and kidney synthesis of activated vitamin D
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčExcessive use of hypertension medications
question
The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced ‚Äča.‚Äčexposure to sunlight. ‚Äčb.‚Äčmilk intake of older people. ‚Äčc.‚Äčabsorption of dietary vitamin D. ‚Äčd.‚Äčactivation of vitamin D by the kidneys.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčabsorption of dietary vitamin D.
question
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIncreased bone density ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIncreased bone calcification ‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeformity of leg bones, ribs, and skull ‚Äčd.‚ÄčMineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
answer
d.‚ÄčMineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
question
Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store? ‚Äča.‚ÄčWhole-grain bread ‚Äčb.‚ÄčVitamin D-fortified milk ‚Äčc.‚ÄčVitamin A-fortified carrot juice ‚Äčd.‚ÄčOmega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk
answer
b.‚ÄčVitamin D-fortified milk
question
‚ÄčWhich of the following is a feature of vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčThe bioavailability of vitamin D from soy milk is low ‚Äčb.‚ÄčLifeguards on southern beaches have increased risk for vitamin D toxicity ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMost adults living in the southern United States need small amounts of dietary vitamin D ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThe average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
answer
d.‚ÄčThe average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition? ‚Äča.‚ÄčVitamin D deficiency may be created by a calcium deficiency ‚Äčb.‚ÄčOnly about one-half of the world's population relies on sunlight to maintain adequate vitamin D nutrition ‚Äčc.‚ÄčProlonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIn people living in northern U.S. cities, vitamin D stores from synthesis during the summer are usually sufficient to meet the needs during the winter
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčProlonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
question
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status? ‚Äča.‚ÄčOutdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight ‚Äčb.‚ÄčWide availability of low-cost fish products ‚Äčc.‚ÄčWide availability of food assistance programs ‚Äčd.‚ÄčWorld Health Organization distribution of vitamin D capsules
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčOutdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
question
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney? ‚Äča.‚ÄčExcessive intake of vitamin D ‚Äčb.‚ÄčInadequate intake of vitamin D ‚Äčc.‚ÄčExcessive intake of tocopherols ‚Äčd.‚ÄčInadequate intake of tocopherols
answer
a.‚ÄčExcessive intake of vitamin D
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčToxicity from vitamin D may result from overexposure to the sun ‚Äčb.‚ÄčRequirements are much higher in the elderly due to degenerative bone diseases ‚Äčc.‚ÄčFortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source ‚Äčd.‚ÄčAbsorption from most food sources is very poor, necessitating the enrichment of grain products
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčFortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
question
Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet? ‚Äča.‚ÄčMeat ‚Äčb.‚ÄčFortified milk ‚Äčc.‚ÄčFruits and vegetables ‚Äčd.‚ÄčEnriched breads and cereals
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčFortified milk
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis? ‚Äča.‚ÄčTanning lamps and tanning booths do not stimulate vitamin D synthesis ‚Äčb.‚ÄčSunscreens with sunburn protection factors of 2 and above prevent synthesis of vitamin D ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThe ultraviolet rays of the sun are able to easily pierce heavy clouds and smog to promote vitamin D synthesis ‚Äčd.‚ÄčDark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
answer
d.‚ÄčDark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
question
Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D? ‚Äča.‚ÄčEgg yolks ‚Äčb.‚ÄčRed meats ‚Äčc.‚ÄčTomato juice ‚Äčd.‚ÄčWhole-wheat bread
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčEgg yolks
question
