APUSH 20'S-60'S

27 August 2022
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vietnamization
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President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
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War Powers Act
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The War Powers Act of 1973 The War Powers Resolution, generally known as the War Powers Act, was passed by Congress over President Nixon's veto to increase congressional control over the executive branch in foreign policy matters, specifically in regard to military actions short of formally declared war. Its central provision prohibited the President from engaging in military actions for more than sixty days, unless Congress voted approval. The key Section 1541(c) reads: (c) Presidential Executive Power as Commander-in-Chief; Limitation The constitutional powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief to introduce United States Armed Forces into hostilities, or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances, are exercised only pursuant to (1) a declaration of war, (2) specific statutory authorization, or (3) a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces.
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My Lai Massacre
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The My Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Victims included women, men, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies were later found to be mutilated and many women were allegedly raped prior to the killings. While 26 U.S. soldiers were initially charged with criminal offenses for their actions at Mỹ Lai, only Second Lieutenant William Calley, a platoon leader in Charlie Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but only served three and a half years under house arrest. The massacre took place in the hamlets of My Lai and My Khe of Son My village. The event is also called the Son My Massacre, especially in the Vietnamese state media. The U.S. military codeword for the "Viet Cong stronghold" was "Pinkville". The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in 1969. The massacre also increased domestic opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Three U.S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and protect the wounded were initially denounced by several U.S. Congressmen as traitors. They received hate mail and death threats and found mutilated animals on their doorsteps. The three were later widely praised and decorated by the Army for their heroic actions
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beat generation
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The Beat Generation was a group of American post-World War II writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired. Central elements of "Beat" culture included rejection of received standards, innovations in style, experimentation with drugs, alternative sexualities, an interest in Eastern religion, a rejection of materialism, and explicit portrayals of the human condition. Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1956), William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch (1959) and Jack Kerouac's On the Road (1957) are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that ultimately helped to liberalize publishing in the United States. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity. The original "Beat Generation" writers met in New York. Later, in the mid-1950s, the central figures (with the exception of Burroughs) ended up together in San Francisco where they met and became friends with figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie counterculture.
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stagflation
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During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
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mapp v ohio
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The 1961 Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government. a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
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gideon v. wainwright
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1963-a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
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escobedo v illinois
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The 1964 Supreme Court extended the "exclusionary rule," to also include any unconstitutionally obtained confessions (5th Amend.) The Court said that once questioning reaches past a "general inquiry" the suspect has the right to have an attorney present (6th Amend).
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Miranda v. Arizona
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a landmark 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court which was argued February 28-March 1, 1966 and decided June 13, 1966. The Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police. The Miranda warning required by the Supreme Court in this case is an example of a prophylactic rule formulated by the judiciary in order to protect a constitutional right.
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Baker v. Carr
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(LBJ) 1962 Baker v. Carr, case decided in 1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Tennessee had failed to reapportion the state legislature for 60 years despite population growth and redistribution. Charles Baker, a voter, brought suit against the state (Joe Carr was a state official in charge of elections) in federal district court, claiming that the dilution of his vote as a result of the state's failure to reapportion violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The court dismissed the complaint on the grounds that it could not decide a political question. Baker appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that a case raising a political issue would be heard. This landmark decision opened the way for numerous suits on legislative apportionment.
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Yates v. U.S.
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1957; 1st amend: court overturned the conviction of convicted comunists under the Smith Act making the distinction between discussing theoretically the violent overthrow of the government as opposed to actually working to overthrow the government using violence
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Engel v. Vitale
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The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
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Griswold v. Connecticut
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1965-A landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy".
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Students for a Democratic Society
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Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
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Alfred Kinsey
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regarded by some as the father of the scientific study of human sexuality. Published a series of reports which described common sexual behaviors in the US. 1) Publishes a study based on male sexuality 2) Took a sample of 10,000 men, data said that sexual orientation was diverse and many were bi
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The Feminine Mystique
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written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
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National Organization for Women
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Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
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equal rights amendment
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A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." The amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
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Tonkin Gulf Resolution
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A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. Gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures" to repel any attacks and "to prevent further aggression." The resolution became the legal basis for a war that would last for eight more years.
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Operation Rolling Thunder
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was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
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Tet Offensive
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1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
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George Wallace
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Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987). He ran for U.S. President four times, running officially as a Democrat three times and in the American Independent Party once. He is best known for his Southern populist[1] pro-segregation attitudes during the American desegregation period, convictions he abandoned later in life. racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot.
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The Kitchen Debate
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US Vice President Richard Nixon led Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev through the American National Exhibition in Moscow in July 1959. The display of American consumer good followed an exhibition of Soviet products in NY, part of a cultural exchange between the two superpowers that reflected a slight thaw in the cold war. Their verbal sparring turned into a slugfest of words and gestures that reporters dubbed the "Kitchen Debate."
