Chapter 5 Study Plan Psychology

8 June 2024
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A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an:
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unconditioned stimulus.
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Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs' ___________.
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digestive systems
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Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of:
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biological preparedness.
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_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
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Extinction
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The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves:
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the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.
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In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate when they:
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heard the sound of the metronome.
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Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called:
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maturation.
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_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
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Observational learning
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Which of the following is one of Bandura's elements of observational learning?
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memory
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Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
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Albert Bandura
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In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
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fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
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Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:
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successive approximations.
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It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:
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obtaining food
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What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
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involuntary and voluntary
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The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to:
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be repeated.
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Further studies that followed Köhler's work with chimpanzees:
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have found support for the concept of animal insight.
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In Seligman's study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone:
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jumped over the fence when the shock started.
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In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:
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learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map.
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Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called:
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latent learning.
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In Köhler's experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This was an example of:
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insight.
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Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon's parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
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punishment by removal
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A teacher has decided to give "caught being good" tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using:
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operant conditioning.
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In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these other children?
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They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done.
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Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She's older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of:
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conditioned emotional response.
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After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist's drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:
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stimulus generalization.
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After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov's dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:
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spontaneous recovery.
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This scientist conducted research to establish the theory known as cognitive perspective.
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Robert Rescorla
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The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response, ______________.
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but it is essentially the same response
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The learning/performance distinction is a kind of:
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latent learning.
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The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.
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imitation; desire
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Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
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Martin Seligman
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One of B. F. Skinner's famous experiments involved:
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teaching rats to learn how to obtain food.
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The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that:
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all responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.
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A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is:
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partially reinforced.
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A recent study suggests a link between spanking and:
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aggression in children.
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If your professor gives pop quizzes, this is an example of:
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a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
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The term "extinction" may be misleading because:
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learning is relatively permanent, meaning things are not "unlearned."
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Pavlov's dogs exhibited stimulus discrimination when they:
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did not demonstrate a conditioned response upon hearing ticking sounds similar to the metronome.
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In order to increase reading among the students in her class, Mrs. Gomez, a second-grade teacher, has students record their reading by placing stickers on a large chart. For every ten stickers, students receive a new book. Mrs. Gomez is using:
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a token economy.
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A typical use of applied behavior analysis is:
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treating children with disorders such as autism.