Unit 8 Progress Check: MCQ

22 August 2022
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"I have today signed an Executive Order providing for the establishment of a Peace Corps. . . . This Corps will be a pool of trained American men and women sent overseas by the U.S. Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower. . . . "In establishing our Peace Corps we intend to make full use of the resources and talents of private institutions and groups. Universities, voluntary agencies, labor unions and industry will be asked to share in this effort—contributing diverse sources of energy and imagination—making it clear that the responsibility for peace is the responsibility of our entire society. ". . . . Our Peace Corps is not designed as an instrument of diplomacy or propaganda or ideological conflict. It is designed to permit our people to exercise more fully their responsibilities in the great common cause of world development. "Life in the Peace Corps will not be easy. There will be no salary and allowances will be at a level sufficient only to maintain health and meet basic needs. Men and women will be expected to work and live alongside the nationals of the country in which they are stationed—doing the same work, eating the same food, talking the same language. ". . . Every young American who participates in the Peace Corps—who works in a foreign land—will know that he or she is sharing in the great common task of bringing to man that decent way of life which is the foundation of freedom and a condition of peace." President John F. Kennedy, statement upon signing the order establishing the Peace Corps, 1961 Which of the following postwar developments most directly contributed to the ideas in the excerpt? The foreign policy strategy of supporting developing nations as a means to prevent the spread of communism A The popularization of liberal policies characterized by movements for rights and equality B The ascendance of a youth counterculture and its role in leading social and cultural change C The decline of Cold War military strategies in the 1960s D
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The foreign policy strategy of supporting developing nations as a means to prevent the spread of communism A
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"I have today signed an Executive Order providing for the establishment of a Peace Corps. . . . This Corps will be a pool of trained American men and women sent overseas by the U.S. Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower. . . . "In establishing our Peace Corps we intend to make full use of the resources and talents of private institutions and groups. Universities, voluntary agencies, labor unions and industry will be asked to share in this effort—contributing diverse sources of energy and imagination—making it clear that the responsibility for peace is the responsibility of our entire society. ". . . . Our Peace Corps is not designed as an instrument of diplomacy or propaganda or ideological conflict. It is designed to permit our people to exercise more fully their responsibilities in the great common cause of world development. "Life in the Peace Corps will not be easy. There will be no salary and allowances will be at a level sufficient only to maintain health and meet basic needs. Men and women will be expected to work and live alongside the nationals of the country in which they are stationed—doing the same work, eating the same food, talking the same language. ". . . Every young American who participates in the Peace Corps—who works in a foreign land—will know that he or she is sharing in the great common task of bringing to man that decent way of life which is the foundation of freedom and a condition of peace." President John F. Kennedy, statement upon signing the order establishing the Peace Corps, 1961 President Kennedy's primary goal in enacting the program described in the excerpt was most likely to increase the civic engagement and global activism of United States youth A train a more determined and persistent United States workforce through challenging overseas service B promote a free-market global economy through international aid to other nations C encourage the adoption of the foreign policy of détente D
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promote a free-market global economy through international aid to other nations C
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"I have today signed an Executive Order providing for the establishment of a Peace Corps. . . . This Corps will be a pool of trained American men and women sent overseas by the U.S. Government or through private institutions and organizations to help foreign countries meet their urgent needs for skilled manpower. . . . "In establishing our Peace Corps we intend to make full use of the resources and talents of private institutions and groups. Universities, voluntary agencies, labor unions and industry will be asked to share in this effort—contributing diverse sources of energy and imagination—making it clear that the responsibility for peace is the responsibility of our entire society. ". . . . Our Peace Corps is not designed as an instrument of diplomacy or propaganda or ideological conflict. It is designed to permit our people to exercise more fully their responsibilities in the great common cause of world development. "Life in the Peace Corps will not be easy. There will be no salary and allowances will be at a level sufficient only to maintain health and meet basic needs. Men and women will be expected to work and live alongside the nationals of the country in which they are stationed—doing the same work, eating the same food, talking the same language. ". . . Every young American who participates in the Peace Corps—who works in a foreign land—will know that he or she is sharing in the great common task of bringing to man that decent way of life which is the foundation of freedom and a condition of peace." President John F. Kennedy, statement upon signing the order establishing the Peace Corps, 1961 The point of view expressed in the excerpt most directly illuminates which of the following debates within United States foreign policy during the post-Second World War period? Whether to use direct or indirect tactics to challenge the influence of the Soviet Union A Whether to join mutual defense organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) B Whether to support European nations' efforts to keep control over their overseas colonies C Whether to give the executive branch increased power over foreign and military policy D