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Nixon Kennedy Debates
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Television may well have tipped the scales. Nixon agreed to meet Kennedy in four so-called debates. The contestants crossed words in millions of living rooms before audiences estimated at 60 million or more. Nobody "won" the debates. But Kennedy at least held his own and did not suffer by comparison with the more "experienced" Nixon. The debates demonstrated the importance of image in a television age. Many viewers found Kennedy's glamour and vitality far more appealing than Nixon's tired and pallid appearance.
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"Camelot"
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Lively atmosphere of the Kennedy administration in the 1960's. Spirit of America suddenly brought to a close at Kennedy's assassination. The term "Camelot" was applied to the presidency of John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) by his wife, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy (1929-1994). Camelot refers to the seat of the court of the legendary King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table; it has come to mean a place or time of idyllic happiness. (Arthur was a British king; the Round Table was the name for his knights.) Shortly after John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, the former first lady was talking with a journalist. She described the years of her husband's presidency (1960-63) as an American Camelot, a period of hope and optimism in U. S. history, and asked that his memory be preserved. She had shown fortitude (ability to deal with adversity or pain) and grace as she guided her family and the country through the president's funeral and was one of America's most beloved first ladies. So when she suggested that her husband's brief presidency was reminiscent of the legends of Camelot, journalists took up the idea.
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New Frontier Program
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Many of the Kennedy administration programs are referred to as New Frontier measures. These include the Peace Corps, the Alliance for Progress in Latin America, a trade expansion act, an increase in the minimum wage, a federal housing act, and an Area Redevelopment Act to benefit depressed rural areas. Kennedy suffered defeats on many bills, however, including federal aid to education, creation of the Department of Urban Affairs, medical insurance for the elderly, and urban mass transit.
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Alliance for Progress
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JFK also sent many billions of US dollars to Latin America in an effort to improve America's image there (the goal was to help Latin American economies improve... like the Marshall Plan- the goal was to win friends and stop communism from spreading by providing US aid). (JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
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Bay of Pigs
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In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
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Cuban Missile Crisis
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an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
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Great Society
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President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
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War on Poverty
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legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty; Johnson's belief in expanding the government's role in social welfare programs from education to healthcare was a continuation of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal; launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965. The project was designed to help end poverty by providing preschool children from low-income families with a program that would meet emotional, social, health, nutritional,and psychological needs. Head Start was then transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later the Department of Health and Human Services) by the Nixon Administration in 1969. Food stamps; aimed at equipping the impoverished with skills and rebuilding their spirit and motivation
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Silent Spring
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An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies. Rachel carson
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Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1965
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- Civil Rights Act of 1964 - outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women - ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public - Voting Rights Act of 1965 -Outlawed discriminatory voting practices responsible for widespread disenfranchisement of Afr.-Ams (i.e. literacy tests, poll taxes)
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executive order 9835
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sometimes known as The Loyalty Order, was signed March 21, 1947[1] by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The order established the first general loyalty program in the United States, which was designed to root out communist influence within the various departments of the U.S. federal governmen
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j Edgar Hoover
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FBI directer who urged HUAC to hold public hearings on communist subversion to find communist sympathisers and fellow travelers to isolate them and their influence. FBI sends agents to infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and wiretoppa telephnones
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House Un-American Activities Committee
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Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
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hollywood ten
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The Hollywood Ten was a group of people who were cited for contempt of Congress and blacklisted after refusing to answer HUAC questions about their alleged involvement with the Communist Party: Alvah Bessie, screenwriter Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director Lester Cole, screenwriter Edward Dmytryk, director Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter John Howard Lawson, screenwriter Albert Maltz, screenwriter Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter
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smith act
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1940 act which made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government. Was used by Truman 11 times to prosecute suspected Communists, (1) aka the Alien Registration Act, a 1940 law that act made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the US government; (2) 5 million aliens in the US also had to register with the federal government; (3) in 1948, Truman demonstrated his aggressive stance against communism by prosecuting 11 Communist Party leaders under the this law; prosecutions continued until 1961
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dennis v. U.S.
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1951-The court held that the federal government can limit speech even if it does not directly lead to action. In doing so, the court was upholding the Smith Act- a law that made it a crime to support a communist organization
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Alger Hiss
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A U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 by Whittaker Chambers and prosecuted by Richard Nixon; convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
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the rosenbergs
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Ethel and Julius were accused of stealing and plotting to convey atomic secrets to Soviet agents. A jury found them guilty of espionage, Albert Einstein, the pope, and the president of France all pleaded for clemency. They died in the electric chair on June 19, 1953. arrested 1950
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McCarthyism
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The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
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McCarran Internal Security Act
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1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism--his veto was overruled. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
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Nixon's Checkers Speech
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1)In 1952 Richard Nixon went on tv to defend himself against accusations that he accepted illegal campaign contributions. 2)The only gift he received is dog named "Checker" for his family.
