OLD - Psych Ch 4 - Not For Final

25 July 2022
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question
Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ___________________. A) maturation B) growth cycles C) habituation D) learning
answer
A. Maturation
question
Which of the following is true of research on insight? A) Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning. B) Researchers have found that apes are capable of insight only after being taught this by humans. C) Researchers have proven that all creatures, even one-celled organisms such as the amoeba, are capable of insight learning. D) Researchers have found that only human beings are capable of insight learning.
answer
A. Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning
question
Which is the most important characteristic of a food that is linked to a conditioned taste aversion for birds? A) taste B) smell C) vision D) touch
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C. Vision
question
Why does fear caused by punishment make the punishment ineffective in changing behavior? A) Fear leads the child to forget the behavior that was punished. B) None of these. C) Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment. D) Fear produces resentment that makes the child rebellious and disobedient.
answer
C. Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment
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In operant conditioning, _____________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the repetition of a voluntary response. A) a long time delay B) conditional emotional linkages C) reinforcement D) the law of negative effect
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C. Reinforcement
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Dad is watching a home improvement show about how to install a new sink. He really wants to do it and watches the show intently. He knows that his wife will reward him when he is done. However, when he tests the new sink, water spurts everywhere. Taking the new sink apart, he finds that he has left out the crucial washers in the faucet assembly even though this was emphasized in the TV show. What part of Bandura's theory of the necessary components of observational learning is most likely the reason for this disaster? A) memory B) imitation C) attention D) motivation
answer
A. Memory
question
What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response? A) positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement B) punishment C) positive reinforcement D) negative reinforcement
answer
B. Punishment
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A mother tells a young child that when her father comes home, he will spank her because she was bad. One negative consequence of this punishment is that _________. A) All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment B) the child will experience fear and anxiety, which are emotions that do not promote learning. C) the child will lie to her father and say she never was bad D) the child will hide from her father and try to avoid him
answer
A. All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment
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Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer? A) shelter B) a gold star C) water D) food
answer
B. A gold star
question
A child is punished and temporarily stops his or her well-established bad behavior. However, the child soon goes back to acting badly. This is probably because _________. A) punishment is known only to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior B) the effects of punishment have habituated C) the conditional emotional response to the punishment has generalized to another behavior D) the bad behavior has spontaneously recovered
answer
A. Punishment is known only to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior
question
Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ______. A) innate learning B) latent learning C) vicarious learning D) insight
answer
B. Latent learning
question
A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children's TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. The work of what psychologist is most relevant to their discussions? A) Pavlov B) Bandura C) Tolman D) Skinner
answer
B. Bandura
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Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act? A) classical conditioning B) observational learning C) insight learning D) operant conditioning
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B. Observational learning
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Your parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti. Later, the parakeet gets ill. What would the research on biological preparedness predict? A) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it tastes similar to spaghetti. B) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it smells similar to spaghetti. C) The parakeet will eat spaghetti again. D) The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles because they are long and thin and look similar to spaghetti.
answer
D. The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles because they are long and thin and look similar to spaghetti
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A ____________________ reinforcer, such as money or praise, gets its value through an association with a ____________________ reinforcer. A) natural; artificial B) primary; secondary C) positive; negative D) secondary; primary
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D. Secondary; primary
question
The partial reinforcement effect refers to the fact that a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses ____________. A) will be totally resistant to extinction unlike a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response) B) will be less resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response) C) will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response) D) will be more variable in its resistance to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
answer
C. Will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
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_____________ is an operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced. A) Stimulus discrimination B) Stimulus generalization C) Shaping D) Spontaneous recovery
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C. Shaping
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Seligman expanded his theory of learned helplessness to explain__________. A) autism B) ADHD C) schizophrenia D) depression
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D. Depression
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Biofeedback is an application of ______. A) operant conditioning B) social learning C) classical conditioning D) preparedness
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A. Operant conditioning
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Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior? A) a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior B) a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented C) a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior D) a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior
answer
B. A dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
question
Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning, she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad. Over several weeks, she notices that the dog gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys, immediately before leaving the house. Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog's behavior? A) innate learning B) punishment by removal C) instinctive drift D) classical conditioning
answer
D. Classical conditioning
question
A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that ______________. A) provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement B) cues the person into which schedule of reinforcement is being used in operant conditioning C) leads a person to discriminate against one group of people based on ethnicity or race D) Watson used to make Little Albert scared of all fuzzy things
answer
A. Provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
question
Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey's dad might _______________. A) offer her money B) applaud her appropriate behavior C) offer her praise for a job well done D) offer her a piece of candy
answer
D. Offer her a piece of candy
question
What is likely to happen to rats that drink a saccharin solution and are then shocked? A) They will refuse to drink any water and die. B) They will die as a result of the shocks they received in the research. C) They will refuse to drink any water and die. D) They will develop an aversion to saccharin.
