Anatomy Exam 3

24 July 2022
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Chapter 15 Somatic Nervous System
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Stimulatory Effect Skeletal Muscle
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Autonomic Nervous System
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Cardiac & Smooh Muscles one of its divisions is the sympathetic nervous system has either simulatory or inhibitory effect
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Acetylcholine
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preganglionic sympathetic somatic preganglionic parasympathetic post ganglionic parasympathetic
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norepinephrine
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Postganglionic sympathetic
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the medial and anterior regions of the hypothalamus direct__________fuctions
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parasympathetic
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preganglionic neurons
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motor neurons neural tube
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cervical
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no preganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies
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ANS
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motor/heart rate digestion blood pressure
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In the pathway leading to the lacrimal and nasal glands, the preganglionic neurons synapse with ganglionic neurons in the________
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pterygopalatine ganglion
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Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS causes__________of bronchioles.
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Dilation
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Why are white rami communicantes found only in the region of T1Ò€"L2?
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White rami carry the preganglionic sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord.
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The CNS structure that is the main integration center of the ANS is the__________.
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hypothalamus
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__________disease is characterized by intermittent attacks of exaggerated sympathetic vasoconstriction of blood vessels of the hands and feet, followed by vasodilation.
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Raynauds
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Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?
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ventral horn of spinal cord
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The general visceral motor division of the peripheral nervous system describes the
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autonomic nervous system.
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Division that is dominant during exercise, excitement, or emergencies.
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sympathetic
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Another name for the ANS is the
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general visceral motor system
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Which autonomic division increases heart rate?
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sympathetic
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Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?
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CN X
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Division of the ANS responsible for the fight-or-flight response describes the Division of the ANS most active during vigorous exercise describes the
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sympathetic division.
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Division of the ANS most active when the body is at rest describes the This division can also be called the craniosacral division Division that is dominant during rest, digestion, and excretion
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parasympathetic division.
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The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the
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brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
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The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of
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sympathetic stimulation
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Chapter 16 Olfactory sensory neurons __________
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undergo replacement throughout life
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Identify the fluid filled space between the cornea and iris.
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Anterior chamber
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Identify the structure that regulates the amount of light entering the posterior segment of the eye.
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The iris is a muscular structure composed of both circular and radially arranged smooth muscle cells. It is capable of changing the shape of the pupil, thereby adjusting the amount of light passing through the lens.
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Identify the areas that are filled with aqueous humor.
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The anterior and posterior chambers make up the anterior segment, which is filled with aqueous humor.
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The equilibrium pathway transmits most of its information to lower brain centers because the __________.
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pathway responds to loss of balance and must be rapid and reflexive to prevent injury
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Why is the sense of touch not considered a "special sense"?
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Its receptors are widespread throughout the body
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Odors may elicits a variety of emotions if these impulses are relayed through the __________
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limbic system
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Which of these extrinsic eye muscles depresses the eye and turns it medially
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inferior rectus
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When the lens of the eye bulges for close vision, which of the following happens?
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The ciliary muscles contract.
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The scala tympani __________.
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terminates at the round window at the base of the cochlea and is filled with perilymph
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You are listening to music on your iPod at a very loud volume. What happens in your middle ear to protect the hearing receptors in your inner ear?
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The tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contract reflexively.
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What is the most likely reason that some people experience motion sickness?
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Motion sickness arises from a mismatch of sensory inputs
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Through which cranial bone do the nerve fibers of the olfactory nerve pass?
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ethmoid
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The sensation of taste involves
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chemicals binding to microvilli.
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Which structure divides the internal chamber of the eye into anterior and posterior segments?
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lens
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Fluid filling the posterior segment of the eye.
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vitreous humor
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The center for vision in the cerebral cortex is located in the
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occipital lobe.
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An example of hormonal stimuli is __________.
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the hypothalamus secretes CRH that influences the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH, which then stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
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The neurohypophysis is comprised of __________.