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Interstate Highway System
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In some ways Eisenhower even did the New Deal one better. In a public works project that dwarfed anything the New Dealers had ever dreamed of, Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways. laying down these modern, mutilane roads created countless construction jobs and speeded the suburbanization of america. the highway act offered juicy benefits to the trucking, automobile, oil, and travel induestries, while at the same time robbing the railroads, especially passenger trains, of business. the act also exacerbated problems of air quality and energy consumption, and had especially disastrous consequences for cities, whose once-vibrant downtowns withered away while shopping malls flourished in the far-flung suburbs.
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Domino Theory
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The idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control.
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SEATO
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US, GB, France, Pakistan, Thailand, Phillippines, Austrailia, and New Zealand = South East Asia Treaty Organ international organization for collective defense created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, which was signed on September 8, 1954. The formal institution of SEATO was established at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok in February 1955.[1] It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia. The organization's headquarters were located in Bangkok, Thailand. SEATO was dissolved on June 30, 1977.
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Eisenhower Doctrine
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1957-Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
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U-2 incident
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1960-The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
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Military-Industrial Complex
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Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
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Good-Neighbor Policy
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The "Good Neighbor" policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America during 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats.
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Nye Committee
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1934. Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."
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The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, and 37
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The Neutrality Acts were laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts. they made no distinction between aggressor and victim, treating both equally as "belligerents"; and they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain against Nazi Germany. The acts were largely repealed in 1941, in the face of German submarine attacks on U.S. vessels and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
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America First Committee
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A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
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Cash and Carry
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policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
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Destroyers for Bases Deal
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Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean. (1940)
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Lend Lease Act
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Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
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Selective Service Act
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Selective Training and Service Act of September 1940 provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 35 and for the training of 1.2 million troops in just one year.
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The Atlantic Charter
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August 1941-Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and discussed common problems of the world. The two men came up with the eight-point Atlantic Charter, outlining the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the war's end. The Atlantic Charter consisted of: Renunciation of territorial aggression, No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned, Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government, Access to raw material for all nations, World economic cooperation, Freedom from fear and want, Freedom of the seas, Disarmament of aggressors.
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The War Production Board
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established in 1942 by executive order of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The purpose of the board was to regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States. It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, and plastics. It was dissolved shortly after the defeat of Japan in 1945.
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Office of Price Administration
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Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
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Korematsu v. U.S.
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1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
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Double V slogan
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Led by A. Phillip Randolph, they wanted 2 Victories: Victory abroad against fascism and victory at home against racism This was the slogan for the African Americans during the war 1944
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Congress of Racial Equality
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organized in 1942, mobilized mass popular resistance to discrimination in a way that the older, more conservative organizations had never done, (African American leaders helped organize sit ins and demonstrations in segregated theaters and restaurants).
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Zoot Suit Riots
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The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California, between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored. Mexican Americans and military servicemen were the main parties in the riots, and some African American and Filipino/Filipino American youth were involved as well.[1] The Zoot Suit Riots were in part the effect of the infamous Sleepy Lagoon murder which involved the death of a young Latino man in a barrio near Los Angeles.
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Philip Randolph
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president and founder of the brotherhood of sleeping car Porters and the nations most respected African American labor leader. He protested discrimination both in the military and in the industry. He also organized a march on washington where he called on african americans everywhere to come to the capitol and march. roosevelt asked Randolph to back off but in the end Roosevelt was the one to back off. Roosevelt ordered that all workers in defense industries be treated without discrimination.
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March-on-Washington Movement
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1941- billions of federal dollars were flowing into the war industry jobs and blacks knew they would receive very little of these jobs and so they were planning on marching in Washington to protest. FDR expected riots so he promised them equal opportunity if they didn't march
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Executive Order 8802
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In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
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Fair Employment Practices Commission
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On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC). The order banned racial discrimination in any defense industry receiving federal contracts by declaring "there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin." The order also empowered the FEPC to investigate complaints and take action against alleged employment discrimination.
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Potsdam Conference
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Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. The three powers were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, and, later, Clement Attlee and President Harry S. Truman. Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee, who participated alongside Churchill while awaiting the outcome of the 1945 general election, and then replaced Churchill as Prime Minister after the Conservative's defeat to the Labour Party—gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of the war.
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Potsdam Declaration
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A Message sent by the Allies in July 1945 calling for Japanese surrender. In that same month American scientist discovered a bomb that could destroy a whole city, the atomic bomb. America was ready to launch the bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. To make the Japanese aware of their future they sent a Message saying for them to surrender or face "prompt and utter destruction".