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Whether to use direct or indirect tactics to challenge the influence of the Soviet Union A
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"What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. . . . ". . . It might be of interest to observe that in 1917 when the Communists overthrew the Russian Government there was one Communist for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country. "One who accepts the aims, principles, and program of the party, who attends meetings, who reads the party press and literature, who pays dues, and who is active on behalf of the party 'shall be considered a member.' The open, avowed Communist who carries a card and pays dues is no different from a security standpoint than the person who does the party's work but pays no dues, carries no card, and is not on the party rolls. In fact, the latter is a greater menace because of his opportunity to work in stealth." J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 1947 Which of the following best explains how the Red Scare following the Second World War reflected the larger historical context? The ideas reveal strategies by the United States to gain support of other nations against Soviet expansion. A The ideas demonstrate efforts by the federal government to ensure domestic security. B The ideas represent a consensus among policy makers in favor of expanding the social welfare state. C The ideas show how conservatives mobilized to promote isolationism from international affairs. D
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The ideas demonstrate efforts by the federal government to ensure domestic security. B
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"What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. . . . ". . . It might be of interest to observe that in 1917 when the Communists overthrew the Russian Government there was one Communist for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country. "One who accepts the aims, principles, and program of the party, who attends meetings, who reads the party press and literature, who pays dues, and who is active on behalf of the party 'shall be considered a member.' The open, avowed Communist who carries a card and pays dues is no different from a security standpoint than the person who does the party's work but pays no dues, carries no card, and is not on the party rolls. In fact, the latter is a greater menace because of his opportunity to work in stealth." J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 1947 At the time, Hoover's purpose in his testimony would have most likely been interpreted as attempting to convince Americans of the need to expand United States nuclear defenses A danger exhibited by Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe B threat posed by suspected communists within the United States C links between domestic security and a prosperous consumer economy D
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threat posed by suspected communists within the United States C
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"What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. . . . ". . . It might be of interest to observe that in 1917 when the Communists overthrew the Russian Government there was one Communist for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country. "One who accepts the aims, principles, and program of the party, who attends meetings, who reads the party press and literature, who pays dues, and who is active on behalf of the party 'shall be considered a member.' The open, avowed Communist who carries a card and pays dues is no different from a security standpoint than the person who does the party's work but pays no dues, carries no card, and is not on the party rolls. In fact, the latter is a greater menace because of his opportunity to work in stealth." J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 1947 The House Un-American Activity Committee (HUAC)'s interpretation of Hoover's testimony most likely influenced the committee to approve significant increases in the FBI's budget A disregard Hoover's testimony as unreliable B criticize Hoover for political bias and inaccurate information gathering C investigate communism in labor unions and industries such as filmmaking D
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investigate communism in labor unions and industries such as filmmaking D
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"What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. . . . ". . . It might be of interest to observe that in 1917 when the Communists overthrew the Russian Government there was one Communist for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country. "One who accepts the aims, principles, and program of the party, who attends meetings, who reads the party press and literature, who pays dues, and who is active on behalf of the party 'shall be considered a member.' The open, avowed Communist who carries a card and pays dues is no different from a security standpoint than the person who does the party's work but pays no dues, carries no card, and is not on the party rolls. In fact, the latter is a greater menace because of his opportunity to work in stealth." J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 1947 Hoover's testimony in the excerpt could best be used as evidence by historians studying which of the following? Debates among Americans about the policies and methods used to expose domestic communists A The methods used by the federal government to infiltrate communist organizations B The efforts by Congress to protect the United States against communist influence C Debates among Americans about how to combat Soviet influence in the developing world D
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Debates among Americans about the policies and methods used to expose domestic communists A