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition? ‚Äča.‚ÄčA dietary source is oily fish ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThe DRI fails to account for skin synthesis of vitamin D ‚Äčc.‚ÄčExcessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPeople who are not outdoors are advised to drink at least 2 cups of vitamin D-fortified milk daily
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčExcessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
question
What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age? ‚Äča.‚Äč5 őľg ‚Äčb.‚Äč8 őľg ‚Äčc.‚Äč10 őľg ‚Äčd.‚Äč14 őľg
answer
‚Äča.‚Äč5 őľg
question
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins? ‚Äča.‚ÄčA ‚Äčb.‚ÄčE ‚Äčc.‚ÄčK ‚Äčd.‚ÄčD
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčE
question
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n) ‚Äča.‚Äčperoxide. ‚Äčb.‚Äčcoenzyme. ‚Äčc.‚Äčantioxidant. ‚Äčd.‚Äčfree radical.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčantioxidant
question
What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCarrier ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPromoter ‚Äčc.‚ÄčEliminator ‚Äčd.‚ÄčSynthesizer
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčEliminator
question
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth function as antioxidants ‚Äčb.‚ÄčBoth require bile for absorption ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNeither participates in protein synthesis ‚Äčd.‚ÄčNeither is affected by the processing of foods
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth function as antioxidants
question
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt inhibits absorption of dietary cholesterol ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt interferes with cholesterol synthesis by the liver ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt speeds removal of blood cholesterol by the liver
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
question
‚ÄčThe major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of ‚Äča.‚Äčlysosomes. ‚Äčb.‚Äčfree radicals. ‚Äčc.‚Äčmucopolysaccharides. ‚Äčd.‚Äčpolyunsaturated fatty acids.
answer
‚Äčd.‚Äčpolyunsaturated fatty acids.
question
What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAlpha ‚Äčb.‚ÄčBeta ‚Äčc.‚ÄčGamma ‚Äčd.‚ÄčDelta
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčAlpha
question
The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except ‚Äča.‚Äčvitamin A. ‚Äčb.‚Äčvitamin K. ‚Äčc.‚Äčvitamin E. ‚Äčd.‚Äčvitamin D.
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äčvitamin E.
question
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people? ‚Äča.‚ÄčRickets ‚Äčb.‚ÄčXerophthalmia ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMuscular dystrophy ‚Äčd.‚ÄčErythrocyte hemolysis
answer
d.‚ÄčErythrocyte hemolysis
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E? ‚Äča.‚ÄčFunctions as a hormone-like substance ‚Äčb.‚ÄčToxicity symptoms include bone abnormalities ‚Äčc.‚ÄčDeficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids ‚Äčd.‚ÄčImportant food sources include enriched breads and pasta
answer
c.‚ÄčDeficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
question
Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings? ‚Äča.‚ÄčThe vitamin is not essential ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThe vitamin is widespread in foods ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMost people take vitamin E supplements ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThe vitamin can be synthesized by the body
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčThe vitamin is widespread in foods
question
‚ÄčThere is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except ‚Äča.‚Äčpremature infants. ‚Äčb.‚Äčpeople with intermittent claudication. ‚Äčc.‚Äčwomen with fibrocystic breast disease. ‚Äčd.‚Äčpeople with problems of sexual impotence.
answer
‚Äčd.‚Äčpeople with problems of sexual impotence.
question
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy? ‚Äča.‚ÄčDiabetes ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPernicious anemia ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMuscular dystrophy ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIntermittent claudication
answer
d.‚ÄčIntermittent claudication
question
To convert the number of tocopherol equivalents to alpha-tocopherol, multiply by the factor ‚Äča.‚Äč0.8. ‚Äčb.‚Äč1.4. ‚Äčc.‚Äč2.0. ‚Äčd.‚Äč3.3.