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Operation Overlord
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was the code name for the invasion of western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation began on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy Landings (commonly known as D-Day) when a 12,000-plane strong airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving almost 7,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June, and more than 3 million troops had landed by the end of August.[12][13] Allied land forces that saw combat in Normandy on D-Day itself came from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Free French forces and Poland also participated in the battle after the assault phase, and there were also minor contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Norway.[14] Other Allied nations participated in the naval and air forces. Once the beachheads were secured, a three-week military buildup occurred on the beaches before Operation Cobra, the operation to break out from the Normandy beachhead began. The battle for Normandy continued for more than two months, with campaigns to establish a foothold on France, and concluded with the closing of the Falaise pocket on 24 August, the subsequent liberation of Paris on 25 August, and the German retreat across the Seine which was completed on 30 August 1944
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Operation Torch
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Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started on 8 November 1942. The Soviet Union had pressed the U.S. and Britain to start operations in Europe and open a second front to reduce the pressure of German forces on the Soviet troops. While the American commanders favored Operation Sledgehammer, landing in Occupied Europe as soon as possible, the British commanders believed that such a course would end in disaster. An attack on French North Africa was proposed instead, which would clear the Axis Powers from North Africa, improve naval control of the Mediterranean Sea and prepare for an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. American President Franklin D. Roosevelt suspected the African operation would rule out an invasion of Europe in 1943 but agreed to support British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
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Battle of the Bulge
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December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
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Battle of Coral Sea
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fought from 4-8 May 1942, was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first fleet action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other. It was also the first naval battle in history in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other. It saved Port Moresby and stopped the Japanese advance on New Guinea
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Battle of Midway
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second major naval battle in the Pacific; took place early in June 1942; Japan launched a two-pronged attack, seeking to crush the US pacific fleet; one unit seized 2 of the Aleutian Islands, near Alaska; they hoped to lure part of the US fleet away from Hawaii; Japanese carried out their main attack against Midway, 2 small islands NW of Hawaii; US experts had broken the Japanese fleet code so the US had advance warning of the Japanese strategy-->were able to assemble US aircraft carriers and destroyers north of Midway to ambush the Japanese attack; Americans and Japanese clashed June 3-6; US fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo planes sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and shot down many enemy planes; crucial US victory: Japan lost ships, planes, and a number of skilled pilots
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Tehran Conference
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The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. It was the first war conference among the three world powers (the USSR, the U.S. and the UK) in which Stalin was present. It succeeded the Cairo Conference and was followed by Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference. The chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe. At the same time a separate protocol pledged the three countries to recognize Iran's independence.
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Yalta Conference
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February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
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battle of el alamein
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he First Battle of El Alamein (1-27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought on the northern coast of Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika) commanded by Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel, and Allied (specifically, British Imperial) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the British Eighth Army commanded by General Claude Auchinleck. The battle, although a stalemate, halted a second advance by the Axis forces into Egypt. However, an Axis presence near El Alamein only 66 mi (106 km) from Alexandria, was too dangerously close to major population centres and the Suez Canal for the Allied forces to allow the status quo to remain; a Second Battle of El Alamein would be required to drive the Axis armies out of Egypt for good. The Second Battle of El Alamein took place over 20 days from 23 October - 11 November 1942 near the Egyptian coastal city of El Alamein, and the Allies' victory marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. It followed the First Battle of El Alamein, which had stalled the Axis advance into Egypt, after which, in August 1942, Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery had taken command of the British Eighth Army from General Claude Auchinleck. This Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal, and of gaining access to the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. From a psychological perspective, El Alamein revived the morale of the Allied side, being the first major offensive against the Germans since the start of the European war in 1939 in which the Western Allies achieved a decisive victory.
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The Bank Holiday
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was an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. • It was passed on March 9, 1933. This act allows only Federal Reserve-approved banks to operate in the United States of America.
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Federal Emergency Relief Administration
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Relief: 1932; (FERA) response to Federal Emergency Relief Act; headed by Harry Hopkins; fought adult unemployment, gave money away, short term solution to unemployment; gave state/localities $3.1 billion; 20,000,000 got work; lasted from May 1933 to December 1935
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Home Owner Loan Corporation
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Recovery. Gives loans to home owners so they could pay their mortgage. Prevented homelessness and banks from going under.
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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
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United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance. which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks. currently up to $250.000 per depositor per bank. Set up to prevent "bank runs" and to keep money in banks, thus stimulating the economy.
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public works administration
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(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
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civilian conservation corps
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Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks
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Tennessee Valley Authority
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(FDR) 1933, , A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
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Agricultural Adjustment Administration
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New Deal Program set up in 1933, paid farmers to limit production and raise farm prices. Farmers had to destroy a portion of their crops and livestock to raise real income to parity.
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National Recovery Administration
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Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
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New Deal
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(FDR) , , President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
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Schechter V. U.S
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Sometimes called "the sick chicken case." Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on three grounds: that the act delegated legislative power to the executive; that there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and that it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character.
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Butler V. U.S
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...a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.[1][2] in 1936
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securities and exchange commission
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Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
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Civil Works Administration
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November 9, 1933- Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. In just one year, the CWA cost the government over $1 Billion and was cancelled. So much was spent on this administration because it hired 4 million people and was mostly concerned with paying high wages.
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Federal Housing Administration
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A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment. Currently part of HUD.
