Neural And Hormonal Systems

25 July 2022
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question
A tiny decision-making device, designed to receive informational input from many other neurons and calculate whether or not to output a response.
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Neuron
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These cells in the nervous system support, nourish, and protect neurons.
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glial
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The neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the body's tissues are:
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motor neurons.
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The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine _____ blood pressure and _____ blood sugar levels.
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raises; raises
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Much like a battery, these generate electricity from chemical events.
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neurons
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The spinal cord is like an information highway that connects the _____ to the brain.
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peripheral nervous system
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If ACh transmission is blocked, we are:
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paralyzed.
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The _____ part of the peripheral nervous system controls the self-regulated action of the internal organs and glands.
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autonomic
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An example of the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems can be seen in our response to danger. The _____ orders the adrenal glands to release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act to provide a surge of energy.
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autonomic nervous system (ANS)
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Santiago Ramón y Cajal referred to _____ as "protoplasmic kisses."
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synaptic gaps
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The parasympathetic nervous system is to _____ as the sympathetic nervous system is to _____.
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energy conservation; energy consumption
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The _____ gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
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pituitary
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Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the _____.
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synaptic gap
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In terms of your heartbeat, digestion, and glandular functioning, your body is a fairly well-oiled machine that works even when you are asleep. This is possible because of your _____nervous system.
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autonomic
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When comparing the endocrine system and the nervous system in terms of speed, it is clear that the endocrine system is the tortoise and the _____ system is the hare.
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nervous
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Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:
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endorphins.
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Given the proportional amounts of the different types of neurons, the type of neuron you would be LEAST likely to worry about if you lost 100,000 of them would be a(n)_____.
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interneuron
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The production and transmission of hormones in the endocrine system is MOST similar to which of the following scenarios?
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You type a text message, which your friend shows to a third party who reacts to it.
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The all-or-none response of a neuron is similar to:
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a light switch that only has two positions: on and off.
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Which of the following does the autonomic nervous system most directly control?
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bladder contractions
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Pete made an instant noodle bowl for dinner. After eating, he has a terrible migraine. Pete may have consumed too much _____, which causes an oversupply of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
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MSG
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Joan was born without functioning ovaries. What do we know?
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She may need sex hormone replacement.
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When a young child starts taking ballet lessons several times a week, the neurons involved in the complex ballet moves will connect with one another to form _____.
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neural networks
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After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turns out that the noise a woman heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of her winter coats. Knowing that, she begins to calm down and her heart stops racing. Clearly her _____ has now been activated.
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parasympathetic nervous system
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You have been asked to give a brief lecture on neurons and action potential to a group of high school students. You use as a model to describe the chemistry-to-electricity process of the action potential and describe it as similar to the way:
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batteries generate electricity.
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If speed were of the essence, which of the following information processing systems would you choose to make simple decisions for you?
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a computer
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You are watching your favorite television program and you see a commercial for a new medication. It states that the medication can alleviate depression. "Since depression is a chemical imbalance, new Venlafaxine extended release can help with mood, sleep, arousal, and alertness by working on the two key neurotransmitters involved in depression." These two neurotransmitters are serotonin and _____.
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norepinephrine
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A neuropsychologist is interested in studying how the approximately 400 trillion synapses of an adult brain are organized into an information-processing system. His research will focus on _____.
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neural networks
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Although a man has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. The man's experience is most indicative of a damaged _____.
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spinal cord
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The production and transmission of _____ in the endocrine system is similar to typing a text message that your friend then shows to a third party who reacts to it.
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hormones
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The "decision" as to whether a neuron fires or not can be described as most similar to:
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the majority rules.
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Marlee has just been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). As the disease progresses, communication to some of her muscles may slow down and she could lose some muscle control as a result of the degeneration of the:
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myelin sheath.
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In terms of their length of effect, _____ messages last far longer than neural messages.
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endocrine
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The endocrine system consists of:
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glands.
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The pituitary gland is located in the:
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brain.
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The peripheral nervous system includes _____, which carry/carries messages from the body to the central nervous system.
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sensory neurons
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Motor and sensory neurons together comprise the _____.
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peripheral nervous system
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In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system raises glucose (blood sugar) levels and _____ the pupils of the eyes.
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dilates
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The peripheral nervous system consists of _____ and motor neurons.
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sensory
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In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system _____ glucose (blood sugar) levels and dilates the pupils of the eyes.
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raises
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Endocrine glands that play an important role in helping us respond to stress are the:
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adrenal glands.
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The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are:
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interneurons.
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Bladder contractions are controlled by the _____.
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autonomic nervous system
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The _____ gland is located in the brain.
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pituitary
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The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as _____.
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neural networks
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The neurons that carry information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord are called _____.
