AP US History Exam Review

23 August 2022
4.7 (114 reviews)
724 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (720)
question
Chapter 3: Discovering and Settling the New World 1492-1700
answer
...
question
John Calvin
answer
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
question
Martin Luther
answer
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
question
John Smith
answer
..., Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
question
Protestant Reformation
answer
..., a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
question
Treaty of Tordesillas
answer
..., Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
question
Roanoke
answer
..., Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
question
Virginia Company
answer
..., Joint-stock company chartered by King James I of England; established the first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown in 1607.
question
elect
answer
..., in Calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation.
question
encomienda
answer
..., a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
question
Chapter 4: The Atlantic World 1600-1750
answer
...
question
John Winthrop
answer
..., Puritan Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, envisioned colony as a "city upon a hill"
question
Anne Hutchinson
answer
..., She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
question
Roger Williams
answer
..., He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
question
John Rolfe
answer
..., married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown
question
Lord Baltimore
answer
..., 1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
question
Sir William Berkeley
answer
..., the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
question
Nathaniel Bacon
answer
..., Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
question
William and Mary
answer
..., King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
question
The Church of England
answer
..., Also known as the Anglican Church, this Church was founded by 1534 by King Henry VIII, The king sought to divorce his first wife Catherine of Aragon however Pope Clement VII refused to dissolve the marriage. Enraged the King broke away from the Roman Catholic Church.
question
Puritans
answer
..., Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
question
New England Confederation
answer
..., 1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
question
separatists
answer
..., People who wanted to have a separate, or different church than the church of England. Also known as Pilgrims.
question
Pilgrims
answer
..., English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
question
nonseparatists
answer
..., This is another name for the Puritans who arrived in New England in 1629 due to oppression and persecution by the English Crown. While in England, these Puritans believed they must remain within the Church of England to reform it.
question
quakers
answer
..., English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
question
Great Migration
answer
..., when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
question
Holy Experiment
answer
an attempt by the Religious Society of Friends or (Quakers) to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
question
Bacon's Rebellion
answer
..., A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attempt to gain more land
question
Pueblo Revolt
answer
an uprising of most of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish settlers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico.[1]
question
Glorious Revolution
answer
..., This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
question
Mayflower Compact
answer
..., 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
question
Halfway Covenant
answer
..., Used by Puritan Churches to bolster attendance but also keep political leadership under the control respectable families. Conversion needed but not "regeneration" to be a member of the congregation.
question
Dominion of New England
answer
..., 1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
question
Act of Toleration
answer
The Act allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e., Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics. Nonconformists were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, if they accepted certain oaths of allegiance.
question
Fundamental Orders
answer
..., document which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens of Hartford
question
Salem
answer
witch trials
question
antimonianism
answer
..., Idea spread by Anne Hutchinson, considered high heresy. Those who believed they were truly saved, did not believe they had to obey the law
question
plantation system
answer
The division of the land into smaller units under private ownership
question
headright system
answer
..., Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
question
proprietary colonies
answer
..., Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
question
indentured servants
answer
..., Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
question
Chapter 5: Life in the Colonies 1700-1800
answer
...
question
Jonathan Edwards
answer
..., American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
question
George Whitefield
answer
..., Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
question
New Light Preachers
answer
..., These preachers crisscrossed the colonies speaking to large crowds about the "fire and brimstone" eternity all sinners would face if they did not absolve their sins publicly. These preachers sought to undermine the power and prestige of "Old Light" ministers by proclaiming that ordinary people could understand the gospel of the Lord without the leadership of a man of the cloth.
question
Triangular Trade
answer
..., A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
question
The Great Awakening
answer
..., religious revival in the 1730-40s, helped by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; inspired controversy over emotionalism/revivalism versus traditionalist Protestantism, nevertheless united the Americans as a people
question
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
answer
Jonathan Edward's sermon
question
stratification
answer
..., the act or process or arranging persons into classes or social strata
question
mercantilism
answer
..., an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
question
Chapter 6: The Eve of the Revolution 1754-1775
answer
...
question
Benjamin Franklin
answer
..., Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
question
John Locke
answer
..., English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
question
William Pitt
answer
..., English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
question
Stamp Act Congress
answer
..., A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
question
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
answer
..., Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British.
question
The French and Indian War
answer
..., (1754-1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida.
question
Pontiac's Rebellion
answer
..., 1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
question
Boston Massacre
answer
..., The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
question
Boston Tea Party
answer
..., demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
question
The Albany Plan of Union
answer
..., Ben Franklin's plan to unite the colonists (and Iroquois) and create a defense against the French
question
Peace of Paris
answer
The Peace of Paris (1783) was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
question
Proclamation of 1763
answer
..., A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
question
Sugar Acts
answer
..., In 1764 this act was meant to tighten enforcement of English customs by reducing the tax on molasses and increasing enforcement it was meant to raise revenue, and marked the end of Salutary Neglect
question
Quartering Act
answer
..., an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
question
Stamp Act
answer
..., an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
question
Declaratory Act
answer
..., Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
question
Townshend Acts
answer
..., A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
question
Massachusetts Circular Letter
answer
..., A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
question
Tea Act
answer
..., Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
question
Coercive Acts
answer
..., This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
question
Quebec Act
answer
..., Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
question
Intolerable Acts
answer
..., in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
question
salutary neglect
answer
..., An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
question
writs of assistance
answer
..., legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
question
Chapter 7: The American Revolution 1775-1783
answer
...