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Works Progress Administration
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May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
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National Labor Relations Act
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A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
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Social Security Act
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(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
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Father Charles Coughlin
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A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
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Francis Townsend
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Townsend was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly and laid the foundations of the creation of Social Security.
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Huey Long
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As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
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packing scheme
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Roosevelt proposed the "Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937", a plan to add more justices to the Supreme Court in order to overthrow the conservative majority that had struck down several New Deal initiatives; the bill was not passed.
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Congress of Industrial Organizations
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Orginially began as a group of unskilled workers who organized themselves into effective unions. As there popularity grew they came known for the revolutionary idea of the "sit down strike", there efforts lead to the passage of the Fair Labor Standard Act and the organization continued to thrive under the New Deal.
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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June 25, 1938- United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in and producing goods for interstate commerce. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term defined in the statute. The FLSA is administered by the Wage & Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
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Relief, Recovery, and Reform
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-Relief, help relieve the suffering of unemployed (PWA, CCC) -Recovery, restoring the US economy -Reform, making changes to the system so that such a severe crisis could never happen again (Federal Securities Act)
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John L Lewis
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United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the coal miners strike; He and the Congress of Industrial Organizations wanted workers' civil rights, a fair slice of the economic pie, and the right to bargain collectively; long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
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CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations)
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Committee, later Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. Focused on organizing unskilled workers in the automobile, steel, and southern textile industries. Extended to membership to all workers in an industry regardless of their race, sex, and skill level.
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Indian Reorganization Act
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1934-Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
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The Grapes of Wrath
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John Steinbeck's 1939 novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America. Featured information about the Dust Bowl.
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Good Neighbor Policy
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1933-The foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a "good neighbor" and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of America in Latin America.
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Nye Committee Hearings
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Gerald Nye, a senator from North Dakota, held hearings from 1934-1937 attempting to prove that American arms manufacturers and bankers had conspired to take American to WWII to get rich. He found no proof for his theory, but it put an unsettling "what if" in people's heads. This went on for three years and was very unsettling for America.
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Neutrality Acts
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The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.
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St. Louis
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The MS St. Louis was a German ocean liner most notable for a single voyage in 1939, in which her captain, Gustav Schröder, tried to find homes for 937 German Jewish refugees after they were denied entry to Cuba, the United States and Canada, until finally accepted to various countries of Europe. Historians have estimated that, after their return to Europe, approximately a quarter of the ship's passengers died in concentration camps.
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Section 7a
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this part of the national industrial recovery administration legislation formally guarnateed organized labor the right to collectively bargain & organize; unions could actively recruit & they had gained legal acceptance
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Southern Tenant Farmers Union
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-Organized by socialist, H.L. Mitchell, attempted to create a biracial coalition of sharecroppers, tenant farmers and others to demand economic reform -Didn't make any real progress toward establishing socialism as a major force in US politics -Arkansas sharecroppers who lobbied government in 1934 to halt tenant evictions and to force landowners to share payment with tenants, to help revive the United States' agricultural industry and to recharge the depressed economy.
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Dust Bowl
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a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.--many okies had to relocate.
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Okies
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Unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s in the West, especially California
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fireside chats
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The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression. (1933-44)
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second new deal
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Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits. included SSA, WPA, etc.
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Charles E Coughlin
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Roman Catholic "radio priest'' who founded the National Union for Social Justice in 1934, promoted schemes for the coinage of silver and made attacks on bankers that carried growing overtones of anti-Semitism. At first he supported the New Deal but by 1935 he was condemning FDR as a betrayer.
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Francis E Townsend
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a Calif. doctor who was upset at the sight of elderly women digging in the trash for food, proposed the Townsend Plan of 1934. This plan would pay $200/mo. to everyone over 60 who had retired, as long as they promised to spend the money that month. This provided financial security for the elderly & job openings for the young. had a large following from the lower-middle class this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system
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John Maynard Keynes
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(1883-1946) English economist. He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence "General Theory") and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending.
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Resettlement administration
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April 30, 1935- Tugwell, who held positions in the United States Department of Agriculture, convinced Roosevelt to form an agency that would relocate struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government. Roosevelt was in control. Replaced by Farm Security Administration in 1937.
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Farm Security Administration
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1937-Replaced Resettlement Admin. Made low-interest loans allowing tnant farmers to buy family sized farms. Established network of well-run camps:clean, sanitary shelter,medical services to migrant farm workers.
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Revenue Act of 1935
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Revenue Act of 1935 that was the last of the major bills making up the "Second New Deal,'' popularly known as the "Soak the Rich'' tax; raised tax rates on incomes above $50,000, estate and gift taxes, and the corporate tax on all but small corporations.
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Mary McLeod Bethune
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Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
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black cabinet
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group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president. an informal network of black officeholders in the federal government; led by Mary McLeod Bethune, William Hastie, and Robert Weaver, they pushed for economic and political opportunities for African Americans in the 1930s and 1940s.