answer
C. They will refuse to drink any water and die
question
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was _____________. A) Skinner B) Pavlov C) Kohler D) Tolman
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B. Pavlov
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What was the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the case of Little Albert? A) a loud noise B) a small enclosed space C) a high chair D) a white rat
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D. A white rat
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Who is best known for studying the phenomenon of insight in animals? A) Skinner B) Seligman C) Kรถhler D) Tolman
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C. Kรถhler
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Any behavior that is voluntary is referred to as a(n) _____________________. A) antecedent B) response C) stimulus D) operant
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D. Operant
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The idea that learning occurs and is stored up, even when behaviors are not reinforced, is called ______. A) insight B) latent learning C) placebo learning D) innate learning
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B. Latent learning
question
A young boy is watching TV. In one show he sees a bully steal a lunch from another child. The bully then enjoys eating the other child's lunch. Because this boy feels that his mother makes him a rather skimpy lunch and he is always hungry at school, he starts stealing other kids' lunches at school. According to Bandura's theory of observational learning, his hunger at lunchtime most influenced which factor? A) motivation B) imitation C) attention D) memory
answer
A. Motivation
question
A girl learns that whenever her brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl starts sharing her treats with her friends when they come over in the hopes of getting a similar reward. The girl's learning to share is an example of ______. A) contingency theory B) operant conditioning C) classical conditioning D) observational learning
answer
D. Observational learning
question
You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated ___________. A) generalization B) insight learning C) latent learning D) discrimination
answer
B. Insight learning
question
You decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a bell. You sound the bell and then several minutes later you give the dog a biscuit. You do this several times but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because _________. A) you should have had an even longer interval between the bell and the biscuit B) the bell was not a distinctive sound C) the biscuit was given too long after the sound of the bell D) the bell should have been sounded after the animal ate the biscuit
answer
C. The biscuit was given too long after the bell
question
An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider? A) Punished children tend to do really well in school. B) Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced. C) Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively. D) Punishment motivates the child to focus on schoolwork.
answer
C. Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively
question
What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert? A) a high chair B) a loud noise C) a rat D) a small enclosed space
answer
B. A loud noise
question
The learning of phobias is a very good example of which certain type of classical conditioning? A) innate learning B) instinctive drift C) conditioned taste aversion D) conditioned emotional response
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D. Conditioned emotional response
question
Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification? A) It is different from behavior modification. B) It is useful only for teaching autistic children. C) It involves the process of shaping. D) It cannot be used with animals.
answer
C. It involves the process of shaping
question
A reinforcer is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior. A) strengthens; weakens B) inhibits; motivates C) weakens; strengthens D) motivates; stimulates
answer
A. Strengthens; weakens
question
Pavlov's model of classical conditioning was based on the idea that the conditioned stimulus, through its association close in time with the unconditioned stimulus, came to activate the same place in the animal's brain that was originally activated by the unconditioned stimulus. This was known as _____________. A) the cognitive perspective B) the Skinner model C) stimulus substitution D) higher-order conditioning
answer
C. Stimulus substitution
question
A person is connected to an electroencephalograph, a machine that records the brain's electrical activity. The person is reinforced when his or her pattern of brain waves changes in order to treat a disorder such as epilepsy. This technique is best called _________. A) neurofeedback B) behavior modification C) operant conditioning D) biofeedback
answer
A. Neurofeedback
question
________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer. A) Water; food B) A gold star; cupcake C) A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student D) A kiss; money
answer
C. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student
question
After a CS comes to elicit the CR, the CS now can be paired with a new neutral stimulus and this second neutral stimulus will start to elicit a CR. This process is called _______________. A) generalization B) higher-order conditioning C) neoclassical conditioning D) operant conditioning
answer
B. Higher-order conditioning
question
Which strategy will NOT increase the effects of punishment? A) having the punishment immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish B) making the punishment consistent C) making the punishment occur only on a partial, sporadic schedule D) pairing punishment of the wrong behavior with reinforcement of the correct behavior
answer
C. Making the punishment occur only on a partial, sporadic schedule
question
Molly is sometimes loud and disruptive in class, and her teacher thinks she acts this way when she wants attention. The teacher worries that yelling at Molly might serve as a positive reinforcer for her bad behavior because it is giving Molly the attention she wants. One behavior modification that might help with this child is _______________. A) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child B) use of classical conditioning by shocking the child so that she stops speaking out C) use of partial reinforcement D) use of instinctive drift therapy
answer
A. Use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement even a scolding gives the child
question
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called ________________. A) operant conditioning B) memory linkage C) adaptation D) classical conditioning
