Sociology, Chapter 11

19 July 2023
4.4 (67 reviews)
50 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (46)
question
Which of the following terms refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?
answer
gender roles
question
Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called
answer
homophobia
question
Which of the following play an important part in gender-role socialization in the U.S.?
answer
all of these (the mass media, religious institutions, educational institutions)
question
The belief that men play a variety of gender roles, including a nurturing-caring role and an effeminate-gay role, in addition to their traditional gender role of dominating women, is called
answer
multiple masculinities
question
Which of the following terms is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions?
answer
instrumentality
question
Which of the following terms is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family?
answer
expressiveness
question
Although it does not explicitly endorse traditional gender roles, which sociological perspective implies that dividing tasks between spouses is beneficial for the family unit?
answer
functionalist perspective
question
Which perspective suggests that men may originally have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically, but in contemporary societies such considerations are not so important?
answer
conflict perspective
question
Conflict theorists would view gender differences as
answer
a reflection of the subjugation of one group, such as women, by another group, such as men.
question
Using an analogy to Marx's analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists would argue that women are in a position comparable to that of the
answer
proletariat
question
Which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most?
answer
conflict perspective
question
Who argued that women's subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization?
answer
Friedrich Engels
question
Educators are concerned about the reasons girls and young women are affected by the verbal dominance of males in classroom settings. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to address this issue?
answer
interactionist perspective
question
Which term refers to the convergence of social forces that contributes to the subordinate status of poor non-White women?
answer
matrix of domination
question
Which of the following would be included in the matrix of domination?
answer
all of these (gender, race, social class)
question
The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as
answer
sexism
question
Which of the following terms is used to refer to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of a society?
answer
institutional discrimination
question
A gym buys uniforms for its employees. All of the uniforms are in a men's large, and the gym hires only people who will comfortably fit into the uniforms. As a result of this policy, the gym does not hire any women. This would be an example of
answer
institutional discrimination.
question
An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity, is called
answer
the glass ceiling
question
Women earn what percent of every dollar a man earns?
answer
80 percent
question
Though male nurses, grade school teachers, and librarians may experience some scorn in the larger society, within the position
answer
they more encouraged to become administrators
question
Which of the following terms refers to an advantage that men have when employed in female-dominated occupations?
answer
glass escalator
question
The "second shift," which refers to the double burden borne by many womenโ€”work outside the home followed by child care and houseworkโ€”was the subject of analysis by
answer
Arlie Hochschild
question
Which of the following illustrates Arlie Hochschild's concept of the "second shift"?
answer
A woman works from 9 to 5 as a nurse and then has a second job as a waitress at a local diner. A man has a career as an accountant; when he gets home, he cleans the apartment and makes dinner for his wife, himself, and their children. A woman has a career as a stockbroker, and she is also responsible for maintaining the apartment, doing the shopping, and cooking for herself and her husband. all of these
question
The belief in social, economic, and political equality for women is referred to as
answer
feminism
question
In what year did women win the right to vote in national elections?
answer
1920
question
The overwhelming majority of people begin with a definite sex and quickly receive societal messages about how to behave.
answer
True
question
Most people do not display strictly "masculine" or "feminine" qualities all the time.
answer
True
question
We socially construct our behavior so that male-female differences are either created or exaggerated.
answer
true
question
A conflict theorist argues that men's work is uniformly valued, while women's work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued.
answer
True
question
Sociologist Michelle Budig suggested that women are more advantaged when working in male occupations because of the existence of the glass ceiling.
answer
False
question
Taking into account age, education, marital status, children, occupational specialization, work experience, and hours worked in a year reduced the pay gap between men and women by only 3 cents.
answer
True
question
Which of the following would not be considered a violation of traditional gender roles by a female?
answer
applying to baby-sit
question
Research on children's books published in the U.S. in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s indicates that
answer
female characters were portrayed as passive and in need of strong males
question
What is the name of the federal policy that mandates gender equity in education in federally funded schools?
answer
Title IX
question
Which of the following would be an example of a man redoing traditional gender?
answer
organizing a birthday lunch at work
question
30 percent of U.S. couples share most of the housework while 25 percent in Great Britain do. What percent share the housework in Japanese households?
answer
4 percent
question
When did the second wave of feminism emerge and come into full force?
answer
both the 1960s and the 1970s
question
57 percent of women considered themselves feminists in 1987. What percent considered themselves feminists in 2001?
answer
25 percent
question
A small body of scholarship suggests that traditional gender roles may be disadvantageous to men in that
answer
all of these (in the 1980s, girls were more likely to go to college than boys. by 2006, women accounted for over 57 percent of college students nationwide. in 2002, more women than men in the U.S. earned a doctoral degree.)
question
Which sociologist argued that to function most effectively, the family requires adults who specialize in particular roles?
answer
both Robert Bales and Talcott Parsons
question
According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by
answer
Women
question
Which of the following statements about the feminist movement is true?
answer
There was no feminist movement in the U.S. until the 1980s. Among the most important early critiques of women's position in society and culture was John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women (originally published in 1869). Modern feminist theory is based on the interactionist perspective. Friedrich Engels argued that the rise of industrialization benefited women.
question
Some radical feminist theorists view the oppression of women in male-dominated societies as
answer
inevitable.
question
Although male dominance in cross-sex conversations is an example of a microlevel analysis, it is also a reflection of macrolevel relationships. Which sociological perspective would focus on the macrolevel forces that influence these male-female conversations?
answer
both the functionalist and conflict perspectives
question
Which of the following is true regarding men in our society run by male-dominated institutions?
answer
all of these (*Men have higher reported rates of certain types of mental illness. *Men have a greater likelihood of death due to heart attack. *Men feel intense competitive stress from pressure to succeed at work.)
question
Which of the following is true regarding the treatment of women in many different nations?
answer
all of these (denied pay equal to men sexually harassed in the workplace fired from jobs because they are pregnant)
question
Sociologist Michelle Budig discovered that
answer
all of these (men are uniformly advantaged in female occupations. in certain occupations, men are more likely than women to be encouraged to become administrators. the glass ceiling does not exist for men who are employed in female-dominated occupations.)
question
In a year, Arlie Hochschild concluded women work how much more time compared to men due to the notion of second shift?
answer
7 more hours 7 more days 2 more weeks extra month of 24-hour days
question
Worldwide, women hold about 10 percent of corporate managerial positions.
answer
False actually 1%