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Reconstruction Finance Corporation
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Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II. RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration
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bonus marchers
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WWI veterans- camped and marched in Washington, D.C. - summer 1932- seeking immediate payment for pensions from President Hoover that they were promised in 1924- repelled by General MacArthur- better reception from FDR
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brain trust
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Specialists in law, economics, and welfare, many young university professors, who advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt and helped develop the policies of the New Deal.
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Frances Perkins
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(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 - May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
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Harold Ickes
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Secretary of the interior who headed the Public Works Administration, which aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways
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the Hundred Days
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March 9-June 16, 1933; Congress enacted more than a dozen Progressive-inspired measures expanding federal involvement in national economic life; ambitious beginning of relief and recovery programs; symbolized both dynamism and confusion of the New Deal
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Duke Ellington
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Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz. Harlem Renaissance.
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Harlem Renaissance
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a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
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Langston Hughes
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(1902-1967) African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
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Immigration Acts
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(1) series of laws (1921, 24, 27) that established a quota system that allowed only 3% of each nationality in the 1910 US population to immigrate each year, then lowered to 2% of the 1890 population, then simply set at 150,000 per year and only from W. and N. Europe; (2) the 1965 law ended the quotas and set a limit of 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere & 170,000 from elsewhere, leading to the high Asian and Latin American immigration that continues today. 1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
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national-origins quota system
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an American system of immigration quotas, between 1921 and 1965, which restricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of the population. The goal was to maintain the existing ethnic composition of the United States. It had the effect of giving low quotas to Eastern and Southern Europe. The 1921 Emergency Quota Act restricted immigration to 3% of foreign-born persons of each nationality that resident in the United States in 1910. The Immigration Act of 1924, also called the National Origins Act, provided that for three years the formula would change from 3% to 2% and the basis for the calculation would be the census of 1890 instead of that of 1910. After June 30, 1927, total immigration from all countries will be limited to 150,000, with allocations by country based upon national origins of inhabitants according to the census of 1920. The quota system applied only to white immigrants. It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants, to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the population. The 1924 Act also included the Asian Exclusion Act, which limited immigration to persons eligible for naturalization. Since Asians were not eligible for naturalization, they were effectively banned. Immigration from Latin America was not restricted. Immigration from Africa, which had been permitted since 1870, was not affected. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 retained the National Origins Formula. It modified the ratios to be based on the 1920 census and eliminated racial restrictions, but retained restrictions by national origin. The National Origins Formula was abolished by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which marked a significant change in American immigration policy. It replaced the system with two quotas for the Western and Eastern hemispheres.
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sacco and vanzetti
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were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
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Marcus Garvey
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African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
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Universal Negro Improvement Association
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(UNIA) Association founded by Marcus Gravey in 1914 to foster African American economic independence and establish an independent black homeland in Africa. Marcus Garvey.
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John T. Scopes
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High school teacher who was prosecuted in 1925 for violating a Tennessee law outlawing the teaching of evolution in public schools and colleges; he was ultimately convicted but his $100 fine was overturned by the state supreme court on a legal technicality.
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scopes monkey trial
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1925 It was an American legal case that tested the Butler Act. the law forbade the teaching of any aspect fo the theory of evolution. The Butler Act made the teaching of evolution unlawful especially in TN. John Scopes was persecuted for teaching evolution and he was found guilty.
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Volstead Act
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1920-Federal law enforcing the 18th Amendment-Prohibition;the Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
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wets/ drys
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people who drank and smuggled alcohol; opposed prohibition / those who supported prohibition
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Alfred E Smith
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w, He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate., Former governor of New York who ran for President against Herbert Hoover. He was against Prohibition.
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herbert hoover
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Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. WON.
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1928 election
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The election was between Herbert Hoover and Alfred Smith. Alfred smith was a catholic and was predjusized against. Hoover was not qualified to win the election. He had no prior experience in polotics nor military. He publicised himself as pro prohibition even though he owned a wine cellar himself. Alfred was against prohibition. Hurbert Hoover also won many states that were in the south. This was the first time that a republican had won those states ever since Abraham lincoln was elected.
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American First Committee
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largely Midwestern isolationist organization support by many prominent citizens who were opposed to the US joining WWII. (1940-1941). They argued that a Nazi victory would pose no threat to national security and therefore the US should stay out of war
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interventionists
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Americans who believed that the US should get involved with Europe and WWII because if the Axis lost it would endanger democracies everywhere.