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sensory neurons
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Bundles of axons which connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called _____.
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nerves
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The endocrine system is made up of _____ that secrete _____.
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glands; hormones.
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_____ is a chemical messenger that is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone.
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Norepinephrine
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In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system _____ glucose (blood sugar) levels and _____ the pupils of the eyes.
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raises; dilates
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In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating _____.
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growth
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This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the self-regulated action of the internal organs and glands.
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autonomic
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Matthew is paralyzed. It is likely his _____ transmission is blocked.
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ACh
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Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is most directly associated with the degeneration of:
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the myelin sheath.
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An axon transmits messages _____ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages toward the cell body.
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away from
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The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete _____.
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hormones
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The _____ is the part of the endocrine system that regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
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pancreas
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The _____ part of the peripheral nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
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somatic
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The _____ gland triggers ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
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pituitary
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Which part of the endocrine system regulates the level of sugar in the blood?
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the pancreas
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Information from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural "cables" called:
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nerves.
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_____, a neurotransmitter, have/has similar properties to morphine.
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Endorphins
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The peripheral nervous system includes the _____, which carry messages from the body to the central nervous system.
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sensory neurons
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The _____ system is the body's "slow" chemical communication system.
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endocrine
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This part of your nervous system helps you to conserve energy as it calms you down after a stressful event.
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parasympathetic
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Muscles of the internal organs and glands are controlled by the _____.
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autonomic nervous system
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Skeletal muscles are controlled by the _____.
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somatic nervous system
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Depressed mood states are linked to _____ levels of serotonin and low levels of norepinephrine.
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low
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The largest number of neurons within the brain and spinal cord are responsible for the central nervous system's complex internal communications and intervene between inputs and outputs. These are the _____.
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interneurons
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This bushy, branching extension of a neuron receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
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dendrite
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The correct order of the structures of the motor neuron is:
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dendrites, the cell body, axon, terminal branches of the axon.
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The endocrine system is the body's:
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"slow" chemical communication system.
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Milton has been having considerable trouble with his short-term memory. His family has noticed a number of mistakes Milton has been making, such as leaving doors unlocked, getting lost in the neighborhood, and forgetting family member's names. It appears that the _____-producing neurons are deteriorating.
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Ach
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In terms of your heartbeat, digestion, and glandular functioning, your body is a fairly well-oiled machine that works even when you are asleep. This is possible because of your:
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autonomic nervous system.
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In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating:
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growth.
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If you were trying to describe the function of the somatic nervous system to a middle-school child, which of the following analogies might you use?
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It functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm.
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Compared to messages delivered by the nervous system, messages delivered by the endocrine system are:
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slower to arrive and longer lasting.
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Which endocrine gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands?
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pituitary
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These chemical messengers are mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression.
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hormones
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A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines that measure perspiration, cardiovascular, and respiratory changes. On which of the following systems should their research focus?
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the sympathetic nervous system
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Which of the following is an important part of the endocrine system but is not an endocrine gland?
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the hypothalamus
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The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine raises blood pressure and _____ blood sugar levels.
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raises
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While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different:
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neural networks.
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The _____ nervous system helps you to conserve energy as it calms you down after a stressful event.
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parasympathetic
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The _____ triggers ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
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pituitary gland
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Betty's metabolism has been irregular and she has been moody, tired, and weak. There is most likely an abnormality with her _____.
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thyroid gland
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The correct order of the feedback system that reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is:
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brain, pituitary, other glands, hormones, body and brain.
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"Neurotransmitter" is to "synaptic gap" as "hormone" is to _____.
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bloodstream
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The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and _____ neurons.
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motor
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Information processing in the body involves neurons communicating with each other at their _____.
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synapses
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A drug that inhibits a neurotransmitter's release is called a(n):
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antagonist.
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The _____ glands are endocrine glands that play an important role in helping us respond to stress.
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adrenal
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The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine _____ blood pressure and raises blood sugar levels.
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raises
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Neurons that allow the brain and spinal cord to communicate internally are known as _____.
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interneurons
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Which of the following muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system?
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skeletal muscles, such as muscles of the arm and hand
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Information from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural "cables" called _____.
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nerves
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Information processing in the body involves neurons communicating with each other at their:
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synapses.
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An automatic reflex such as a knee jerk or withdrawing a hand from a flame involves:
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the spinal cord.
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Small samples of brain tissue from humans are difficult to distinguish from brain tissue samples of _____.
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monkeys
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Depressed mood states are linked to _____ levels of serotonin and _____ levels of norepinephrine.
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low; low
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In addition to its role in learning and memory, acetylcholine also controls:
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muscle action.
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Dendrites transmit messages _____ the cell body and axons transmit messages _____ the cell body.
