Chapter 30 & 31 Apush Key Terms

24 August 2022
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The Conscience of a Conservative
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A 1960 book that set forth an uncompromising conservatism and inspired a Republican grassroots movement in support of its author, Barry Goldwater.
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National Review
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A conservative magazine founded by editor William F. Buckley in 1955, who used it to criticize liberal policy.
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Religious Right
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Politically active religious conservatives, especially Catholics and evangelical Christians, who became particularly vocal in the 1980s against feminism, abortion, and homosexuality and who promoted "family values."
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Hostage crisis
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Crisis that began in 1979 after the deposed shah of Iran was allowed into the United States following the Iranian revolution. Iranians broke into the U.S. embassy in Teheran and took sixty-six Americans hostage. The hostage crisis lasted 444 days and contributed to President Carter's reelection defeat.
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Reagan coalition
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A coalition supporting Ronald Reagan that included the traditional core of Republican Party voters, middle-class suburbanites and migrants to the Sunbelt states, blue-collar Catholics, and a large contingent of southern whites, an electorally key group of former Democrats that had been gradually moving toward the Republican Party since 1964.
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Moral Majority
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A political organization established by evangelist Jerry Falwell in 1979 to mobilize conservative Christian voters on behalf of Ronald Reagan's campaign for president.
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Reagan Democrats
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Blue-collar Catholics from industrialized midwestern states such as Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois who were dissatisfied with the direction of liberalism in the 1970s and left the Democratic Party for the Republicans.
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supply-side economics (Reaganomics)
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Economic theory that tax cuts for individuals and businesses encourage investment and production (supply) and stimulate consumption (demand) because individuals can keep more of their earnings. In reality, supply-side economics created a massive federal budget deficit.
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Economic Recovery Tax Act (ERTA)
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Legislation introduced by President Reagan and passed by Congress in 1981 that authorized the largest reduction in taxes in the nation's history.
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National debt
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The cumulative total of all budget deficits.
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Deregulation
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The limiting of regulation by federal agencies. Deregulation of prices in the trucking, airline, and railroad industries had begun under President Carter in the late 1970s, and Reagan expanded it to include cutting back on government protections of consumers, workers, and the environment.
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HIV/AIDS
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A deadly disease that killed nearly a hundred thousand people in the United States in the 1980s.
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Service Industries
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Term that includes food, beverage, and tourist industries, financial and medical service industries, and computer technology industries, which were the leading sectors of U.S. growth in the second half of the 1980s. This pattern represented a shift from reliance on the heavy industries of steel, autos, and chemicals.
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Sandinistas
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The democratically elected group in Nicaragua that President Reagan accused of threatening U.S. business interests. Reagan attempted to overthrow them by ordering the CIA to assist an armed opposition group called the Contras.
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Contras
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An opposition group in Nicaragua that President Reagan ordered the CIA to assist. While Congress banned the CIA and all other government agencies from providing any military support to the Contras, a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Marines, Oliver North, used the profits from the Iranian arms deal to assist the Contras, resulting in the Iran-Contra affair.
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Iran-Contra affair
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Reagan administration scandal that involved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for its efforts to secure the release of hostages held in Lebanon and the redirection — illegal because banned by American law — of the proceeds of those sales to the Nicaraguan Contras.
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Glasnost
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The policy introduced by Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev during the 1980s that involved greater openness and freedom of expression and that contributed, unintentionally, to the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union.
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Perestroika
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The economic restructuring policy introduced by Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev during the 1980s that contributed, unintentionally, to the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union.
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Family values
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Values promoted by the Religious Right, including support for the traditional nuclear family and opposition to same-sex marriage and abortion.
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Persian Gulf War
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The 1991 war between Iraq and a U.S.-led international coalition that was sparked by the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. A forty-day bombing campaign against Iraq followed by coalition troops storming into Kuwait brought a quick coalition victory.
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Globalization
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The spread of political, cultural, and economic influences and connections among countries, businesses, and individuals around the world through trade, immigration, communication, and other means.
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World Trade Organization (WTO)
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International economic body established in 1995 through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to enforce substantial tariff and import quota reductions.
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Group of Eight (G8)
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An international organization of the leading capitalist industrial nations: the United States, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, and Russia. The G8 largely controlled the world's major international financial organizations: the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
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A 1993 treaty that eliminated all tariffs and trade barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
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Multinational corporations
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Corporations with offices and factories in multiple countries, which expanded to find new markets and cheaper sources of labor. Globalization was made possible by the proliferation of these multinational corporations.
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Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
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A decentralized computer network developed in the late 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense in conjunction with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Internet grew out of the ARPANET.
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World Wide Web
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A collection of interlinked computer servers that debuted in 1991, allowing access by millions to documents, pictures, and other materials.
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Culture war
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A term used by Patrick Buchanan in 1992 to describe a long-standing political struggle, dating to the 1920s, between religious traditionalists and secular liberals. Social issues such as abortion rights and the rights of lesbians and gay men divided these groups.
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Immigration and Nationality Act
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A 1965 law that eliminated the discriminatory 1924 nationality quotas, established a slightly higher total limit on immigration, included provisions to ease the entry of immigrants with skills in high demand, and allowed immediate family members of legal residents in the United States to be admitted outside of the total numerical limit.
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Multiculturalism
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The promotion of diversity in gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and sexual preference. This political and social policy became increasingly popular in the United States during the 1980s post-civil rights era.
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Proposition 209
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A proposition approved by California voters in 1996 that outlawed affirmative action in state employment and public education.
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Bakke v. University of California
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1978 Supreme Court ruling that limited affirmative action by rejecting a quota system.
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Operation Rescue
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A movement founded by religious activist Randall Terry in 1987 that mounted protests outside abortion clinics and harassed their staffs and clients.
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Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
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1989 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the authority of state governments to limit the use of public funds and facilities for abortions.
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Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey
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A 1992 Supreme Court case that upheld a law requiring a twenty-four-hour waiting period prior to an abortion. Although the decision upheld certain restrictions on abortions, it affirmed the "essential holding" in Roe v. Wade (1973) that women had a constitutional right to control their reproduction.
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Lawrence v. Texas
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A 2003 landmark decision by the Supreme Court that limited the power of states to prohibit private homosexual activity between consenting adults.
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Contract with America
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Initiatives by Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia for significant tax cuts, reductions in welfare programs, anticrime measures, and cutbacks in federal regulations.
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Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
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Legislation signed by President Clinton in 1996 that replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children, the major welfare program dating to the New Deal era, with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which provided grants to the states to assist the poor and which limited welfare payments to two years, with a lifetime maximum of five years.
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
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Military alliance formed in 1949 among the United States, Canada, and Western European nations to counter any possible Soviet threat.
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Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act
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Legislation introduced by President George W. Bush and passed by Congress in 2001 that slashed income tax rates, extended the earned income credit for the poor, and marked the estate tax to be phased out by 2010.
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USA PATRIOT Act
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A 2001 law that gave the government new powers to monitor suspected terrorists and their associates, including the ability to access personal information.
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Abu Ghraib prison
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A prison just outside Baghdad, Iraq, where American guards were photographed during the Iraq War abusing and torturing suspected insurgents.
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American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
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An economic stimulus bill passed in 2009, in response to the Great Recession, that provided $787 billion to state and local governments for schools, hospitals, and transportation projects. It was one of the largest single packages of government spending in American history.
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Tea Party
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A set of far-right opposition groups that emerged during President Obama's first term and gave voice to the extreme individualism and antigovernment sentiment traditionally associated with right-wing movements in the United States.
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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
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Sweeping 2010 health-care reform bill championed by President Obama that established nearly universal health insurance by providing subsidies and compelling larger businesses to offer coverage to employees.