Drug Abuse Final 1

25 July 2022
4.7 (114 reviews)
184 test answers
question
In 2008, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?
answer
23._%
question
Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit-types of drugs?
answer
Puerto Ricans
question
Which of the two popular views best reflect the long established relationship between drug use and crime?
answer
Both A &B A. Criminal behavior develops as a mean to support addiction B. criminality is inherently linked to the personality of the user and occurs independently from drug use
question
The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is __________.
answer
nicotine
question
THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in __________.
answer
marijuana
question
Which of the following is not found in Erich Goode's list of drug use types?
answer
illegal recreational
question
The type of crime committed that is often related to drug use involves __________.
answer
theft
question
__________ generally focus on using other people's drug supplies without maintaining a supply of their own and often waver between the characteristics of chronic types of drug users and experimenter types.
answer
Floaters/chippers
question
What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?
answer
65.6%
question
__________ are known to view their drug use as necessary in order to have fun and they often use drugs in order to escape and postpone personal problems, and relieve stress and anxieties.
answer
Compulsive Users
question
Common communicable diseases that spread through contaminated needle sharing include(s) __________.
answer
HIV, hepatitis
question
Which of the following is not a common test for drug use?
answer
Pupil response test
question
According to Chapter 1, the principal social psychological factor in determining the presence of an individual's drug abuse is __________.
answer
Motivation
question
The industrial category with the lowest rates of illicit drug use is found among ____________ workers.
answer
Utilities,educational services,public administration
question
__________ drugs refer to types of drugs that lead to the use of other more addictive types of drugs.
answer
Gateway
question
The drug used to increase muscle mass but whose side effects include heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, septic shock, impotence, genital atrophy, and mood swings is __________.
answer
Anabolic steroids
question
The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms is __________.
answer
Dependency
question
According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.
answer
Legal recreational
question
Which of the following is not classified as a narcotic drug?
answer
coldone
question
Substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perception are pharmacologically known as __________.
answer
psychoactive drugs
question
A person can become infected with the HIV virus in all but the following manner(s) __________.
answer
Saliva in deep kissing
question
The belief that attitudes about drug use develop from the values and attitudes of other drug users, the norms in the community, subcultures, peer groups, families, and personal experience is known as __________.
answer
Cultural factors
question
__________ is characterized by: excessive use, constant preoccupation with the availability and supply of the drug, refusal to admit excessive use, and reliance on the drug.
answer
Initial Drug Abuse
question
__________ relationships are characterized as a group of individuals sharing a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity and the members are emotionally bonded.
answer
Primary social
question
__________ refer to the chemical messengers released by the neurons for communicating with other cells.
answer
Neurotransmitters
question
Bejerot's theory, specifically known as __________ theory assumes it is biologically normal to continue a stimulus perceived as pleasurable.
answer
Addiction to pleasure
question
__________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior
answer
Differential
question
Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?
answer
only A&C A. amounts of exposure to drug using peers B. availability of drugs in the community C. age of initial use
question
Theories of addiction that deal with mental or emotional states, often associated with or exacerbated by social or environmental factors, are known as __________ theories.
answer
psychological
question
The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as __________
answer
introversion
question
The prevailing concept or model of addiction in the United States is the __________.
answer
disease model
question
The view that alcoholism is a __________ dates back to 200 years ago
answer
sickness
question
Types of individuals specifically termed __________ seekers continually seek new or novel thrills in their experiences.
answer
sensation
question
It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
answer
exhausts
question
__________ refers to a theoretical explanation that places emphasis on how an individual learns patterns of behavior from the attitudes of others, society, and peers.
answer
Social learning theory
question
It is believed that most drugs with abuse potential enhance pleasure centers by causing the release of __________.
answer
dopamine
question
__________ status refers to the primary status position one has in the eyes of others.
answer
Master
question
One's parents would represent a(n) __________ relationship.
answer
primary
question
Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?
answer
misperception of peer norms
question
A change in personality resulting from marijuana use, characterized by a lack of motivation has been termed by some drug theorists as __________.
answer
amotivational syndrome
question
Explanations of addiction in terms of genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns are termed __________.
answer
genetic and biophysiological theories
question
__________ in ten drug users work full time.
answer
Seven
question
Which of the following is not one of the phases of addiction?