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D. Classical conditioning
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The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called _____________. A) transfer of habit strength B) stimulus generalization C) stimulus adaptation D) response generalization
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B. Stimulus generalization
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The "aha!" experience is known as ________________. A) latent learning B) serial enumeration C) thoughtful learning D) insight learning
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D. Insight learning
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One might expect that classical conditioning was discovered by a psychologist. However, it was discovered by a ____________. A) physiologist who was studying memory processes in monkeys B) dog trainer who was trying to come up with the best way to reward animals for their performances in his shows C) physician who was studying the age at which children start to walk D) physiologist who was studying digestion
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D. Physiologist who was studying digestion
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According to Rescorla's theory, the CS must _______ the UCS or conditioning does not occur. A) come after B) appear simultaneously with C) replace D) predict
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D. Predict
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Skinner was to rats as Thorndike was to _____________________. A) cats B) pigeons C) dogs D) rabbits
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A. Cats
question
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called ___________________. A) spontaneous recovery B) testing C) acquisition D) extinction
answer
D. Extinction
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When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will "die out" in a process called ______________. A) extinction B) CR fading C) generalization fading D) habituation
answer
A. Extinction
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A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ___________and, thus, ________ the probability of a response. A) removed; increases B) removed; decreases C) presented; decreases D) presented; increases
answer
A. Removed; increases
question
Little Albert's acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) _____________________ response. A) negatively reinforced B) positively reinforced C) conditioned emotional D) classical counterconditioned
answer
C. Conditioned emotional
question
A young child watches her mother make pancakes. She wants to please her mother so she pays attention. However, when she goes to make them on her own, she can't break the eggs for the batter without making a terrible mess and dropping them on the floor, no matter how hard she tries. Her attempt failed because of a problem with which part of the necessary components for observational learning? A) attention B) memory C) imitation D) motivation
answer
C. Imitation
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It is even possible to become classically conditioned by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus in a process called ________________. A) higher-order conditioning B) stimulus generalization C) vicarious conditioning D) conditioned emotional responses
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C. Vicarious conditioning
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A key element in the use of biofeedback is teaching a person to induce a state of _____________ to help gain control over biological functions. A) anxiety B) heightened awareness C) relaxation D) sleep
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C. Relaxation
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A _____________________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch. A) positive B) negative C) secondary D) primary
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D. Primary
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When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as __________. A) punishing reinforcement B) negative reinforcement C) punishment by application D) punishment by removal
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D. Punishment by removal
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Which letters correspond to the four elements of modeling from Bandura's theory? A) MOMA B) MIMA C) BANDURA D) AMIM
answer
D. AMIM
question
Bandura conducted a classic study known as the "Bobo" doll study. The term Bobo refers to ____________. A) Bandura's pet name for the dog used in the study B) Bandura's loyal but strange assistant that carried out the study C) the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study D) Bandura's nickname that his wife had given him
answer
C. The type of inflatable doll that was used in the study
question
After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not _____________________ had occurred. A) behavior modification B) stimulus discrimination C) stimulus generalization D) extinction
answer
C. Stimulus generalization
question
In their 1961 paper on instinctive drift, the Brelands determined that three assumptions most Skinnerian behaviorists believed in were not actually true. Which is one of the assumptions that was NOT true? A) All of these were not true. B) All responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus. C) Differences between species of animals are insignificant. D) The animal comes to the laboratory a tabula rasa, or "blank slate," and can be taught anything with the right conditioning.
answer
A. All of these were not true
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In Bandura's study with the Bobo doll, the children in the group who saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of ____________. A) classical conditioning B) insight learning C) latent learning D) operant conditioning
answer
D. Operant conditioning
question
Michael grows up in a home where his father is generally unloving toward his mother. He observes his father yell and degrade his mother, and he notices that his mother never resists this treatment. Based on the work of Bandura, what might we predict about Michael's own relationships when he is older? A) Michael will always be very distant from his father, as he has learned that his father does not care about anyone but himself. B) Michael will probably treat women very well, as he rebels against the behaviors he saw in his father. C) Michael will probably have no relationships with women, as his father has taught him that relationships are not worth having. D) Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father.