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nervous tissue that contains unmyelinated axons and neuroglial cells
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aldosterone
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It compensates for a decline in blood pressure or blood volume by prompting the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys to resorb more sodium into the blood. It is secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. It is a steroid hormone. It is secreted in response to a decline in blood volume or blood pressure.
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__________________disease involves deficiencies of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids; blood levels of glucose and sodium fall; and severe dehydration and low blood pressure are common; other symptoms are fatigue and loss of appetite.
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Addisons
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A cell does not respond to the presence of a hormone if it lacksd specific__________ molecules either on the plasma membrane or intracellularly.
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receptor
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location of synthesis of releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
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Hypothalamic neurons
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site into which releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones are secreted
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Primary Capillary plexus
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blood vessels of hypophyseal portal system that join two capillary beds
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Hypopyseal portal veins
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Site that receives the blood and hormones from the primary capillary plexus and into which releasing and inhibiting hormones are secreted
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secondary capillary plexus
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supplies the primary capillary plexus
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superior hypophyseal artery
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the nuclei located in a superior location in the hypthalamus that synthesizes neurohormone oxytocin or ADH
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Paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus
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stores neurohormones ADH and oxytocin
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Neurosecretory bodies of posterior pituitary
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the nuclei located in a inferior location in the hypothalamus that synthesizes the neurohormone oxytocin or ADH
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Supraoptic nuclei of hypthalamus
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Transports neurohormones to neurosecretory bodies in posterior pituitary
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Hypothalamohypophyseal tract
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site of release of neurohormones into the blood supplied by inferior hypophyseal artery
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neurosecretory bodies of posterior pituitary
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How is the thyroid gland different from all the other endocrine glands
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the thyroid gland stores its hormones extracellularly
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Which of the listed hormones is not secreted by the placenta?
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renin
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Aldosterone and atrail natriuretic peptide are __________ hormones
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antagonistic, because secretion of aldosterone increases blood volume and increases blood pressure and atrial natriuretic peptide decreases blood volume and decreases blood pressure
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The adrenal medulla secretes
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epinephrine and norepinephrine
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The secretion of hormones by the anterior lobe of the pituitary is controlled by the
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hypothalamus
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The thyroid gland is located
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immediately inferior to the larynx
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The thymus is the organ where
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T lymphocytes mature from precursor cells
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Cells of the adrenal medulla are most closely allied with
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the sympathetic neurons
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__________ is plasma from which the clotting factors have been removed.
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Serum
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After an orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast) ejects its nucleus and most of its organelles except for RER and ribosomes and the cell becomes biconcave in shape, is is called a ___________
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reticulocyte
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Monocytes transform into ________ peripheal tissues
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macrophages
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The biconcave shape of erythrocytes is a result of ________
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peripheral proteins anchored to the inner surface of their plasma membranes
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Hematopoiesis is _________
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The process by which blood cells are formed
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Which components of blood are found in the buffy coat in this centrifuged blood sample?
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leukocytes and platelets
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What causes the red color of blood?
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oxidation of iron atoms in hemoglobin
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The most common formed elements in the blood are
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Erythocytes
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Myeloblasts
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are the committed cell type for all the granulocyte cell lines
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yellow bone marrow gets its color from
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fat cells
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yellow bone marrow
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is a dormant tissue that only produces blood cells in hematopoietic emergencies
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The mitral valve is best heard __________.
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in the left fifth intercostal space, in line with the middle of the clavicle
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The structure that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium is the
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mitral (bicuspid valve)
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The vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to tissues is the
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aorta
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The capillaries receiving blood flow from the left side of the heart are
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systemic capillaries
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the structure that is located anatomically between the aorta and the left ventricle is
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aortic semilunar valve
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Which of these conduction sequences through the heart is correct?
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SA node, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
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An atherosclerotic blockage in the circumflex artery would result in decreased (or lack of) blood flow to the ________
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left atrium and posterior part of the left ventricle
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A physician determines that the apex of a patient's heart lies at the costal cartilage of the fourth rib two fingers' breadth to the right of the sternum. What can the physician immediately determine about the patient's heart?