answer
A. maintenance B. experimentation C. escalation D. ex- addict E. relapsing (is correct)
question
Because of its similarities to mental illness, the American Psychiatric Association has classified severe drug dependence as a __________.
answer
from of psychiatric disorder
question
__________ can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.
answer
(All of the above) other drugs, fatigue or illness , gender
question
An adaptation to pain and avoidance of reality is called __________.
answer
" double wall" of encapsulation
question
Which of the following most often occur(s) with extensive use of drugs?
answer
(all of above) legal defense costs, unlawful behavior, a violation of school policies
question
In contrast to the primary group, __________ relationships involve mostly segmented relationships that are role specific.
answer
secondary
question
_________ drugs have high abuse potential and are not approved in the United States for medical purposes.
answer
Schedule 1
question
__________ aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.
answer
Inoculation strategy
question
__________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.
answer
Schedule 11
question
If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription
answer
(all the above) not safe for self-medicating because its toxicity new compound not been shown to be completely safe the drug is habit forming
question
The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.
answer
food, drug,and cosmetics act of 1938
question
The __________ allows companies to receive tax advantages if they develop drugs that are designed to treat rare diseases and hence are not very profitable
answer
orphan drug law
question
Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug?
answer
phase 11
question
With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.
answer
pure food and drug act of 1906
question
Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?
answer
preclinical development , requesting an IND, filling an NDA
question
__________ attempts to decrease individuals' tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.
answer
Demand reduction strategy
question
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?
answer
a pharmaceutical company marketed an antibiotic dissolved in the toxic solvent ,diethyleneglycol
question
The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
answer
manufactures to indicate the amt of addicting substances found in each drug product
question
The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
answer
Harrison Act
question
An over-the-counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.
answer
category
question
__________ is from the Greek words for flippers, or "seal-shaped limbs."
answer
phocomelia
question
The __________ established the criteria for determining whether a drug should be classified as prescription or nonprescription.
answer
Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951
question
What drug was used in Europe as a sedative for pregnant women?
answer
thalidomide
question
Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of __________.
answer
interdiction
question
Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug?
answer
phase 1
question
The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.
answer
comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act
question
The ______ policy of the FDA allows it to review prescription drugs and evaluate their suitability as OTC products.
answer
Switching
question
True or false? The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness
answer
True
question
True or false? The Pure Food and Drug Act did not allow the government to stop the distribution of dangerous preparations
answer
True
question
Hormones that are able to convert nutrients into tissue mass are called __________.
answer
anabolic steroids
question
Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?
answer
acetylcholine dopamine androgen-(is correct ) serotonin
question
Which of the following is not part of the nervous system?
answer
limbic system pancreas-(is correct) hypothalamus basil ganglia
question
Which of the following describes a neuronal axon?
answer
a small fiber that conducts electric-like impulses from dendrites to terminal
question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is classified as a catecholamine?
answer
dopamine
question
The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?
answer
the blood vessels- (is correct) the neurons the brain the spinal cord
question
Approximately how many neurons are in the brain?
answer
100 billion
question
Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
answer
acetylcholine
question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
answer
dopmine
question
Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
answer
association areas
question
Which of the following is least likely to be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids?
answer
disrupted sleep pattern growth of muscle mass headaches sedation & mellowing of temper- (is correct)
question
Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?
answer
insula
question
A class of biochemical compounds including norepinephrine and dopamine is called __________.
answer
catecholamines
question
Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.
answer
anticholinergic
question
__________ is the maintenance of internal stability.
answer
Homeostasis
question
Anabolic steroids have been classified in which of the following schedules of the Controlled Substance Act?
answer
III
question
Select the incorrect statement
answer
for the most part, drugs of abuse decrease the activity of dopamine in the limbic system
question
Select the incorrect statement concerning the adrenal glands.
answer
adrenaline is classified as an anabolic steroid
question
A minute gap between the neuron and target cell across which neurotransmitters travel is called a __________.
answer
synaptic cleft
question
Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?
answer
slowed heart rate
question
__________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
answer
Neurons
question
Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?
answer
hypothalamus
question
What part of the brain controls complex behaviors, processes information, and helps make decisions?
answer
frontal cortex
question
How much does the average brain weigh?
answer
3 pounds
question
The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called __________.
answer
withdrawal
question
Chemical alteration of drugs by body processes is called __________.