answer
D. Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father
question
When a strongly conditioned CS is used to make another stimulus into a second CS, the effect is known as ____________. A) higher-order conditioning B) extinction C) spontaneous recovery D) stimulus generalization
answer
A. Higher-order conditioning
question
Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate at a bell sound that was paired with a meat stimulus. After the CS-UCS linkage was strongly established, Pavlov then presented the dog with several flashes of a light followed by the bell sound. After a few days, when the light flashes were presented by themselves, the dog salivated. This is an example of ___________. A) generalization B) operant conditioning C) higher-order conditioning D) neoclassical conditioning
answer
C. Higher-order conditioning
question
Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the________________ is the unconditioned stimulus. A) fish swimming to the top B) aquarium light C) fish food D) presence of Alan near the aquarium
answer
C. Fish food
question
A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the research of _____________ to accomplish this. A) Tolman B) Garcia C) Skinner D) Bandura
answer
B. Garcia
question
Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true? A) Learning involves experiences. B) Learning involves changes in behavior. C) Learning is relatively permanent. D) Learning is another word for "maturation."
answer
D. Learning is another word for "maturation"
question
Which of the following events most intrigued Pavlov and led to his discoveries? A) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food. B) The dogs seemed to enjoy the food. C) The assistant salivated along with the dogs when the dogs started to eat. D) The dogs stopped salivating after seeing the assistant so many times.
answer
A. The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food
question
Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again? A) regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur. B) if it is a primary reinforcer C) if it is a positive reinforcer D) if it is a negative reinforcer
answer
A. Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur
question
John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the __________________ in his study. A) counterconditioning stimulus B) conditioned stimulus C) discriminative stimulus D) unconditioned stimulus
answer
B. Conditioned stimulus
question
The abbreviation CR stands for ______________. A) contingent reflection B) conditioned response C) conditional reinforcement D) contingent reflex
answer
B. Conditioned response
question
As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of _______________. A) instrumental learning B) classical conditioning C) observational learning D) habituation
answer
B. Classical conditioning
question
A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on ______. A) cognitive learning B) operant conditioning C) vicarious learning D) classical conditioning
answer
B. Operant conditioning
question
You walk up to a soda machine and put in a dollar, and are rewarded with a bottle of root beer. When you put in another dollar, you get another soda. Assuming that the machine does not run out of root beer, which kind of reinforcement schedule does this machine operate on? A) continuous reinforcement B) partial reinforcement C) ratio reinforcement D) interval reinforcement
answer
A. Continuous reinforcement
question
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been used with autistic children. The basic principle of this form of behavior modification is ________. A) partial reinforcement B) shaping C) negative punishment D) classical conditioning
answer
B. Shaping
question
In order to learn anything through observation, the learner must ____________. A) All of these processes are necessary. B) be able to retain the memory of the model's action C) be capable of reproducing the model's action D) pay attention to the model
answer
A. All of these processes are necessary
question
Who was one of the first researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses? A) Watson B) Pavlov C) Skinner D) Thorndike
answer
D. Thorndike
question
You spend days wandering aimlessly around a park with many different paths that end at different parts of the park. One day when you arrive at the park you get a call on your cell phone from your cousin whom you haven't seen for years, and she says she is waiting for you in a particular section of the park. Even though the paths are complicated and twisted, you manage to find the shortest route to your cousin. Tolman would explain your efficient passage through the park as an example of ____________. A) insight B) the formation of a cognitive map C) unconscious trial-and-error imagery D) spontaneous recovery
answer
B. The formation of a cognitive map
question
In the "Little Albert" study, the fear-producing stimulus used as a UCS was the ______. A) loud noise B) fear of the noise C) fear of the rat D) white rat
answer
A. Loud noise
question
Rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ______________. A) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS B) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS C) the CS substitutes for the UCS D) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event
answer
B. The CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
question
Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son's face and yells at the top of their lungs "Shut up!" He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story? A) Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home, and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. B) The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son's screaming. C) The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child's screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married. D) The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.
