The Filipino Insurrection was an attempt to gain independence from Spain and was led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Emilio Aguinaldo declared an independent Philippines in 1899, starting the Philippine Insurrection that lasted until 1902. More usually called the Philippine-American War or the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902) was America's first conflict of the twentieth century. On 1 May 1898, at the beginning of the Spanish-American War Commodore George Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines. Believing they would be given independence by America, Filipino forces under Emilio Aguinaldo, who had been fighting the Spanish since 1896, laid siege to Manila and occupied the rest of the archipelago, destroyed Spanish control, and declared independence as a democratic republic on 12 June 1898. 4, 234 US troops were killed and 2, 818 wounded, against an estimated 20, 000 Filipino deaths in 'combat' and perhaps 200, 000 civilians, mostly from disease and deprivation.