answer
metabolism
question
Alcohol interacts with which of the following?
answer
opioid analgesics antihistamines barbiturates ALL THE ABOVE
question
Pharmacologists refer to a perfect drug as a __________.
answer
magic bullet
question
In determining how drugs affect the body, pharmacologists need to be concerned with __________.
answer
administration bio transformation distribution ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
__________ is a form of withdrawal or a paradoxical effect that occurs when a drug has been eliminated from the body of a person who has become physically dependent.
answer
Rebound effect
question
Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?
answer
additive
question
The study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body is called __________.
answer
pharmacokinetics
question
Which of the following best describes the concept "margin of safety"?
answer
It is a comparison of dosage for therapeutic versus toxic effects
question
__________ refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.
answer
Tolerance
question
The capillary membranes that filter substances moving between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain are called the __________.
answer
blood-brain barrier
question
__________ is the ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another.
answer
synergism
question
________ is the difference between the dose of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect versus the dose necessary to cause a toxic effect.
answer
margin of safety
question
The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.
answer
toxicity
question
The principal forms of drug administration include which of the following?
answer
injection oral ingestion inhalation ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
You have discovered that you require at least 300 mg of aspirin to get any pain relief. Which of the following terms best describes this phenomenon?
answer
threshold dose
question
Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
answer
The presence of one drug enhances the effect of another drug
question
The approach to detoxifying a person dependent on drugs depends on __________.
answer
the nature of the drug the severity of dependence the duration of action of the drug ALL THE ABOVE
question
Barbiturates likely cause their depressant effects by enhancing which transmitter?
answer
GABA
question
A "Mickey Finn" was used to make a person temporarily unconscious and contained __________.
answer
chloral hydrate
question
Frequent use of benzodiazepines can lead to __________.
answer
withdrawal dependence tolerance ALL THE ABOVE
question
Women's reaction to barbiturates is most likely to be different than men's because of differences in __________.
answer
body-fat ratio
question
Benzodiazepines are classified in which of the following Schedules?
answer
IV
question
Phenobarbital is classified in which of the following Schedules?
answer
IV
question
Approximately __________ benzodiazepine compounds are currently available in the United States.
answer
15
question
Barbituric acid was synthesized in 1864 by __________.
answer
A. Bayer
question
__________, an ultrashort-acting barbiturate, is often used as anesthesia for minor surgery.
answer
pentothal
question
Which of the following categories of depressants is named after a Greek god?
answer
hypnotics
question
For most of the 1970s, __________ was the top-selling prescription drug.
answer
valium
question
Drugs often used to relieve symptoms of allergies and motion sickness are called __________.
answer
antihistamines
question
A CNS depressant can __________.
answer
relieve anxiety be used as a sleep aid cause severe physical dependence ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
Depressants are often classified according to __________.
answer
the degree the decrease CNS activity
question
Which of the following terms refers to drugs used to relieve anxiety?
answer
anxiolytic
question
Benzodiazepines are relatively safe when used for ________
answer
short periods
question
Phenobarbital is often used to treat which of the following conditions?
answer
seizures
question
Which is the manner whereby the body loses fluids through alcohol's diuretic action?
answer
urine
question
The distillation device or "still" was developed by the __________.
answer
Arabs
question
__________ is the process of making alcohol.
answer
fermentation
question
__________ is the process by which alcohol concentrations are increased.
answer
distillation
question
One hundred ten proof alcohol has a __________ alcohol content.
answer
55%
question
Alcoholic beverages contain large amounts of __________.
answer
carbohydrates
question
As a rule, it takes __________ the number of hours as the number of drinks consumed to sober up completely.
answer
equal
question
__________ is used as an antifreeze whereas __________ is used as an antiseptic.
answer
ethylene glycol; isopropyl alcohol
question
The concentration of alcohol in wine coolers is usually about __________
answer
10-12%
question
The "hair of the dog" method for treating a hangover consists of __________.
answer
taking a drink of the alcohol that caused the hangover
question
A glass of champagne has a faster onset of action than a glass of wine that contains the same amount of alcohol because __________.
answer
carbonation
question
Liver disorders are responsible for __________ of the deaths associated with alcoholism.
answer
10-15%
question
The lethal blood alcohol level is __________.