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toward; away from
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Some people must avoid foods high in _____, as oversupply of the neurotransmitter _____ can overstimulate the brain inducing seizures or migraines.
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MSG; glutamate
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A _____ is a bushy, branching extension of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
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dendrite
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The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are _____.
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interneurons
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The _____ is an important part of the endocrine system but is not an endocrine gland.
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hypothalamus
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Bundles of axons that connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called:
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nerves.
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Motor and sensory neurons together comprise the:
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peripheral nervous system.
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Some people must avoid foods high in _____, as oversupply of the neurotransmitter glutamate can overstimulate the brain, inducing seizures or migraines.
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MSG
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The largest number of neurons within the brain and spinal cord are responsible for the central nervous system's complex internal communications and intervene between inputs and outputs. These are the:
answer
interneurons.
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The peripheral nervous system consists of:
answer
sensory and motor neurons.
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This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
answer
somatic
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The endocrine system is made up of _____.
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glands
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A number of antiepileptic medications work to increase this neurotransmitter, as low levels are linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
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GABA
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Dendrites transmit messages _____ the cell body and axons transmit messages away from the cell body.
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toward
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_____ are chemical messengers mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression.
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Hormones
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A number of antiepileptic medications work to increase _____, as low levels are linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
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GABA
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Who discovered the synapse?
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Sir Charles Sherrington
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You are watching your favorite television program and you see a commercial for a new medication. It states that the medication can alleviate depression. "Since depression is a chemical imbalance, new Venlafaxine extended release can help with mood, sleep, arousal, and alertness by working on the two key neurotransmitters involved in depression." These two neurotransmitters are _____ and norepinephrine.
answer
serotonin
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In addition to its role in learning and memory, acetylcholine also controls _____.
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muscle action
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The correct order of the feedback system that reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is the brain, pituitary, other glands, _____, body and brain.
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hormones
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When comparing the endocrine system and the nervous system in terms of speed, it is clear that the _____ system is the tortoise and the nervous system is the hare.
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endocrine
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_____ discovered that the brain contained "opiate receptors."
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Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder
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People who suffer from schizophrenia have an excess of _____.
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dopamine
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Ron is drinking water and soda in large quantities, urinating frequently, is always hungry, and is complaining of feeling sick at times. He is diagnosed with Type II diabetes. There is most likely an abnormality with his:
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pancreas.
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_____ is the messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle.
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Acetylcholine
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Randy was diagnosed with an imbalance in the regulation of calcium in his blood. This imbalance was due to abnormal _____.
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parathyroids
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An axon transmits messages away from the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages _____ the cell body.
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toward
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_____ is/are a type of neurotransmitter with similar properties to morphine.
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Endorphins
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Your boss tells you some news that disturbs you, but a phone call from your spouse distracts you. After you get off the phone, you have a lingering feeling that something is not quite right, but you cannot pinpoint what it is. It is likely you are reacting to the continued effect of _____.
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hormones
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Dendrites transmit messages toward the cell body and axons transmit messages _____ the cell body.
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away from
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An axon transmits messages _____ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages _____ the cell body.
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away from; toward
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Depressed mood states are linked to low levels of serotonin and _____ levels of norepinephrine.
answer
low
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The neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the body's tissues are the _____.
answer
motor neurons
question
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called _____.
answer
endorphins
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Less than a millionth of an inch wide, the _____ connects neurons.
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synaptic gap
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A firefighter wakes in the middle of the night to the sound of an alarm. It is likely that her _____ have released epinephrine and norepinephrine.
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adrenal glands
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An automatic reflex such as a knee jerk or withdrawing a hand from a flame is controlled by the _____.
answer
spinal cord
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The process of _____ occurs when the sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules.
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reuptake
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Most of the signals neurons receive are _____; others are the opposite, or inhibitory.
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excitatory
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One can think of Alzheimer's disease as the deterioration and breakdown of the connections known as:
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neural networks.
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Some people must avoid foods high in MSG, as oversupply of the neurotransmitter _____ can overstimulate the brain, inducing seizures or migraines.
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glutamate
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Pert and Snyder (1973) discovered that the brain contains _____.
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opiate receptors
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Dr. Spanos is interested in studying how the approximately 400 trillion synapses of an adult brain are organized into an information-processing system. He should consider studying which of the following topics?
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neural networks
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If the top of the spinal cord is severed, a person would:
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exhibit a knee-jerk reflex response without feeling a tap.
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Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is most directly associated with the degeneration of the _____.
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myelin sheath
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A woman is paralyzed below the waist following an accident. Though her genitals do not respond to erotic images, she does experience an increase in vaginal lubrication in response to genital stimulation. She has most clearly suffered damage to her _____.
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spinal cord
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The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
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autonomic nervous system.
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The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.
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frontal