# Problem Solving 90%

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question
Summarize the six steps of the problem solving process.
The first step of the problem solving process is to identify and define the problem. The second step, which is to analyze the problem, involves gathering information, sorting through relevant and irrelevant information, and evaluating the source of the problem by asking the Five W's: who, what, where, when, and why. The third step is to generate a broad range of solutions by using the brainstorming process. The fourth step, which is to select and plan the solution, involves evaluating each solution, eliminating all the solutions until one remains, and creating a plan of action for the solution. The fifth step of the problem solving process is to implement the solution. Last but not least, one should evaluate and monitor the solution's progress. Responses may vary but should include some or all of the following information: The first step of the problem solving process is to identify and define the problem. The second step, which is to analyze the problem, involves gathering information, sorting through relevant and irrelevant information, and evaluating the source of the problem by asking the Five W's: who, what, where, when, and why. The third step is to generate a broad range of solutions by using the brainstorming process. The fourth step, which is to select and plan the solution, involves evaluating each solution, eliminating all the solutions until one remains, and creating a plan of action for the solution. The fifth step of the problem solving process is to implement the solution. Last but not least, one should evaluate and monitor the solution's progress.
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When individuals attempt to use old strategies that do not work when solving new problems, they are __________. focusing on irrelevant information inferring unnecessary constraints experiencing functional fixedness experiencing mental set
experiencing mental set
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Reproductive thinking produces solutions that are novel and creative. t/f?
false
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John was asked to solve a series of six math problems. He was able to solve the first five problems using a specific sequence of operations. John got stuck on the sixth problem because the solution he used before did not work. John is most likely experiencing __________. A. mental set B. functional fixedness C. divergent thinking D. undirected thinking
a
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Evaluating the solution is the last step of the problem solving process. t/f?
true
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Describe the difference in using an algorithm and a heuristic to solve a problem.
When an individual uses an algorithm to solve a problem, they are using a step-by-step procedure that assists them in attempting all possible alternatives for a solution. When an individual is using a heuristic to solve a problem, they are using a guiding principle or rule that assists them in disregarding some solutions while using other alternatives.
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Adults are less affected by functional fixedness than younger children. t/f?
false
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Briefly describe the three basic categories Jim Greeno created to classify problems.
Greeno classified problems into problems of inducing structure, problems of arrangement, and problems of transformation. Problems of inducing structure requires individuals to discover the relationship between various things relating to numbers, words, symbols, or ideas. Problems of arrangement requires individuals to arrange a problem in a specific way so a solution is obtained. Problems of transformation requires an individual to work out a problem through a sequence of steps.
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Which problem solving strategy looks at every possible alternative and could take a very long time? A. hill climbing B. algorithm C. trial and error D. working backwards
b
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Describe the difference between divergent and convergent thinking, and explain which one is involved in creativity.
Convergent thinking narrows down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer. Divergent thinking expands the number of alternatives by generating several possible solutions. Many theorists believe that creativity lies in divergent thinking and not convergent thinking.
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When someone says the word "jewelry," the concept includes bracelets, necklaces, earrings, and pins. t/f?
true?
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Convergent thinking utilizes creativity to generate possible solutions. t/f?
false?
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Individuals who have difficulty using a tool for anything other than its proper use may have difficulty solving a problem due to __________. A. experiencing mental set B. imposing unnecessary constraints C. experiencing functional fixedness D. focusing on irrelevant information
c?
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What should one do after the solution has been implemented? A. Monitor the solution's progress and make corrective adjustments if needed. B. Analyze and evaluate the solution's success by asking the Five W questions. C. Create a plan of action, detailing how the solution should be followed. D. Use the brainstorming process to create new and innovative solutions.
a?
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Which type of thinking uses creativity and yields solutions that are original and creative? A. directed B. undirected C. reproductive D. productive
d?
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In which step of the problem solving process should you write a concise statement about the problem? A. analyzing the problem B. selecting and planning the solution C. implementing the solution D. identifying and defining the problem
d?
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Solving a problem often depends on how an individual represents a problem. t/f?