answer
between 0.4% and .6%
question
The consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages is _____
answer
ethanol
question
Drinks stronger than __________ proof may actually inhibit alcohol absorption.
answer
100
question
True or false? Alcohol at 70% concentration is actually an effective bactericide, but not recommended for use on open wounds.
answer
true
question
_________-income drinkers prefer beer, whereas __________-income drinkers prefer wine.
answer
lower; higher
question
The slave trade triangle specifically refers to the __________.
answer
trading of rum for slaves, then slaves for molasses, and then returning to New England to make rum
question
The highest economic cost for the nation regarding alcohol abuse is __________.
answer
lost productivity
question
In a marriage, alcohol is a primary predictor of __________.
answer
marital violence
question
Identify the culture(s) that is/are associated with binge drinking.
answer
A. Polish & Finnish C. Russian BOTH A & C
question
In the United States, most alcohol drinkers drink __________.
answer
beer
question
The family therapy system developed by Jacques Moreno in which significant interpersonal issues are enacted in a focused setting using dramatic techniques is known as __________.
answer
psychodrama
question
_________ alcoholics live in a culture that views drinking alcohol as normal and these types of alcoholics spend most of the day continuously sipping, without control and are continuously "buzzed" throughout the day.
answer
Delta
question
Which of the following occurred because of Prohibition?
answer
A. Alcohol diminished the first 2 or 3 yrs B. Enforcement of law was thwarted by corrupt law enforcement officials C. Immigrants perceived prohibition as unnecessary and infringement of their cultural beliefs and practices >D. ALL THE ABOVE
question
Individuals are classified as __________ drinkers if they consume five or more drinks on one occasion, or consume alcohol on five or more days during a given 30-day period.
answer
heavy
question
A(n) __________ is the most likely to be a binge drinker in college.
answer
American Indian/Alaskan Native male living on campus
question
The period of heaviest drinking in America began during __________ term in office (1800-1808).
answer
Jefferson's
question
Which of the following would have most likely been a promoter of the temperance movement?
answer
African American church member
question
With regard to women metabolizing alcohol differently than men, all of the following are significant factors except for __________.
answer
the presence of estrogen and age
question
A college student who attends a party and binges uncontrollably for the night, but then abstains from alcohol for three weeks until the next party where binging reoccurs is classified by Jellinek as a(n) __________ alcoholic.
answer
epsilon
question
Gamma alcoholism contains the characteristics of __________.
answer
being a true disease and progressing from a psychological to physical dependence
question
Regarding alcohol use, a more important factor that is most likely to exert most influence on a person's view is __________.
answer
socialization (upbringing)
question
Nearly __________ of all college students are binge drinkers.
answer
half
question
_________ have the highest rate of current use (non-binge) alcohol consumption.
answer
whites
question
Yearly, alcohol is responsible for __________ deaths (people dying because of alcohol-related abuse).
answer
over 100,000
question
The __________ Amendment was responsible for prohibition.
answer
18th
question
Of the 64% who report drinking alcohol in the U.S., men prefer to drink __________, while women prefer __________.
answer
wine
question
How long does it take for withdrawals to begin once an addict stops using heroin?
answer
4-12 hrs
question
Codeine is most likely to be used to relieve __________.
answer
coughing
question
The narcotics mimic which of the following neurotransmitters?
answer
endorphins
question
Talwin is the trade name for _______
answer
Pentazocine
question
Which of the following is the principal therapeutic use of dextromethorphan?
answer
cough relief
question
Which of the following is the generic name for Demerol?
answer
meperidine
question
Which of the following transmitters likely contributes to the immediate reward caused by narcotic use?
answer
dopamine
question
Which of the following is the most common clinical use of narcotics today?
answer
pain relief
question
Which of the following is a clinical use for the drug naloxone?
answer
treatment of the person who has overdosed on narcotics
question
Codeine is a (n) __________.
answer
anti tussive
question
The synthesis of designer versions of what drug results in the byproduct MPTP?
answer
meperdine
question
Which of the following is called "speedballing"?
answer
combining heroin with cocaine
question
Mainlining refers to _________
answer
intravenous injection
question
Which of the following was the reason for the "opium wars" between China and Great Britain?
answer
the British attacked the Chinese because of the Chinese opposition to the British opium trade in China
question
Clonidine is used to treat which of the following?
answer
opiate withdrawal
question
Methadone is effective for about __________.