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The heart is displaced superiorly and to the right.
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Irregular ridges of muscle called trabeculae carneae are located within the walls of the__________
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ventricles
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What is the function of the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves?
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preventing eversion of the valves into the atria
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Heartbeat stage when the valve is closed
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The atrioventricular valves close during ventricular contraction to prevent the flow of blood back into the atria.
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In common usage, the terms "systole" and "diastole" refer to __________, respectively.
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ventricular contraction and ventricular filling
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Branches of the vagus nerve __________.
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supply parasympathetic innervation to the heart, which slows the heart rate
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Why is the only path of conduction for impulse transmission from the atria to the ventricles through the AV node and AV bundle?
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The atria and ventricles are insulated from each other by the fibrous skeleton of the heart.
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The heart chamber that pumps oxygenated blood around the systemic circuit is the
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left ventricle
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The semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the ____
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ventricles
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Which vessel carries oxygenated blood?
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pulmonary vein
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Which structure anchors the chordae tendinae of the atrioventricular valves?
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The papillary muscles are extensions from the ventricular wall that connect to the chordae tendinae. Upon ventricular contraction, the papillary muscles contract to prevent the atrioventricular valves from everting into the atria.
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Which layer of the heart wall is visceral pericardium?
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epicardium
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Threadlike structures of the endocardium that prevent prolapse of the atrioventricular valves.
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chordae tendineae
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The pericardial cavity lies between
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the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium
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The inner endothelial layer that lines the heart is the
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endocardium.
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The right ventricle pumps blood into which vessel?
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the pulmonary trunk
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A drop of blood returning to the heart from the head region would enter the heart through which vessel?
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the superior vena cava
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The epicardium is the same as the
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visceral layer of serous pericardium.
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Of the three layers of the heart wall, the layer that contains the cardiac muscle is the
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myocardium.
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Which vessels drain into the right atrium?
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superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus
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The heart valve at the junction of the right atrium and right ventricle is the__________ valve.
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tricuspid
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If the beating heart makes a "lub-dup" sound, the "dup" sound is caused by
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vibrations that result from the semilunar valves slamming shut.
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Blood moves from the left ventricle into what vessel?
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ascending aorta
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Blood flows from the pulmonary arteries, directly to the__________ .
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lungs
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The heart chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.
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left atrium
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The heart chamber that receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus.
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right atrium
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Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the
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left atrium
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Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart and enters the
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right atrium
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During left ventricular systole, blood exits the heart to enter the
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aorta
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Oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium through two right and two left pulmonary veins.
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true
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The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall so that it can
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pump blood with greater pressure.
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__________ are wide, leaky capillaries that occur in regions where there is movement of large materials, such as proteins or cells, between blood and tissue.
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sinusoids
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Which vessels anastomose to form a collateral circulatory route in the arm?
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anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
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The gaps of unjoined membrane through which small molecules exit and enter capillaries are called __________.
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intercellular clefts
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Vasa vasorum __________.
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are small vessels within the tunica externa of large arteries and veins
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Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.
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precapillary sphincter
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Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow passage of fluid and solutes through "windows" in the endothelium.
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fenestrated capillaries
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Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?
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tunica media
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Fenestrated capillaries
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have pores in their walls.
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The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of
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an erythrocyte
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Site-specific functions of capillaries include __________.
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receiving digested nutrients in the small intestine exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs transporting hormones from endocrine glands removal of nitrogenous wastes from the kidneys
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What is the function of valves in veins? What is the function of valves in veins?
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They counteract low venous pressure, and prevent backflow of blood away from the heart.
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Continuous capillaries __________.
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are found in most organs of the body, such as skeletal muscles, skin, and the CNS
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Veins entering the right atrium include which of the following?
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superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus
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The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
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hepatic portal circulation.