answer
‚Äča.‚Äč0.8
question
Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols? ‚Äča.‚ÄčEasily destroyed by air and oxygen ‚Äčb.‚ÄčAct as precursors for the menaquinones ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMay dissolve from foods into cooking water ‚Äčd.‚ÄčAbsorbed from the intestines into the portal circulation
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčEasily destroyed by air and oxygen
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods? ‚Äča.‚ÄčVitamin E is fairly stable to heat ‚Äčb.‚ÄčMost convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E ‚Äčc.‚ÄčSaturated oils are the major dietary sources of vitamin E ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThe amount of alpha-tocopherol in foods is underestimated
answer
b.‚ÄčMost convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E
question
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet? ‚Äča.‚ÄčMeats ‚Äčb.‚ÄčCitrus fruits ‚Äčc.‚ÄčVegetable oils ‚Äčd.‚ÄčMilk and dairy products
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčVegetable oils
question
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E? ‚Äča.‚ÄčButter ‚Äčb.‚ÄčCarrots ‚Äčc.‚ÄčMilk fat ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCorn oil
answer
‚Äčd.‚ÄčCorn oil
question
‚ÄčIn comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level? ‚Äča.‚Äč2 ‚Äčb.‚Äč10 ‚Äčc.‚Äč25 ‚Äčd.‚Äč65
answer
d.‚Äč65
question
‚ÄčIncreasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin ‚Äča.‚ÄčA. ‚Äčb.‚ÄčE. ‚Äčc.‚ÄčK. ‚Äčd.‚ÄčD.
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčE
question
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols? ‚Äča.‚ÄčGood food sources include lean meats and dairy ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThe various tocopherols perform similar roles in the body ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThey are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThe various tocopherol compounds can be converted to the active alpha-tocopherol
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčThey are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
question
Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth are synthesized in the body ‚Äčb.‚ÄčBoth are required for normal vision ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNeither has an effect on bone metabolism ‚Äčd.‚ÄčNeither has an effect on erythrocyte function
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth are synthesized in the body
question
What is prothrombin? ‚Äča.‚ÄčA storage protein for vitamin K ‚Äčb.‚ÄčA transport protein for vitamin E ‚Äčc.‚ÄčA protein needed for bone formation ‚Äčd.‚ÄčA protein needed for blood clot formation
answer
d.‚ÄčA protein needed for blood clot formation
question
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAlbumin ‚Äčb.‚ÄčGI mucosa ‚Äčc.‚ÄčProthrombin ‚Äčd.‚ÄčMucopolysaccharides
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčProthrombin
question
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBlood clotting ‚Äčb.‚ÄčEnergy metabolism ‚Äčc.‚ÄčCalcium utilization ‚Äčd.‚ÄčEpithelial tissue renewal
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBlood clotting
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt participates in synthesis of bone proteins ‚Äčb.‚ÄčLarge amounts can be stored in adipose tissue ‚Äčc.‚ÄčGood food sources are legumes and raw fruits ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIntestinal bacterial synthesis provides over 90% of the body's need for most people
answer
a.‚ÄčIt participates in synthesis of bone proteins
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? ‚Äča.‚ÄčA deficiency increases the risk for hemophilia ‚Äčb.‚ÄčA deficiency leads to keratinization of the cornea ‚Äčc.‚ÄčBacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThere are multiple forms in the diet of which menadione is the naturally occurring form
answer
c.‚ÄčBacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
question
Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin? ‚Äča.‚ÄčIt activates lysosomes involved in remodeling bone ‚Äčb.‚ÄčIt binds calcium in the GI tract to enhance absorption ‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals ‚Äčd.‚ÄčIt works synergistically with the kidneys to reduce urinary calcium excretion
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčIt requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
question
Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAchlorhydria ‚Äčb.‚ÄčAntibiotic therapy ‚Äčc.‚ÄčPresence of oxalic acid in food ‚Äčd.‚ÄčInsufficient intake of green leafy vegetables
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčAntibiotic therapy
question
Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explained that it ‚Äča.‚Äčwas needed to prevent eye disease. ‚Äčb.‚Äčprevented possible bleeding events. ‚Äčc.‚Äčprotected the baby from lipid oxidation. ‚Äčd.‚Äčwas needed to promote good bone growth.