answer
24-36
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question
In 2008, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?
answer
23._%
question
Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit-types of drugs?
answer
Puerto Ricans
question
Which of the two popular views best reflect the long established relationship between drug use and crime?
answer
Both A &B A. Criminal behavior develops as a mean to support addiction B. criminality is inherently linked to the personality of the user and occurs independently from drug use
question
The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is __________.
answer
nicotine
question
THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in __________.
answer
marijuana
question
Which of the following is not found in Erich Goode's list of drug use types?
answer
illegal recreational
question
The type of crime committed that is often related to drug use involves __________.
answer
theft
question
__________ generally focus on using other people's drug supplies without maintaining a supply of their own and often waver between the characteristics of chronic types of drug users and experimenter types.
answer
Floaters/chippers
question
What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?
answer
65.6%
question
__________ are known to view their drug use as necessary in order to have fun and they often use drugs in order to escape and postpone personal problems, and relieve stress and anxieties.
answer
Compulsive Users
question
Common communicable diseases that spread through contaminated needle sharing include(s) __________.
answer
HIV, hepatitis
question
Which of the following is not a common test for drug use?
answer
Pupil response test
question
According to Chapter 1, the principal social psychological factor in determining the presence of an individual's drug abuse is __________.
answer
Motivation
question
The industrial category with the lowest rates of illicit drug use is found among ____________ workers.
answer
Utilities,educational services,public administration
question
__________ drugs refer to types of drugs that lead to the use of other more addictive types of drugs.
answer
Gateway
question
The drug used to increase muscle mass but whose side effects include heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, septic shock, impotence, genital atrophy, and mood swings is __________.
answer
Anabolic steroids
question
The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms is __________.
answer
Dependency
question
According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.
answer
Legal recreational
question
Which of the following is not classified as a narcotic drug?
answer
coldone
question
Substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perception are pharmacologically known as __________.
answer
psychoactive drugs
question
A person can become infected with the HIV virus in all but the following manner(s) __________.
answer
Saliva in deep kissing
question
The belief that attitudes about drug use develop from the values and attitudes of other drug users, the norms in the community, subcultures, peer groups, families, and personal experience is known as __________.
answer
Cultural factors
question
__________ is characterized by: excessive use, constant preoccupation with the availability and supply of the drug, refusal to admit excessive use, and reliance on the drug.
answer
Initial Drug Abuse
question
__________ relationships are characterized as a group of individuals sharing a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity and the members are emotionally bonded.
answer
Primary social
question
__________ refer to the chemical messengers released by the neurons for communicating with other cells.
answer
Neurotransmitters
question
Bejerot's theory, specifically known as __________ theory assumes it is biologically normal to continue a stimulus perceived as pleasurable.
answer
Addiction to pleasure
question
__________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior
answer
Differential
question
Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?
answer
only A&C A. amounts of exposure to drug using peers B. availability of drugs in the community C. age of initial use
question
Theories of addiction that deal with mental or emotional states, often associated with or exacerbated by social or environmental factors, are known as __________ theories.
answer
psychological
question
The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as __________
answer
introversion
question
The prevailing concept or model of addiction in the United States is the __________.
answer
disease model
question
The view that alcoholism is a __________ dates back to 200 years ago
answer
sickness
question
Types of individuals specifically termed __________ seekers continually seek new or novel thrills in their experiences.
answer
sensation
question
It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
answer
exhausts
question
__________ refers to a theoretical explanation that places emphasis on how an individual learns patterns of behavior from the attitudes of others, society, and peers.
answer
Social learning theory
question
It is believed that most drugs with abuse potential enhance pleasure centers by causing the release of __________.
answer
dopamine
question
__________ status refers to the primary status position one has in the eyes of others.
answer
Master
question
One's parents would represent a(n) __________ relationship.
answer
primary
question
Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?
answer
misperception of peer norms
question
A change in personality resulting from marijuana use, characterized by a lack of motivation has been termed by some drug theorists as __________.
answer
amotivational syndrome
question
Explanations of addiction in terms of genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns are termed __________.
answer
genetic and biophysiological theories
question
__________ in ten drug users work full time.
answer
Seven
question
Which of the following is not one of the phases of addiction?
answer
A. maintenance B. experimentation C. escalation D. ex- addict E. relapsing (is correct)
question
Because of its similarities to mental illness, the American Psychiatric Association has classified severe drug dependence as a __________.
answer
from of psychiatric disorder
question
__________ can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.
answer
(All of the above) other drugs, fatigue or illness , gender
question
An adaptation to pain and avoidance of reality is called __________.
answer
" double wall" of encapsulation
question
Which of the following most often occur(s) with extensive use of drugs?
answer
(all of above) legal defense costs, unlawful behavior, a violation of school policies
question
In contrast to the primary group, __________ relationships involve mostly segmented relationships that are role specific.
answer
secondary
question
_________ drugs have high abuse potential and are not approved in the United States for medical purposes.
answer
Schedule 1
question
__________ aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.
answer
Inoculation strategy
question
__________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.
answer
Schedule 11
question
If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription
answer
(all the above) not safe for self-medicating because its toxicity new compound not been shown to be completely safe the drug is habit forming
question
The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.
answer
food, drug,and cosmetics act of 1938
question
The __________ allows companies to receive tax advantages if they develop drugs that are designed to treat rare diseases and hence are not very profitable
answer
orphan drug law
question
Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug?
answer
phase 11
question
With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.
answer
pure food and drug act of 1906
question
Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?
answer
preclinical development , requesting an IND, filling an NDA
question
__________ attempts to decrease individuals' tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.
answer
Demand reduction strategy
question
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?
answer
a pharmaceutical company marketed an antibiotic dissolved in the toxic solvent ,diethyleneglycol
question
The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
answer
manufactures to indicate the amt of addicting substances found in each drug product
question
The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
answer
Harrison Act
question
An over-the-counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.
answer
category
question
__________ is from the Greek words for flippers, or "seal-shaped limbs."
answer
phocomelia
question
The __________ established the criteria for determining whether a drug should be classified as prescription or nonprescription.
answer
Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951
question
What drug was used in Europe as a sedative for pregnant women?
answer
thalidomide
question
Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of __________.
answer
interdiction
question
Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug?
answer
phase 1
question
The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.
answer
comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act
question
The ______ policy of the FDA allows it to review prescription drugs and evaluate their suitability as OTC products.
answer
Switching
question
True or false? The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness
answer
True
question
True or false? The Pure Food and Drug Act did not allow the government to stop the distribution of dangerous preparations
answer
True
question
Hormones that are able to convert nutrients into tissue mass are called __________.
answer
anabolic steroids
question
Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?
answer
acetylcholine dopamine androgen-(is correct ) serotonin
question
Which of the following is not part of the nervous system?
answer
limbic system pancreas-(is correct) hypothalamus basil ganglia
question
Which of the following describes a neuronal axon?
answer
a small fiber that conducts electric-like impulses from dendrites to terminal
question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is classified as a catecholamine?
answer
dopamine
question
The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?
answer
the blood vessels- (is correct) the neurons the brain the spinal cord
question
Approximately how many neurons are in the brain?
answer
100 billion
question
Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
answer
acetylcholine
question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
answer
dopmine
question
Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
answer
association areas
question
Which of the following is least likely to be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids?
answer
disrupted sleep pattern growth of muscle mass headaches sedation & mellowing of temper- (is correct)
question
Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?
answer
insula
question
A class of biochemical compounds including norepinephrine and dopamine is called __________.
answer
catecholamines
question
Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.
answer
anticholinergic
question
__________ is the maintenance of internal stability.
answer
Homeostasis
question
Anabolic steroids have been classified in which of the following schedules of the Controlled Substance Act?
answer
III
question
Select the incorrect statement
answer
for the most part, drugs of abuse decrease the activity of dopamine in the limbic system
question
Select the incorrect statement concerning the adrenal glands.
answer
adrenaline is classified as an anabolic steroid
question
A minute gap between the neuron and target cell across which neurotransmitters travel is called a __________.
answer
synaptic cleft
question
Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?
answer
slowed heart rate
question
__________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
answer
Neurons
question
Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?
answer
hypothalamus
question
What part of the brain controls complex behaviors, processes information, and helps make decisions?
answer
frontal cortex
question
How much does the average brain weigh?
answer
3 pounds
question
The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called __________.
answer
withdrawal
question
Chemical alteration of drugs by body processes is called __________.
answer
metabolism
question
Alcohol interacts with which of the following?