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Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
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A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets. Japan offered to liberate Southeast-Asian countries from western colonial rule but instead used them as conquered land for natural resources
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Office of Price Administration
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Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
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Oppenheimer
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United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (1904-1967)
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Manhattan Project
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Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
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Servicemen's Readjustment Act
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A government legislation designed to solve the problem of what the 15 million soldiers would do once they got back home. It allowed all servicemen to have free college education once they returned from the war, and it created the Veterans' Administration allowing them to take out loans. also known as GI Bill of Rights-1944- offered stipends covering tuition and living expenses to veterans attending vocational schools or college
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Rosie the Riveter
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A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
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executive Order 8802
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In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
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Los Angeles Zoot-suit riot
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June 3, 1943, a number of sailors claimed to have been beaten and robbed by Mexican pachucos. The following evening, a mob of about 200 sailors, tired of boredom and fired up with bigotry, hired a fleet of cabs and rolled into East Los Angeles to beat up and strip the clothing off any young Latino male they could find.
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korematsu case
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A Japanese American worker in California was arrested for refusing to report to a relocation center, and he appealed, saying his civil rights had been violated.The resulting 1944 Supreme Court case ruled that the relocation policy was not based on race.
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Declaration of the United Nations
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January 1, 1942, signed by 26 nations that agreed not to make separate peace agreements with the enemy and to uphold the Atlantic Charter,evolved into another in 1945 that became the basis for the successor organization to the League of Nations
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Battle of the Bulge
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December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
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Bretton Woods Agreement
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In 1944 the Allied government met in New Hampshire and agreed that foreign currencies were to be valued in relations to the dollar and several important institutions were created to oversee international trade
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International Monetary Fund
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An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
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World Bank
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A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
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George F. Kennan
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an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
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containment
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a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
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Iron Curtain Speech
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March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
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Truman Doctrine
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First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
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George C Marshall
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Secretary of State, invited the Europeans to work out a joint plan for their economic recovery, offered financial aid to the Soviet Union and its allies
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Marshall Plan
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Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
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Berlin Blockade
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April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
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Berlin Airlift
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Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
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NATO
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Organization formed in 1949 as a military alliance of Western European and North American states against the Soviet Union and its East European allies.
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Warsaw Pact
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The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
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MacArthur
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American general; he commanded U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II; later he commanded UN forces in the Korean War; also drove the Bonus Marchers out of DC
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National Security Council
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An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.
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NSC-68
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National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs
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Edward Teller
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United States physicist (born in Hungary) who worked on the first atom bombs and the first hydrogen bomb (born in 1908)
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hydrogen bomb
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a nuclear weapon that releases atomic energy by union of light (hydrogen) nuclei at high temperatures to form helium
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Taft-Hartley Act
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(HT) 1947, , The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
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Thurmond
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south carolina governor who ran for president against truman in 1948 on the dixiecrat ticket., dixiecrat from SC election of 1948, longest filibuster, state's right initiative
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Dixiecrats
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Were conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats.
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Henry A Wallace
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head of the Progressive Party, another faction that branched off from the Dem Party before the election of 1948; was a liberal Democrat who were frustrated that Truman's domestic policies were ineffective and were against his foreign anti-Communist policies
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Progressive Party
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Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
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Federal Employee Loyalty Program
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United States Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as The Loyalty Order, was signed March 21, 1947[1] by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The order established the first general loyalty program in the United States, which was designed to root out communist influence within the various departments of the U.S. federal government.
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Smith Act
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1940 act which made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government. Was used by Truman 11 times to prosecute suspected Communists
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Dennis v. United States
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1951, The Supreme Court upheld the conviction clearing the way for prosecution of other communist leaders. In July 1048, the administration charged eleven top communists with violating the Smith Act of 1940, which made it a crime to conspire to "advocate and teach" the violent overthrow of government. After ten months of trial and deliberation, a lower court declared the Smith Act constitutional and the communists guilty.
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Alger Hiss
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A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
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Whittaker chambers
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TIME magazine editor and former communist. Confessed to spying for the Soviet Union during the 1930's. Named fellow spies, some of them in Roosevelt's cabinet. A confessed Communist and a star witness for the HUAC in 1948 when he testified against Alger Hiss.
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Richard M. Nixon
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He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower's Vice-President.
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Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
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were American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history
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McCarthy
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United States politician (WISCONSIN SENATOR) who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
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McCarthyism
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The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
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Interstate Highway Act
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(DDE), now rapid growth of suburban housing, like Levittown, NY , 1956 law that authorized the speding of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles oh highway. The scale of suburban growth would not have been remotely possible without a massive federal program of highway building. Committed to the idea of easing automobile travel, President Eisenhower authorized the first funding of the Interstate system in 1953. Further legislation passed by Congress in 1956 resulted in the Interstate Highway Act. This consisted of multilane expressways that would connect the nations major cities. Biggest public works expedenture in history even bigger than any New Deal program. The new highways eased commutes from suburbs to cities, boosted travel and vacation industries.
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McCarran Internal Security Act
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1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
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McCarran Walter Immigration and Nationality Act
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1952; restricts immigration to US; people born in Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Isles get US citizenship
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Brown v Board of Education
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1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
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Orval E. Faubus
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Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
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Little Rock desegregation
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When 9 black students tried to go to Central High School in Little Rock, Governor of AK Orville Faubus sent state troopers to stop them. Riots ensued and the blacks were barred entry. President Eisenhower sent federal paratroopers to guarantee their entry into the school. When Faubus realized this, he shut down Little Rock public schools a year later (1958).