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"In the mass movement into suburban areas a new kind of community was produced, which caricatured both the historic city and the archetypal suburban refuge: a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless pre-fabricated foods, from the same freezers, conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold, manufactured in the central metropolis. Thus the ultimate effect of the suburban escape in our time is, ironically, a low-grade uniform environment from which escape is impossible." Lewis Mumford, historian, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1961 Which of the following best explains a limitation in Mumford's critique of postwar suburbanization? Many families moved to the new suburbs to find affordable homes. A The federal government allocated many new subdivisions for public housing. B Many African American and Latino American families moved to the new suburbs. C The federal government recognized suburban sprawl as an environmental concern. D
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Many families moved to the new suburbs to find affordable homes. A
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"In the mass movement into suburban areas a new kind of community was produced, which caricatured both the historic city and the archetypal suburban refuge: a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless pre-fabricated foods, from the same freezers, conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold, manufactured in the central metropolis. Thus the ultimate effect of the suburban escape in our time is, ironically, a low-grade uniform environment from which escape is impossible." Lewis Mumford, historian, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1961 Mumford's argument in the excerpt does not account for which of the following historical factors that most directly explains the rise of the suburbs in the United States? Growth of public transportation in most major urban areas A Increased access to higher education opportunities B The government's recognition of labor unions in many industries C The necessity of having an automobile to travel to work D
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The necessity of having an automobile to travel to work D
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"In the mass movement into suburban areas a new kind of community was produced, which caricatured both the historic city and the archetypal suburban refuge: a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless pre-fabricated foods, from the same freezers, conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold, manufactured in the central metropolis. Thus the ultimate effect of the suburban escape in our time is, ironically, a low-grade uniform environment from which escape is impossible." Lewis Mumford, historian, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1961 Mumford overlooks which of the following broader historical contexts that best explains why many Americans might have been attracted to the consistency and conformity of the suburbs? The rise of youth rebellion against middle class values helped expand a new consumer niche for products marketed directly to teenagers. A Many Americans developed a more cosmopolitan outlook after experiencing cultures different from their own during the Second World War. B Recent periods of economic depression and war encouraged many families to seek stability and security. C The technological innovations available in new homes, such as air-conditioning and dishwashers, fostered a sense of social isolation for many women. D
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Recent periods of economic depression and war encouraged many families to seek stability and security. C
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The depiction in the photograph best provides evidence for which of the following developments in the late 1940s and early 1950s? The spread of mass culture to many Americans A The influence of the Sun Belt on national politics B The fear of communist infiltration of the United States C The use of media to change the course of the Cold War D
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The spread of mass culture to many Americans A
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The image best serves as evidence of the experiences of families living in which of the following places in the 1950s? Ethnic immigrant neighborhoods A New suburban developments B Urban tenement buildings C Rural communities D
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New suburban developments B
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"This morning the mob again gathered in front of the Central High School of Little Rock, obviously for the purpose of again preventing the carrying out of the Court's order relating to the admission of Negro children to the school. "Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal Courts, the President's responsibility is inescapable. "In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas." President Dwight Eisenhower, national television and radio address, 1957 President Eisenhower's actions in the excerpt were most similar to which of the following earlier actions? The ending of segregation in the military in the 1940s A The internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War B The removal of American Indians to reservations in the 1830s C The issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation during the Civil War D
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The removal of American Indians to reservations in the 1830s C
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Which of the following groups would have most objected to the development evidenced in the photograph? Anticommunists seeking to show the superiority of the United States A Republican politicians opposed to the growth of federal spending B Young people who rejected the homogenization of culture C Civil rights activists protesting for voting rights D
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Anticommunists seeking to show the superiority of the United States A
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"This morning the mob again gathered in front of the Central High School of Little Rock, obviously for the purpose of again preventing the carrying out of the Court's order relating to the admission of Negro children to the school. "Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal Courts, the President's responsibility is inescapable. "In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas." President Dwight Eisenhower, national television and radio address, 1957 Which of the following events represented a continuation of the development discussed in the excerpt? The advocacy for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 A The opposition of activists to the Plessy v. Ferguson decision B The increasing debates over racial equality by African American military veterans C The Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to urban areas in the North and West D
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The advocacy for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 A
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"This morning the mob again gathered in front of the Central High School of Little Rock, obviously for the purpose of again preventing the carrying out of the Court's order relating to the admission of Negro children to the school. "Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal Courts, the President's responsibility is inescapable. "In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas." President Dwight Eisenhower, national television and radio address, 1957 Opponents of Eisenhower's decision in the excerpt most likely held views similar to which of the following earlier groups? Radical Republicans in Congress in the 1870s A Southern state leaders in the 1880s and 1890s B New Deal Democrats in the North in the 1930s and 1940s C Immigrants in urban ethnic neighborhoods in the early 1900s D
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Southern state leaders in the 1880s and 1890s B
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"This morning the mob again gathered in front of the Central High School of Little Rock, obviously for the purpose of again preventing the carrying out of the Court's order relating to the admission of Negro children to the school. "Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal Courts, the President's responsibility is inescapable. "In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas." President Dwight Eisenhower, national television and radio address, 1957 Which of the following contexts best explains the origins of the modern African American Civil Rights movement? Evangelical Christians became increasingly active in national politics. A The federal government continued to fail to live up to its promises of guaranteeing the equality of citizens. B The United States increased military spending and foreign aid to limit the expansion of communism. C A conservative movement developed that criticized the role of court decisions in society. D
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The federal government continued to fail to live up to its promises of guaranteeing the equality of citizens. B
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"[The United States federal government in] Washington had a mixed response to Asian decolonization. On the one hand, it was not unhappy to see the European empires dissolved. Washington regarded these empires, which functioned as restricted trading blocs, as obstacles to economic integration and as incubators of communism and anti-Western revolution. On the other hand, Washington recognized that Europe's economic and political stability often depended upon income generated in the colonies. Whether the United States supported or opposed a particular nationalist movement often depended on its relationship to communism. . . . Washington only endorsed nationalist movements, such as those in Indonesia and the Philippines, that promised to preserve Western access after independence. It was willing to abolish formal empire, as long as the relations of informal empire continued uninterrupted." Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961, published in 2003 "Shortly after the outbreak of war between the Vietnamese and the French, Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam (DRV) launched a four-month diplomatic initiative in the spring and summer of 1947 designed to secure the support of the [President Harry] Truman administration. . . . [The DRV's] agenda included calls for recognition of the DRV and mediation of the war with the French, requests for rehabilitation loans and promises of economic concessions to U.S. businesses, and appeals for technical assistance and cultural exchange. . . . ". . . With Soviet diplomacy focused on Europe and the Chinese communists preoccupied by civil war, the DRV also faced almost complete isolation from the communist world. . . . [But United States] fears of Vietnamese subservience to Moscow that first had emerged in 1946 intensified with the escalation of Soviet-American tensions in Europe. . . . The commitment of the United States to maintain French political and economic stability in Western Europe complicated its abilities to challenge French policies in Vietnam directly." Mark Philip Bradley, Imagining Vietnam and America: The Making of Post-Colonial Vietnam, 1919-1950, published in 2000 Which of the following arguments about United States policy toward decolonization do the excerpts best support? It sought to encourage decolonization by withholding economic support to European nations. A It was more interested in maintaining stability in regions than in backing decolonization. B It supported decolonization efforts by providing weapons and money to nationalists. C It rejected decolonization in favor of replacing European control with American control. D
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It was more interested in maintaining stability in regions than in backing decolonization. B
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"[The United States federal government in] Washington had a mixed response to Asian decolonization. On the one hand, it was not unhappy to see the European empires dissolved. Washington regarded these empires, which functioned as restricted trading blocs, as obstacles to economic integration and as incubators of communism and anti-Western revolution. On the other hand, Washington recognized that Europe's economic and political stability often depended upon income generated in the colonies. Whether the United States supported or opposed a particular nationalist movement often depended on its relationship to communism. . . . Washington only endorsed nationalist movements, such as those in Indonesia and the Philippines, that promised to preserve Western access after independence. It was willing to abolish formal empire, as long as the relations of informal empire continued uninterrupted." Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961, published in 2003 "Shortly after the outbreak of war between the Vietnamese and the French, Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam (DRV) launched a four-month diplomatic initiative in the spring and summer of 1947 designed to secure the support of the [President Harry] Truman administration. . . . [The DRV's] agenda included calls for recognition of the DRV and mediation of the war with the French, requests for rehabilitation loans and promises of economic concessions to U.S. businesses, and appeals for technical assistance and cultural exchange. . . . ". . . With Soviet diplomacy focused on Europe and the Chinese communists preoccupied by civil war, the DRV also faced almost complete isolation from the communist world. . . . [But United States] fears of Vietnamese subservience to Moscow that first had emerged in 1946 intensified with the escalation of Soviet-American tensions in Europe. . . . The commitment of the United States to maintain French political and economic stability in Western Europe complicated its abilities to challenge French policies in Vietnam directly." Mark Philip Bradley, Imagining Vietnam and America: The Making of Post-Colonial Vietnam, 1919-1950, published in 2000 Bradley's argument differs from Klein's in that Bradley claims that some communist governments actually sought assistance from the United States A decolonization occurred in areas where the United States was given access to trade B the United States actively opposed colonialism in Asia but not in Africa C the Soviet Union supported decolonization so that it could limit the influence of the United States D
answer
some communist governments actually sought assistance from the United States A
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"[The United States federal government in] Washington had a mixed response to Asian decolonization. On the one hand, it was not unhappy to see the European empires dissolved. Washington regarded these empires, which functioned as restricted trading blocs, as obstacles to economic integration and as incubators of communism and anti-Western revolution. On the other hand, Washington recognized that Europe's economic and political stability often depended upon income generated in the colonies. Whether the United States supported or opposed a particular nationalist movement often depended on its relationship to communism. . . . Washington only endorsed nationalist movements, such as those in Indonesia and the Philippines, that promised to preserve Western access after independence. It was willing to abolish formal empire, as long as the relations of informal empire continued uninterrupted." Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961, published in 2003 "Shortly after the outbreak of war between the Vietnamese and the French, Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of [North] Vietnam (DRV) launched a four-month diplomatic initiative in the spring and summer of 1947 designed to secure the support of the [President Harry] Truman administration. . . . [The DRV's] agenda included calls for recognition of the DRV and mediation of the war with the French, requests for rehabilitation loans and promises of economic concessions to U.S. businesses, and appeals for technical assistance and cultural exchange. . . . ". . . With Soviet diplomacy focused on Europe and the Chinese communists preoccupied by civil war, the DRV also faced almost complete isolation from the communist world. . . . [But United States] fears of Vietnamese subservience to Moscow that first had emerged in 1946 intensified with the escalation of Soviet-American tensions in Europe. . . . The commitment of the United States to maintain French political and economic stability in Western Europe complicated its abilities to challenge French policies in Vietnam directly." Mark Philip Bradley, Imagining Vietnam and America: The Making of Post-Colonial Vietnam, 1919-1950, published in 2000 The excerpts could best be used to support which of the following criticisms about United States foreign policy during the Cold War? The United States took advantage of decolonization to gain more influence in a weakened Europe. A The United States preferred to focus on domestic issues rather than on international concerns. B The United States sometimes supported nondemocratic countries so long as they opposed communism. C The United States devoted too much money and effort to fighting communism in newly independent countries. D
answer
The United States sometimes supported nondemocratic countries so long as they opposed communism. C
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Which of the following best explains the change in the overall United States military presence in Vietnam between 1964 and 1968 as depicted in the graph? The belief that democratic governments needed to be protected from the influence of the Soviet Union A The fear that the North Vietnamese forces under Ho Chi Minh would spread communism in Asia B The concern that France was attempting to colonize Vietnam in opposition to international agreements C The reaction of the Lyndon Johnson administration to scandals over presidential authority D
answer
The fear that the North Vietnamese forces under Ho Chi Minh would spread communism in Asia B
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Which of the following best explains the change in United States military combat deaths in Vietnam between 1964 and 1968 as depicted in the graph? Growing opposition to the Vietnam War by university students in the United States A The end of the alliance between the Soviet Union and the United States B Increasing commitment by politicians in the United States to combat the spread of global communism C The direct intervention of Chinese military forces on the side of the North Vietnamese government D
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Increasing commitment by politicians in the United States to combat the spread of global communism C
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Which of the following was the primary reason behind the change in United States military forces in Vietnam after 1969 as depicted in the graph? Following his election President Richard Nixon began an immediate de-escalation of the conflict and North and South Vietnam eventually signed a peace treaty. A By shifting to a strategy more reliant on air raids and espionage, President Nixon was able to win the war with fewer soldiers. B Responding to decreasing public support for the Vietnam War, President Nixon eventually withdrew United States troops without eliminating communism or uniting Vietnam. C As part of his negotiation with China, President Nixon brought United States involvement in the Vietnam War to an end through diplomacy. D
answer
Responding to decreasing public support for the Vietnam War, President Nixon eventually withdrew United States troops without eliminating communism or uniting Vietnam. C
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"Both the phrase 'Great Society' and the planning for it dated to May 1964, when [President Lyndon] Johnson addressed the graduating class of the University of Michigan. 'We have the opportunity,' he proclaimed, 'to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society.' . . . Starting in that summer [of 1964] he also established the first of what ultimately became 135 'task forces' to study a wide range of social problems. . . . Much of what he requested aimed to go beyond . . . the New Deal in order to create a Great Society that would be qualitatively better and that would guarantee 'rights' and government entitlements." James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974, published in 1996 The principles of the Great Society as expressed in the excerpt are best explained in the context of which of the following twentieth-century ideologies? Liberalism A Conservatism B Feminism C Isolationism D
answer
Liberalism A
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"Both the phrase 'Great Society' and the planning for it dated to May 1964, when [President Lyndon] Johnson addressed the graduating class of the University of Michigan. 'We have the opportunity,' he proclaimed, 'to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society.' . . . Starting in that summer [of 1964] he also established the first of what ultimately became 135 'task forces' to study a wide range of social problems. . . . Much of what he requested aimed to go beyond . . . the New Deal in order to create a Great Society that would be qualitatively better and that would guarantee 'rights' and government entitlements." James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974, published in 1996 The expansion of African American rights during the Great Society was most similar to which of the following earlier situations? The federal support for unionization of workers in the 1930s A The new laws protecting consumer rights in the 1900s B The end of property requirements for voting during the Jacksonian era C
answer
D
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"Both the phrase 'Great Society' and the planning for it dated to May 1964, when [President Lyndon] Johnson addressed the graduating class of the University of Michigan. 'We have the opportunity,' he proclaimed, 'to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society.' . . . Starting in that summer [of 1964] he also established the first of what ultimately became 135 'task forces' to study a wide range of social problems. . . . Much of what he requested aimed to go beyond . . . the New Deal in order to create a Great Society that would be qualitatively better and that would guarantee 'rights' and government entitlements." James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974, published in 1996 The social policies advocated by which of following earlier groups were most similar to the policies of the Great Society? Supporters of Social Darwinism in the 1890s A Opponents of imperialism in the early 1900s B Progressives in the 1910s C Republican politicians in the 1920s D
answer
Progressives in the 1910s C
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"The fact that Virginia prohibits only interracial marriages involving white persons demonstrates that the racial classifications must stand on their own justification, as measures designed to maintain White Supremacy. We have consistently denied the constitutionality of measures which restrict the rights of citizens on account of race. There can be no doubt that restricting the freedom to marry solely because of racial classifications violates the central meaning of the Equal Protection Clause. "These statutes also deprive the Lovings of liberty without due process of law in violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men. "Marriage is one of the 'basic civil rights of man,' fundamental to our very existence and survival. . . . To deny this fundamental freedom on so unsupportable a basis as the racial classifications embodied in these statutes . . . is surely to deprive all the State's citizens of liberty without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State." United States Supreme Court, ruling in Loving v. Virginia, 1967 The ruling described in the excerpt is most similar to which of the following earlier political changes? The enactment of universal voting rights for women during the Progressive Era A Court rulings during the Gilded Age that "separate but equal" public facilities were constitutional B The extension of citizenship rights to formerly enslaved people following the Civil War C The gradual shift of African American support to the Democratic Party during the New Deal D
answer
The extension of citizenship rights to formerly enslaved people following the Civil War C
question
"The fact that Virginia prohibits only interracial marriages involving white persons demonstrates that the racial classifications must stand on their own justification, as measures designed to maintain White Supremacy. We have consistently denied the constitutionality of measures which restrict the rights of citizens on account of race. There can be no doubt that restricting the freedom to marry solely because of racial classifications violates the central meaning of the Equal Protection Clause. "These statutes also deprive the Lovings of liberty without due process of law in violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men. "Marriage is one of the 'basic civil rights of man,' fundamental to our very existence and survival. . . . To deny this fundamental freedom on so unsupportable a basis as the racial classifications embodied in these statutes . . . is surely to deprive all the State's citizens of liberty without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State." United States Supreme Court, ruling in Loving v. Virginia, 1967 The ruling described in the excerpt is most similar to other civil rights achievements in the 1960s in that it reflected feminist demands for changes within the Civil Rights movement A represented responses by the federal government to calls for the expansion of civil rights B represented debates among civil rights activists over the best strategies to pursue C reflected the adoption of violent protest tactics among civil rights activists in the 1960s D
answer
represented responses by the federal government to calls for the expansion of civil rights B
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"The fact that Virginia prohibits only interracial marriages involving white persons demonstrates that the racial classifications must stand on their own justification, as measures designed to maintain White Supremacy. We have consistently denied the constitutionality of measures which restrict the rights of citizens on account of race. There can be no doubt that restricting the freedom to marry solely because of racial classifications violates the central meaning of the Equal Protection Clause. "These statutes also deprive the Lovings of liberty without due process of law in violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men. "Marriage is one of the 'basic civil rights of man,' fundamental to our very existence and survival. . . . To deny this fundamental freedom on so unsupportable a basis as the racial classifications embodied in these statutes . . . is surely to deprive all the State's citizens of liberty without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State." United States Supreme Court, ruling in Loving v. Virginia, 1967 By the late 1960s, critics within the Civil Rights movement were dissatisfied with the tactics illustrated by the excerpt. These critics were increasingly likely to argue that a constitutional amendment was needed to prevent the resegregation of public spaces A anticommunism should be a major component for gaining popular support of the movement B organizations needed to ally with other rights movements to gain more influence C nonviolent methods should be abandoned because they were ineffective D
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nonviolent methods should be abandoned because they were ineffective D
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The American Indian civil rights movement differed from other civil rights movements at the time because it debated whether to use violent or nonviolent protest tactics A sought to gain compensation for past government land policies B focused on resisting the military draft during the Vietnam War C supported the effort to reduce pollution produced by power plants D
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sought to gain compensation for past government land policies B
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The activism for lesbian and gay rights most closely mirrored the activism for African American civil rights in that both groups gained widespread political support for their causes A accepted the moral values of their parents' generation B avoided challenging discriminatory laws C used public protests to call for legal protections D
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used public protests to call for legal protections D
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Which of the following best represents the views held by opponents to the women's rights movement in the second half of the twentieth century? The original intent of the framers of the Constitution did not include citizenship for women. A Feminism threatens the traditional family unit, which is at the core of the social order. B The violent tactics used by members of the feminist movement illustrates the danger they pose to society. C Feminism makes the United States more vulnerable to communist attack. D
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Feminism threatens the traditional family unit, which is at the core of the social order. B
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"The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee now states its opposition to United States involvement in Vietnam on these grounds: "We believe the United States government has been deceptive in its claims of concern for the freedom of the Vietnamese people, just as the government has been deceptive in claiming concern for the freedom of colored people in such other countries as the Dominican Republic, the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and the United States itself. "We . . . have been involved in the black people's struggle for liberation and self-determination in this country for the past five years. Our work, particularly in the South, has taught us that the United States government has never guaranteed the freedom of oppressed citizens, and is not yet truly determined to end the rule of terror and oppression within its own borders. . . . "We are in sympathy with, and support, the men in this country who are unwilling to respond to a military draft which would compel them to contribute their lives to United States aggression in Vietnam in the name of the 'freedom' we find so false in this country." Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), position paper on Vietnam, 1966 Which of the following historical processes most directly contributed to reactions like those depicted in the excerpt? Efforts to contain the spread of communism following the Second World War A Attempts to secure United States oil supplies from the Middle East B Rejection of Great Society programs meant to combat poverty C Decline in public confidence in government following political scandals D
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Efforts to contain the spread of communism following the Second World War A
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"The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee now states its opposition to United States involvement in Vietnam on these grounds: "We believe the United States government has been deceptive in its claims of concern for the freedom of the Vietnamese people, just as the government has been deceptive in claiming concern for the freedom of colored people in such other countries as the Dominican Republic, the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and the United States itself. "We . . . have been involved in the black people's struggle for liberation and self-determination in this country for the past five years. Our work, particularly in the South, has taught us that the United States government has never guaranteed the freedom of oppressed citizens, and is not yet truly determined to end the rule of terror and oppression within its own borders. . . . "We are in sympathy with, and support, the men in this country who are unwilling to respond to a military draft which would compel them to contribute their lives to United States aggression in Vietnam in the name of the 'freedom' we find so false in this country." Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), position paper on Vietnam, 1966 Political statements such as the excerpt most directly culminated in which of the following? The emergence of evangelical Christians as a political force in the United States A The creation of a national energy policy to limit the influence of oil-producing countries on the United States B The establishment of political institutions meant to reduce environmental pollution C The growth in opposition to United States foreign policies by many groups on the political left D
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The growth in opposition to United States foreign policies by many groups on the political left D
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"The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee now states its opposition to United States involvement in Vietnam on these grounds: "We believe the United States government has been deceptive in its claims of concern for the freedom of the Vietnamese people, just as the government has been deceptive in claiming concern for the freedom of colored people in such other countries as the Dominican Republic, the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and the United States itself. "We . . . have been involved in the black people's struggle for liberation and self-determination in this country for the past five years. Our work, particularly in the South, has taught us that the United States government has never guaranteed the freedom of oppressed citizens, and is not yet truly determined to end the rule of terror and oppression within its own borders. . . . "We are in sympathy with, and support, the men in this country who are unwilling to respond to a military draft which would compel them to contribute their lives to United States aggression in Vietnam in the name of the 'freedom' we find so false in this country." Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), position paper on Vietnam, 1966 The activities of young people like those in SNCC exemplify which of the following broader changes in United States society during the 1960s? Many embraced an idealized suburban lifestyle. A Many rejected the values of previous generations. B Many opposed the women's rights movement C Many supported for conservative political policies. D
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Many rejected the values of previous generations. B
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The overall trend depicted in the graph best reflects which of the following? The expansion of renewable energy sources to address environmental concerns in the 1970s A The decline of coal as a major source of power beginning in the 1950s B The rejection of nuclear power following the end of the Vietnam War C The increased demand for all sources of power following the Second World War D
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The increased demand for all sources of power following the Second World War D
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Which of the following best explains a reaction to the changes in energy production depicted on the graph? Political leaders argued that excessive power consumption was economically wasteful. A Manufacturers began moving factories to countries with sufficient power supplies. B Americans voluntarily reduced their power consumption to save resources. C Environmental groups were formed to lobby against increased pollution. D
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Environmental groups were formed to lobby against increased pollution. D
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Which of the following best describes the federal government's response to the overall patterns depicted in the graph? The construction of highways meant to facilitate the transportation of fuel A The passage of laws meant to combat environmental problems caused by power generation B The enactment of policies meant to eliminate certain sources of power C The commitment of resources to the expansion of nuclear energy production D
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The passage of laws meant to combat environmental problems caused by power generation B
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A sense of optimism in the 1950s and 1960s most likely emerged in response to which of the following contexts? Changing foreign policies resulted in political debates. A Social changes brought about conservative reactions. B Rapid economic growth led to greater affluence. C Concerns about communist influence contributed to the Red Scare. D
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Rapid economic growth led to greater affluence. C
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Which of the following contextual factors most directly contributed to the decline in confidence in the federal government in the 1970s? A combination of economic challenges, political scandals, and foreign policy crises A A belief that the government no longer served the interests of the people B A growing clash between conservatives and liberals over policy C A sharp increase in immigration to the United States D
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A combination of economic challenges, political scandals, and foreign policy crises A
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The growing rift between conservative and liberal political perspectives in the 1970s was most likely in response to which of the following? Political scandals A Declining public confidence B Social and cultural issues C Containment foreign policy D
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Social and cultural issues C
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In the 1960s, conservatives most likely had which of the following goals in challenging laws that they perceived as being liberal, such as Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs? They sought to limit the role of the federal government in people's lives. A They sought to restrain the growth of the military. B They sought to expand religious freedoms. C They sought to fight pollution and protect natural resources. D
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They sought to limit the role of the federal government in people's lives. A