answer
opioid analgesics antihistamines barbiturates ALL THE ABOVE
question
Pharmacologists refer to a perfect drug as a __________.
answer
magic bullet
question
In determining how drugs affect the body, pharmacologists need to be concerned with __________.
answer
administration bio transformation distribution ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
__________ is a form of withdrawal or a paradoxical effect that occurs when a drug has been eliminated from the body of a person who has become physically dependent.
answer
Rebound effect
question
Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?
answer
additive
question
The study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body is called __________.
answer
pharmacokinetics
question
Which of the following best describes the concept "margin of safety"?
answer
It is a comparison of dosage for therapeutic versus toxic effects
question
__________ refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.
answer
Tolerance
question
The capillary membranes that filter substances moving between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain are called the __________.
answer
blood-brain barrier
question
__________ is the ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another.
answer
synergism
question
________ is the difference between the dose of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect versus the dose necessary to cause a toxic effect.
answer
margin of safety
question
The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.
answer
toxicity
question
The principal forms of drug administration include which of the following?
answer
injection oral ingestion inhalation ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
You have discovered that you require at least 300 mg of aspirin to get any pain relief. Which of the following terms best describes this phenomenon?
answer
threshold dose
question
Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
answer
The presence of one drug enhances the effect of another drug
question
The approach to detoxifying a person dependent on drugs depends on __________.
answer
the nature of the drug the severity of dependence the duration of action of the drug ALL THE ABOVE
question
Barbiturates likely cause their depressant effects by enhancing which transmitter?
answer
GABA
question
A "Mickey Finn" was used to make a person temporarily unconscious and contained __________.
answer
chloral hydrate
question
Frequent use of benzodiazepines can lead to __________.
answer
withdrawal dependence tolerance ALL THE ABOVE
question
Women's reaction to barbiturates is most likely to be different than men's because of differences in __________.
answer
body-fat ratio
question
Benzodiazepines are classified in which of the following Schedules?
answer
IV
question
Phenobarbital is classified in which of the following Schedules?
answer
IV
question
Approximately __________ benzodiazepine compounds are currently available in the United States.
answer
15
question
Barbituric acid was synthesized in 1864 by __________.
answer
A. Bayer
question
__________, an ultrashort-acting barbiturate, is often used as anesthesia for minor surgery.
answer
pentothal
question
Which of the following categories of depressants is named after a Greek god?
answer
hypnotics
question
For most of the 1970s, __________ was the top-selling prescription drug.
answer
valium
question
Drugs often used to relieve symptoms of allergies and motion sickness are called __________.
answer
antihistamines
question
A CNS depressant can __________.
answer
relieve anxiety be used as a sleep aid cause severe physical dependence ALL OF THE ABOVE
question
Depressants are often classified according to __________.
answer
the degree the decrease CNS activity
question
Which of the following terms refers to drugs used to relieve anxiety?
answer
anxiolytic
question
Benzodiazepines are relatively safe when used for ________
answer
short periods
question
Phenobarbital is often used to treat which of the following conditions?
answer
seizures
question
Which is the manner whereby the body loses fluids through alcohol's diuretic action?
answer
urine
question
The distillation device or "still" was developed by the __________.
answer
Arabs
question
__________ is the process of making alcohol.
answer
fermentation
question
__________ is the process by which alcohol concentrations are increased.
answer
distillation
question
One hundred ten proof alcohol has a __________ alcohol content.
answer
55%
question
Alcoholic beverages contain large amounts of __________.
answer
carbohydrates
question
As a rule, it takes __________ the number of hours as the number of drinks consumed to sober up completely.
answer
equal
question
__________ is used as an antifreeze whereas __________ is used as an antiseptic.
answer
ethylene glycol; isopropyl alcohol
question
The concentration of alcohol in wine coolers is usually about __________
answer
10-12%
question
The "hair of the dog" method for treating a hangover consists of __________.
answer
taking a drink of the alcohol that caused the hangover
question
A glass of champagne has a faster onset of action than a glass of wine that contains the same amount of alcohol because __________.
answer
carbonation
question
Liver disorders are responsible for __________ of the deaths associated with alcoholism.
answer
10-15%
question
The lethal blood alcohol level is __________.
answer
between 0.4% and .6%
question
The consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages is _____
answer
ethanol
question
Drinks stronger than __________ proof may actually inhibit alcohol absorption.