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Civil Rights Acts
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1957 - ensured that all blacks could exercise their right to vote 1960 - punished those who tried to prevent an eligible person from voting
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John Foster Dulles
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Eisenhower's Sec. of State; harsh anti-Communist; called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)
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brinkmanship
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A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
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domino theory
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the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
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Eisenhower Doctrine
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policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country, Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
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military industrial complex
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Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
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afl-cio
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The American Federation of Labor was a federation of unions made up of skilled workers formed in 1886 by Gompers. The Congress of Industrial Organizations was a federation of unions made up of industrial workers formed in 1935 by John L Lewis. In 1955 the two organizations merged
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sun belt
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U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
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baby boom
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the rapid population increase that took place bewteen 1945 and 1960
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rosa parks
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United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
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martin luther king jr
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U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
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montgomery bus boycott
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In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference
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An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
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the Beats
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1950s; celebrated spontaneity (ex: Kerouac and the Merry Pranksters) jazz, drugs, sexuality; challenged conformity and authority of America by rejecting traditions and emphasizing individualism; inspiration for counterculture of 1960s
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The Other America
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(1962)-This novel was an influential study of poverty in the U.S, published by Michael Harrington & it was a driving force behind the "war on poverty." 1/5 of U.S was living below poverty line.
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ralph nader
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In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
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Congress of Racial Equality
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CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation. Founded 1942
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Peace Corps
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(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
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Alliance for Progress
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(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
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Economic Opportunity Act
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Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson on August 20, 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Implemented by the since disbanded Office of Economic Opportunity, the Act included several social programs to promote the health, education, and general welfare of the impoverished. Although most of the initiatives in the Act have since been modified, weakened, or altogether rolled back, its remaining programs include Head Start, and Job Corps. Remaining War on Poverty programs are managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services's Office of Community Services and the U.S. Department of Labor.
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medicare and medicaid
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Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
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Immigration Act
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Although technically just a group of amendments to the existing Immigration and Nationality Act, the Immigration Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, in actuality fundamentally reshaped American Immigration for the remainder of the twentieth century and beyond. It abolished the national origins system set up in the Immigration Act of 1924 and modified by the Immigration Act of 1924. Easier.
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Civil Rights Act 1964
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This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
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Mississippi Freedom Summer Project
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1964-mobilized more than 100 northern blacks and whites to conduct voter education classes and a voter registration drive; resistance was fierce, but still the movement persisted.
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Voting Rights Act
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(LBJ) , 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
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Malcolm X
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1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
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Black Muslims
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Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world. Developed by the black Muslim Leader Elijah Muhammad who preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. The movement attracted thousands of followers.
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Stokely Carmichael
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a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
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H Rap Brown
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A proponent of Black Power, he succeeded Stokely Carmichael as head of SNCC. He was indicted by inciting riot and for arson.
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Black Power
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a political philosophy, promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s, that supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions
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Huey Newton
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An American political and urban activist who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. The Black Panther Party worked for the right of self-defense for African-Americans in the United States.
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Bobby Seale
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(with Huey Newton) begin the Black Panther Party -demanded the government rebuild ghettos - "black is beautiful" 1960's. different because didnt believe in nonviolence, change from usual civil rights method.
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Black Panthers
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Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.--founded 1965
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American Indian Movement
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(AIM) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means
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Cesar Chavez
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1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
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Henry Ford
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United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
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Fordism
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system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
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Teapot Dome
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(CC), a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
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Harding
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29th President elected in 1920; died in 1923; scandals such as Teapot Dome discovered after his death
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coolidge
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elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933) laissez faire
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hoover
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Head of the Food Administration during WW1; 31st President, elected in 1928; failed to deal with effectively with the Great Depression; defeated for reelection in 1932 by FDR
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Fordney-McCumber
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1922-Protective tariff which was the highest at that time; encouraged consumers to buy American made products
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Smoot Hawley
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1930 Tariffs- import duties so high, cost import goods increased 70% - other countries did it too -basically stopped international trade
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Washington Naval Arms Conference
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called by Harding in 1921 when naval race between US, Britain, and Japan was a danger, they pledged to reduce battleships but failed to prevent war, US and Japan recognized each others territory in the Pacific
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Robert La Follette
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Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary
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Jane Addams
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the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
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Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
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Jane Addams was the president of this organization, which called for denouncing harsh peace terms (the disarmament of only one side and economic penalties for central powers).---predicted it would lead to more wars
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Charles A Lindbergh
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first pilot to fly nonstop across the Atlantic; a huge celebrity in the 1920s; later used his influence to try to keep the US out of WWII
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F Scott Fitzgerald
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a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
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Sinclair Lewis
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United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)
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Ernest Hemingway
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Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms