Chapter 11 Physio

25 July 2022
4.7 (114 reviews)
57 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (53)
question
somatic motor neurons and autonomic neurons.
answer
The two subdivisions of the efferent division of the peripheral nervous system are A) the sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions. B) somatic motor neurons and voluntary neurons. C) voluntary nervous system and somatic motor neurons. D) somatic motor neurons and autonomic neurons.
question
sympathetic
answer
The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for intense levels of activity and stress is the ________ division. A) intramural B) craniosacral C) somatomotor D) sympathetic E) parasympathetic
question
It is dominant during "resting and digesting" and its ganglia on or near their target organs
answer
Which statements apply to the parasympathetic division of the nervous system? A) It is dominant during "resting and digesting." B) Epinephrine is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic division. C) Its ganglia are on or near their target organs. D) It is dominant during "resting and digesting" and its ganglia on or near their target organs. E) All of the statements apply.
question
Dopamine (DA)
answer
Nicotine enhances the release of ________ in the brain. A) serotonin B) glutamate C) acetylcholine D) epinephrine E) dopamine
question
amygdala
answer
Which area is NOT normally considered to be an autonomic control center? A) medulla B) amygdala C) pons D) hypothalamus
question
autonomic
answer
Antagonistic control of efferent output is typical of the ________ division. A) somatic B) sensory C) autonomic D) somatic and sensory E) somatic and autonomic
question
autonomic
answer
The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the ________ division. A) somatic B) sensory C) autonomic D) somatic and sensory E) somatic and autonomic
question
is a source of catecholamines, is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood.
answer
The adrenal medulla is important to the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system because it A) is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion. B) releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood. C) is a source of catecholamines, is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood. D) is a source of catecholamines and is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion. E) is a source of catecholamines.
question
Activation of ΅ receptors are Na+ channels in the membrane.
answer
Which statement is FALSE? A) Ά1 receptors respond equally well to both epinephrine and norepinephrine. B) Activation of ΅ receptors are Na+ channels in the membrane. C) Monoamine oxidase is the main enzyme responsible for the degradation of catecholamines. D) Ά2 receptors are not innervated by sympathetic neurons, so are more sensitive to epinephrine, delivered through the blood.
question
postganglionic neuron
answer
Which has its cell body in a ganglion? A) preganglionic neuron, postganglionic neuron, and somatic motor neuron B) preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron C) somatic motor neuron D) postganglionic neuron E) preganglionic neuron
question
2, 3, 4 2. hypothalamus 3. pons 4. medulla
answer
Which areas of the brain exert control over the autonomic nervous system? 1. cerebellum 2. hypothalamus 3. pons 4. medulla 5. thalamus A) 1, 2, 4 B) 2, 4 C) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 D) 1, 2, 3, 4 E) 2, 3, 4
question
1. blood pressure 2. heart rate 3. water balance 4. temperature regulation ALL
answer
Which functions are controlled through the autonomic nervous system? 1. blood pressure 2. heart rate 3. water balance 4. temperature regulation A) 1, 2, 3 B) 1 and 3 C) 2, 3, 4 D) 1, 2, 3, 4 E) 1 and 2
question
cholinergic receptors
answer
Sweat glands contain A) alpha receptors. B) beta receptors. C) cholinergic receptors. D) All of the answers are correct. E) None of the answers are correct.
question
increases gastric motility.
answer
Increased parasympathetic stimulation A) dilates blood vessels in the arms and legs. B) increases heart rate. C) increases gastric motility. D) dilates the pupils. E) increases sweat.
question
both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
answer
"Dual innervation" refers to an organ receivinG A) nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord. B) both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. C) two nerves from the spinal cord. D) both autonomic and somatomotor nerves. E) None of the answers are correct.
question
a folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold.
answer
The motor end plate is A) a special fibrous matrix whose collagen fibers hold the axon terminal in proper position. B) a folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold. C) formed by the membrane of enlarged axon terminals, that lie on the surface of skeletal muscle cells. D) the same as the synaptic cleft. E) the same as the neuromuscular junction.