answer
b.‚Äčprevented possible bleeding events
question
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except ‚Äča.‚Äčinfants frequently require a supplement at birth. ‚Äčb.‚Äčgood food sources are plants of the cabbage family. ‚Äčc.‚Äčrisk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods. ‚Äčd.‚Äčgut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
answer
d.‚Äčgut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
question
‚ÄčWhich of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria? ‚Äča.‚ÄčA ‚Äčb.‚ÄčE ‚Äčc.‚ÄčK ‚Äčd.‚ÄčD
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčK
question
Which vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns? ‚Äča.‚ÄčVitamin A ‚Äčb.‚ÄčVitamin E ‚Äčc.‚ÄčVitamin K ‚Äčd.‚ÄčVitamin B12
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčVitamin K
question
Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities? ‚Äča.‚ÄčLiver ‚Äčb.‚ÄčPancreas ‚Äčc.‚ÄčGallbladder ‚Äčd.‚ÄčSmall intestine
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčLiver
question
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAdults ‚Äčb.‚ÄčElderly ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNewborns ‚Äčd.‚ÄčTeenagers
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčNewborns
question
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? ‚Äča.‚ÄčDeficiencies lead to intravascular clotting ‚Äčb.‚ÄčMajor dietary sources are whole grains and legumes ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNo adverse effects have been reported with high intakes ‚Äčd.‚ÄčPrimary deficiencies are more common than secondary deficiencies
answer
‚Äčc.‚ÄčNo adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
question
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines? ‚Äča.‚ÄčCold water fish ‚Äčb.‚ÄčProcessed soups ‚Äčc.‚ÄčEnriched breads ‚Äčd.‚ÄčGreen leafy vegetables
answer
d.‚ÄčGreen leafy vegetables
question
The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as ‚Äča.‚Äčergodione. ‚Äčb.‚Äčmenadione. ‚Äčc.‚Äčtocopherone. ‚Äčd.‚Äčphylloquinone.
answer
d.‚Äčphylloquinone.
question
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis? ‚Äča.‚ÄčLess than 5 ‚Äčb.‚Äč25 ‚Äčc.‚Äč50 ‚Äčd.‚Äč85
answer
‚Äčc.‚Äč50
question
What is the adult AI for vitamin K? ‚Äča.‚Äč45-60 ¬Ķg ‚Äčb.‚Äč90-120 ¬Ķg ‚Äčc.‚Äč150-300 ¬Ķg ‚Äčd.‚Äč500-550 ¬Ķg
answer
‚Äčb.‚Äč90-120 ¬Ķg
question
Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin? ‚Äča.‚ÄčRetinol ‚Äčb.‚ÄčTocopherol ‚Äčc.‚ÄčPhylloquinone ‚Äčd.‚ÄčCyanocobalamin
answer
d.‚ÄčCyanocobalamin
question
What is a free radical? ‚Äča.‚ÄčAn antioxidant substance that prevents accumulation of cell-damaging oxides ‚Äčb.‚ÄčA substance in food that interacts with nutrients to decrease their utilization ‚Äčc.‚ÄčA nutrient in excess of body needs that the body is free to degrade with no consequence ‚Äčd.‚ÄčA molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
answer
‚Äčd.‚ÄčA molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals? ‚Äča.‚ÄčThey are destroyed by cigarette smoking ‚Äčb.‚ÄčThey arise from normal metabolic reactions ‚Äčc.‚ÄčThey typically stop chain reactions associated with the production of peroxides ‚Äčd.‚ÄčThey are known to accumulate even in the presence of abundant antioxidant nutrients
answer
‚Äčb.‚ÄčThey arise from normal metabolic reactions
question
Substances that promote oxidation are usually termed ‚Äča.‚Äčprooxidants. ‚Äčb.‚Äčantioxidants. ‚Äčc.‚Äčfree radical generators. ‚Äčd.‚Äčreactive electron oxidants.
answer
‚Äča.‚Äčprooxidants
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E? ‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth protect against LDL oxidation ‚Äčb.‚ÄčNeither reduces arterial inflammation ‚Äčc.‚ÄčNeither participates in regulating blood clotting ‚Äčd.‚ÄčBoth act as prooxidants at physiological intakes
answer
‚Äča.‚ÄčBoth protect against LDL oxidation