answer
100
question
True or false? Alcohol at 70% concentration is actually an effective bactericide, but not recommended for use on open wounds.
answer
true
question
_________-income drinkers prefer beer, whereas __________-income drinkers prefer wine.
answer
lower; higher
question
The slave trade triangle specifically refers to the __________.
answer
trading of rum for slaves, then slaves for molasses, and then returning to New England to make rum
question
The highest economic cost for the nation regarding alcohol abuse is __________.
answer
lost productivity
question
In a marriage, alcohol is a primary predictor of __________.
answer
marital violence
question
Identify the culture(s) that is/are associated with binge drinking.
answer
A. Polish & Finnish C. Russian BOTH A & C
question
In the United States, most alcohol drinkers drink __________.
answer
beer
question
The family therapy system developed by Jacques Moreno in which significant interpersonal issues are enacted in a focused setting using dramatic techniques is known as __________.
answer
psychodrama
question
_________ alcoholics live in a culture that views drinking alcohol as normal and these types of alcoholics spend most of the day continuously sipping, without control and are continuously "buzzed" throughout the day.
answer
Delta
question
Which of the following occurred because of Prohibition?
answer
A. Alcohol diminished the first 2 or 3 yrs B. Enforcement of law was thwarted by corrupt law enforcement officials C. Immigrants perceived prohibition as unnecessary and infringement of their cultural beliefs and practices >D. ALL THE ABOVE
question
Individuals are classified as __________ drinkers if they consume five or more drinks on one occasion, or consume alcohol on five or more days during a given 30-day period.
answer
heavy
question
A(n) __________ is the most likely to be a binge drinker in college.
answer
American Indian/Alaskan Native male living on campus
question
The period of heaviest drinking in America began during __________ term in office (1800-1808).
answer
Jefferson's
question
Which of the following would have most likely been a promoter of the temperance movement?
answer
African American church member
question
With regard to women metabolizing alcohol differently than men, all of the following are significant factors except for __________.
answer
the presence of estrogen and age
question
A college student who attends a party and binges uncontrollably for the night, but then abstains from alcohol for three weeks until the next party where binging reoccurs is classified by Jellinek as a(n) __________ alcoholic.
answer
epsilon
question
Gamma alcoholism contains the characteristics of __________.
answer
being a true disease and progressing from a psychological to physical dependence
question
Regarding alcohol use, a more important factor that is most likely to exert most influence on a person's view is __________.
answer
socialization (upbringing)
question
Nearly __________ of all college students are binge drinkers.
answer
half
question
_________ have the highest rate of current use (non-binge) alcohol consumption.
answer
whites
question
Yearly, alcohol is responsible for __________ deaths (people dying because of alcohol-related abuse).
answer
over 100,000
question
The __________ Amendment was responsible for prohibition.
answer
18th
question
Of the 64% who report drinking alcohol in the U.S., men prefer to drink __________, while women prefer __________.
answer
wine
question
How long does it take for withdrawals to begin once an addict stops using heroin?
answer
4-12 hrs
question
Codeine is most likely to be used to relieve __________.
answer
coughing
question
The narcotics mimic which of the following neurotransmitters?
answer
endorphins
question
Talwin is the trade name for _______
answer
Pentazocine
question
Which of the following is the principal therapeutic use of dextromethorphan?
answer
cough relief
question
Which of the following is the generic name for Demerol?
answer
meperidine
question
Which of the following transmitters likely contributes to the immediate reward caused by narcotic use?
answer
dopamine
question
Which of the following is the most common clinical use of narcotics today?
answer
pain relief
question
Which of the following is a clinical use for the drug naloxone?
answer
treatment of the person who has overdosed on narcotics
question
Codeine is a (n) __________.
answer
anti tussive
question
The synthesis of designer versions of what drug results in the byproduct MPTP?
answer
meperdine
question
Which of the following is called "speedballing"?
answer
combining heroin with cocaine
question
Mainlining refers to _________
answer
intravenous injection
question
Which of the following was the reason for the "opium wars" between China and Great Britain?
answer
the British attacked the Chinese because of the Chinese opposition to the British opium trade in China
question
Clonidine is used to treat which of the following?
answer
opiate withdrawal
question
Methadone is effective for about __________.
answer
24-36