question
cholinergic muscarinic recepto
answer
Match the following with its description. receptor for parasympathetic neurotransmitters A) cholinergic muscarinic receptor B) cholinergic nicotinic receptor
question
cholinergic nicotinic receptor
answer
Match the following with its description. receptor for preganglionic neurotransmitters A) cholinergic muscarinic receptor B) cholinergic nicotinic receptor
question
Acetylcholine (ACh)
answer
released by all autonomic preganglionic neurons A) norepinephrine B) adrenergic receptor C) acetylcholine
question
norepinephrine
answer
primary sympathetic neurotransmitter A) norepinephrine B) adrenergic receptor C) acetylcholine
question
adrenergic receptor
answer
receptor for sympathetic neurotransmitters A) norepinephrine B) adrenergic receptor C) acetylcholine
question
true for both divisions
answer
The neural pathway from the spinal cord to the target tissue has two neurons, the preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
True only for the sympathetic division
answer
Most preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the parasympathetic division
answer
The cell bodies of preganglionic neurons are found either in the brain stem or in the sacral region of the spinal cord. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true for both divisions
answer
Inside the ganglia are interneurons, which modulate messages. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the parasympathetic division
answer
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released by neurons at the neuroeffector junction. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the sympathetic division
answer
The ganglia are found in a chain that runs close to the spinal cord or along the descending aorta. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the sympathetic division
answer
The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is released by neurons at the neuroeffector junction. A) true only for the parasympathetic division B) true for both divisions C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true for both divisions
answer
It contains cholinergic neurons. A) true for both divisions B) true only for the parasympathetic division C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the sympathetic division
answer
The adrenal medulla is closely associated with this system. A) true for both divisions B) true only for the parasympathetic division C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true for both divisions
answer
On average, one preganglionic neuron synapses with eight or nine postganglionic neurons, each innervating a different target. A) true for both divisions B) true only for the parasympathetic division C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the sympathetic divisio
answer
It is important during stress or emergencies (fight-or-flight). A) true for both divisions B) true only for the parasympathetic division C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
true only for the parasympathetic division
answer
It dominates during resting-and-digesting activities. A) true for both divisions B) true only for the parasympathetic division C) true only for the sympathetic division
question
nicotinic, muscarini
answer
The two types of cholinergic receptors are ________ and ________.
question
acetylcholine
answer
Cholinergic receptors respond to the neurotransmitter ________.
question
autonomic ganglia or ganglia
answer
Cholinergic nicotinic receptors are found in the ________ of the autonomic division.
question
parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions
answer
Cholinergic muscarinic receptors are found at the ________ in the autonomic division.
question
vagus nerve
answer
The ________ is the major source of parasympathetic output.
question
Varicosities
answer
________ are swellings that contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitter.
question
axon
answer
Autonomic neurotransmitters are synthesized in the ________.
question
alpha, beta
answer
The two varieties of adrenergic receptors are ________ and ________.
question
norepinephrine
answer
The signal molecule ________ stimulates a stronger responses from alpha receptors.
question
Most, norepinephrine
answer
________ postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete ________ onto their target cells. A) Most, norepinephrine B) Most, acetylcholine C) All, acetylcholine D) All, norepinephrine
question
epinephrine
answer
The signal molecule ________ stimulates a stronger response from beta2 receptors.
question
There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and very little in peripheral tissues.
answer
Epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time than the same substances released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why? A) The epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal glands are released by sympathetic neurons, whereas parasympathetic neurons release these substances at the effector organs. B) The effectors are less sensitive to epinephrine and norepinephrine released by the adrenal glands. C) The adrenal gland releases larger amounts of the neurotransmitters than the neurons. D) There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and very little in peripheral tissues. E) The hormones released from the adrenal glands bind to different receptors than those released from neurons.
question
increase in fatty acids in the blood
answer
If a physiological dose of an experimental drug was administered, and the subject responded to the chemical, which would indicate that this drug is an epinephrine agonist? A) decreased sweating B) constriction of respiratory airways C) decreased heart rate D) hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) E) increase in fatty acids in the blood
question
It acts on alpha adrenergic receptors.
answer
If the results of an experimental drug treatment included pupil dilation, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose, which conclusion would be indicated? A) It acts on muscarinic receptors. B) It acts on alpha adrenergic receptors. C) It acts at the neuromuscular junction. D) It acts on AMPA receptors. E) It acts on beta adrenergic receptors.
question
agonist
answer
The drug Chantix®, which treats nicotine addiction, is an ________ for the nicotine receptor. A) agonist B) antagonist
question
beta blocker
answer
A child is rushed to the hospital after taking one of his grandmother's blood pressure medications. He has a low blood pressure and is also having trouble breathing, with audible wheezing upon exhalation. Which class of drugs did the child most likely take? A) diuretic B) ACE inhibitor C) beta blocker D) calcium channel blocker
question
sympathetic agonist
answer
Match the response with the type of chemical. pupil dilation A) sympathetic agonist B) parasympathetic agonist
question
parasympathetic agonist
answer
increased watery secretions from salivary glands A) sympathetic agonist B) parasympathetic agonist
question
sympathetic agonist
answer
decreased activity in digestive tract A) sympathetic agonist B) parasympathetic agonist
question
sympathetic agonist
answer
fat breakdown A) sympathetic agonist B) parasympathetic agonist
question
parasympathetic antagonist
answer
decreases secretion of pancreatic enzymes A) parasympathetic antagonist B) sympathetic antagonist
question
sympathetic antagonist
answer
decreases effects of adrenal catecholamines A) parasympathetic antagonist B) sympathetic antagonist
question
parasympathetic antagonist
answer
decreases urination A) parasympathetic antagonist B) sympathetic antagonist
question
parasympathetic antagonist
answer
decreases erections A) parasympathetic antagonist B) sympathetic antagonist