answer
D. The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming
question
College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only half hearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ______. A) learned helplessness B) response generalization C) latent learning D) contingency blocking
answer
A. Learned helplessness
question
In Bandura's study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMIM stands for _____________. A) alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward B) achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory C) attention, memory, imitation, motivation D) achievement, momentum, initiative, memory
answer
C. Attention, memory, imitation, motivation
question
A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as __________. A) punishment by removal B) negative reinforcement C) negative expectation D) punishment by application
answer
D. Punishment by application
question
Harmony notices that her cat salivates as soon as her cat hears the sound of Harmony opening a can with an electric can opener. In this example, the _______________ is the conditioned stimulus. A) can of cat food B) dish that Harmony puts the food in C) sound of the electric can opener D) cat scurrying into the kitchen
answer
C. Sound of the electric can opener
question
A behavioral psychologist tries to train a bird to climb a tree to get a reward of a piece of fruit. At first, the bird learns how to climb the tree with its legs and beak. After a while, it starts flapping its wings and hopping around before it starts to climb. Eventually, the bird flies up to the piece of fruit, even though that prevents it from getting the fruit. According to the Brelands' analysis of biological constraints, the bird is demonstrating ________. A) response generalization B) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it C) the power of negative reinforcement D) the Law of Effect
answer
B. That it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it
question
The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of _____________ to conditioning theory. A) expectancy B) generalization C) memory loss D) habituation
answer
A. Expectancy
question
You train your dog, Milo, to salivate at the sound of a bell. Then you ring the bell every five minutes and don't follow the ringing with food for Milo. He salivates less and less and finally stops salivating at all when the bell rings. But the next morning, when you ring the bell, Milo salivates! What term is used to explain the reappearance of this response? A) instinctive drift B) spontaneous recovery C) stimulus discrimination D) counterconditioning
answer
B. Spontaneous recovery
question
A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children's TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. What psychological process are the representatives probably considering as the reason that TV influences school violence? A) classical conditioning B) observational learning C) operant conditioning
answer
B. Observational learning
question
Thorndike was known for his work with ______. A) a Skinner box B) modeling C) a puzzle box D) monkeys
answer
C. A puzzle box
question
Which learning theorist is responsible for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions? A) Skinner B) Watson C) Seligman D) Garcia
answer
D. Garcia
question
Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI JOE action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen? A) extinction B) spontaneous recovery C) discrimination D) generalization
answer
A. Extinction
question
When Keller and Marian Breland, two psychologists who became animal trainers, decided that it would be cute to have a pig drop a big wooden coin into a box, they found that _______________. A) the pig displayed instinctive drift by dropping the coin and pushing it around with its nose. B) the pig showed intrinsic interest in the task and so reinforcement was unnecessary C) when given edible roots as reinforcers, the pig learned the task in less than ten trials D) food was not an effective reinforcer for the pig and so learning didn't occur
answer
A. The pig displayed instinctive drift by dropping the coin and pushing it around with its nose
question
An example of a discriminative stimulus might be a ________________. A) stop sign B) none of these C) the white rat in Watson's Little Albert study of producing phobias D) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioning
answer
A. Stop sign
question
Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning? A) Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning? B) Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time. C) Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement. D) Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.
answer
D. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement
question
Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called _____________. A) the observational delay effect B) the innate performance preference C) the learning/performance distinction D) the delayed learning paradigm
answer
C. The learning/performance distinction
question
A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by _______________. A) operant conditioning B) classical conditioning C) biofeedback theory D) biofeedback theory
answer
A. Operant conditioning
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While watching the evening news you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder "why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?" According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victim's staying in abusive relationships is _____________________. A) conditioned emotional response B) learned helplessness C) observational learning D) instinctive drift
answer
B. Learned helplessness
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Watson's experiment with Little Albert demonstrated that fears might be __________. A) based on the principle of observational learning B) based on Skinner's analysis of positive reinforcement C) deeply rooted in the innate unconscious of infants D) based on classical conditioning
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D. Based on classical conditioning
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There are two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of doing. If Inez blinks her eyes because a gnat flies close to them, that's _____________. But if she then swats at the gnat, that's _____________. A) instrumental; classical B) involuntary; voluntary C) voluntary; involuntary D) operant; instrumental
answer
B. Involuntary; voluntary
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In an experiment, two groups of dogs are given shocks to their feet. One group is able to escape the shocks by jumping over a barrier. The second group is harnessed and cannot escape. After several trials, both groups are put in situations where they CAN escape. The first group escapes the shocks but the second group just sits and whines, refusing to attempt to escape. The response of the second group is due to ______. A) learned helplessness B) latent learning C) contingency blocking D) response generalization
answer
A. Learned helplessness
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Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of _____________________. A) vicarious conditioning B) biological preparedness C) classical conditioning D) conditioned emotional response
answer
B. Biological preparedness
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Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy? A) Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her. B) Olivia is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog's behavior. C) Olivia is correctly applying Skinnerian principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog's behavior. D) Olivia's parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is "spare the rod, spoil the child."
answer
A. Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her
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Which theorist proposed the cognitive perspective that explains that classical conditioning occurs because of expectancy? A) Garcia B) Pavlov C) Rescorla D) Skinner
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C. Rescorla
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The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called ______. A) spontaneous recovery B) counterconditioning C) stimulus discrimination D) instinctive drift
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A. Spontaneous recovery
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A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ____________. A) aversive conditioning B) vicarious learning C) avoidance learning D) learned helplessness
answer
D. Learned helplessness