Physiology Chapter 7 (mastering A&P)

24 July 2022
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What distinguishes a hormone from other signaling molecules such as cytokines or paracrine or autocrine signaling molecules?
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Hormones are secreted into the bloodstream
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Which endocrine gland(s) was/were discovered after large numbers of patients undergoing thyroid removal died of problems unrelated to thyroid function?
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parathyroid glands
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Parathyroid secretion is triggered by
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low blood calcium
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Negative feedback inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion because
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target cell responses oppose the original stimulus
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Norepinephrine and epinephrine cause an increase in heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV), which is the amount of blood pumped out during each heartbeat. This effect is enhanced when thyroid hormone (TH) is also present. TH has little effect on HR and SV alone. What is the effect of TH on HR and SV called?
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permissiveness
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A blood sample is found to have low levels of GHRH and excessive levels of GH and IGFs. Where would the pathology be located in this example?
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the anterior pituitary
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How can elevated TSH be involved in hypothyroidism?
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There is a lack of feedback inhibition by thyroid hormone on the anterior pituitary
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Which of the following is NOT a typical way that hormones function?
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Hormones control the size and shape of target cells
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After a hormone has exerted its effects, it typically
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is inactivated or removed from the blood
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A cell's or tissue's response to a hormone primarily depends on the
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cell's receptors and the signal transduction pathway used by the cell
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What determines whether or not a particular cell will respond to a particular hormone?
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The target cell must have a receptor that specifically binds to that hormone
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Steroid hormones are lipophilic. This allows which of the following?
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They bind to intracellular receptors
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Which of the following is NOT a method of hormone action?
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control of electrical signaling pathways
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The ________ of a hormone is an indicator of how long a hormone is active in the body.
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half-life
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The adrenal cortex produces a steroid hormone called ________ that controls Na+ and K+ homeostasis and another steroid hormone called ________ that controls blood glucose levels.
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aldosterone, cortisol
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hypothalamus
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A brain region that contains several collections of neuronal cell bodies that provide a connection between the nervous system and the endocrine system
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infundibulum
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The stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the brain
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posterior pituitary
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An extension of the neural tissue of the brain, sometimes referred to as the neurohypophysis
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anterior pituitary
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A true endocrine gland of epithelial origin, sometimes called the adenohypophysis
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Which loss of function would occur if you were to sever the connection between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary?
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The anterior pituitary would not release hormones in response to trophic hormone stimulation
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How would you classify the type of chemical released by the posterior pituitary (e.g., classic hormone, neurotransmitter, etc.)?
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neurohormone
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Which of the following are released by the posterior pituitary?
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oxytocin & vasopressin
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Where are the neurohormones released by the posterior pituitary produced?
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in the neuronal cell bodies found in the hypothalamus
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Neurohormones are classified as such because __________.
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they are produced by neurons
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The posterior pituitary gland secretes
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ADH (Vasopressin)
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The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is
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ACTH
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The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
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prolactin
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The pituitary hormone that controls hormone synthesis and release from the thyroid gland is
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TSH
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The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and metabolism in many tissues is
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somatotropin
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peptide hormone
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lipophobic molecule that interacts with receptors on cell surface
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posterior pituitary
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storage and release site for oxytocin
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The posterior pituitary gland is also known as the
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neurohypophysis
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The anterior pituitary gland is also known as the
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adenohypophysis
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The sex hormones from the anterior pituitary that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called
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gonadotropins
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The term for any hormone that controls the secretion of another hormone is a
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trophic hormone
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The hormones of the anterior pituitary are controlled by trophic hormones from the
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hypothalamus
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Chemical signals released into the blood by neurons are called
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neurohormones
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Different hormones may interact with each other at a target cell. Which is NOT considered to be a type of hormone interaction?
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transportation in the blood at the same time
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The term for two hormones that have additive effects is
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synergists
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The term that describes the need for one hormone to be present for a second hormone to produce a full effect is called
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permissive
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Two hormones that have opposing effects are called
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antagonists
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Synergism occurs when
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hormones working together produce a larger effect than predicted
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What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?
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adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
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What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?
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control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
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Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?
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GH (growth hormone)
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Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine ("letdown") reflex?
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oxytocin
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Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?
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hypothalamus
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What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?
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negative feedback
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Water-soluble hormones affect target cells by binding to __________.
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plasma membrane receptors
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Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?
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cortisol
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What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?
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activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
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After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?
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acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
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Which hormone's receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?
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thyroid hormone
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What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?
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water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
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Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?
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β receptors
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What does the word "exogenous" mean?
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From outside the body