question
Thomas Payne
answer
As the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.[2]
question
Daniel Shays
answer
..., Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
question
James Madison
answer
..., 4th President of the United States
question
Alexander Hamilton
answer
..., United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
question
Thomas Jefferson
answer
..., 3rd President of the United States
question
First Continental Congress
answer
..., Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
question
Patriots
answer
..., Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
question
Loyalists
answer
..., American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
question
Tories
answer
..., a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
question
Battle of Saratoga
answer
..., a battle during the American Revolution (1777)
question
Shay's Rebellion
answer
..., this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
question
Constitutional Convention
answer
..., the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
question
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
answer
..., created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts
question
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Arms
answer
..., A declaration by the representatives of the united colonies of North America, now met in Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms." Our cause is just, our union is perfect"
question
Olive Branch Petition
answer
..., On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
question
Common Sense
answer
..., a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
question
Declaration of Independence
answer
..., the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
question
Treaty of Paris
answer
..., This treaty ended the Seven Years War
question
Articles of Confederation
answer
..., a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
question
Land Ordinance of 1785
answer
..., A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
question
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
answer
..., Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
question
arsenal
answer
..., a place where arms are manufactured
question
insurrection
answer
..., organized opposition to authority
question
Chapter 8: The Building of A New Nation 1787-1800
answer
...
question
James Madison
answer
..., 4th President of the United States
question
John Adams
answer
..., America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
question
Thomas Jefferson
answer
..., 3rd President of the United States
question
Barbary Pirates
answer
..., Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
question
House of Representatives
answer
the lower legislative house of the United States Congress
question
Senate
answer
..., assembly possessing high legislative powers
question
Electoral College
answer
..., the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
question
Federalists
answer
..., Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
question
Anti-federalists
answer
..., people who opposed the Constitution
question
Bank of the United States
answer
..., Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
question
Democratic-republicans
answer
..., Founded by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Republicans favored states rights and opposed the Federalist Party. The victory of the Democratic Republicans marked the first party overturn in American history.
question
the french revolution
answer
..., In 1789, the French Revolution was where the French people rebelled against their King to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn't last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France.
question
farewell address
answer
..., Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
question
whiskey rebellion
answer
..., In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
question
xyz affair
answer
..., An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
question
the convention of 1800
answer
..., the two sides finally came to a agreement that annulled the 1778 treaty of alliance and excused the French from damage claims of American ships. Kept from going to war and dividing nation.
question
Chapter 9: Jeffersonian America 1800-1816
answer
...
question
Lewis and Clark
answer
..., Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
question
John Marshall
answer
..., Created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
question
Tecumseh and the Prophet
answer
..., People feared that the British in Canada would recruit Indians to halt the march of American settlement. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh and his half-brother the Prophet, sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. They tried to unify their people and revive traditional virtues.
question
Andrew Jackson
answer
..., The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
question
Essex Junto
answer
..., New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
question
Burr Conspiracy
answer
..., scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
question
Tripolitan Wars
answer
..., This war, fought between1801, and 1805, started when Barbary pirates in North Africa seized US ships traveling in the Mediterranean. Presidents Washington and Adams had paid North African nations a "protection fee" to reduce the number of times US ships would be seized. Once Thomas Jefferson took office, the leader of Tripoli demanded more money. Jefferson refused, sending navel ships to stop the pirates, resulting in a four-year fight. The force was able to put a dent in the work of the pirates and gained the US credibility overseas.
question
Napoleonic war
answer
..., (1796-1815) Wars between Napoleon and the rest of Europe which helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution. [227]
question
Battle of Tippecanoe
answer
..., 1811 Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.
question
Battle of New Orleans
answer
..., Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
question
The Hartford Convention
answer
New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power. Despite radical outcries among Federalists for New England secession and a separate peace with Great Britain, moderates outnumbered them and extreme proposals were not a major focus of the debate.[1]
question
Pinckney Treaty
answer
..., agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
question
Judiciary Act of 1801
answer
..., a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
question
Twelfth amendment
answer
..., Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President, 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
question
Berlin Decree
answer
..., 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
question
Orders in Council
answer
..., British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
question
Milan Decree
answer
..., in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
question
Embargo Act
answer
..., signed by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all American goods and American ships from sailing for foreign ports
question
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
answer
..., reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France
question
Macon's Bill Number 2
answer
..., 1810 This bill sought to lift trade restrictions against Britain or France but only after those nations agreed to honor US neutrality.
question
The Star-Spangled Banner
answer
..., The national anthem of the United States written by Francis Scott Key, inspired by the battle of Fort McHenry
question
Treaty of Ghent
answer
..., December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
question
midnight judges
answer
..., The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
question
writ of mandamus
answer
..., an extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion
question
judicial review
answer
..., review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
question
impeachment
answer
..., a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
question
partisan
answer
..., devoted to a cause or party
question
secession
answer
..., formal separation from an alliance or federation
question
Chapter 10: The National Spirit and Market Revolution 1817-1850
answer
...
question
American Party
answer
..., a former political party in the United States
question
Know-Nothing Party
answer
..., Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
question
Era of Good Feeling
answer
..., the period from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
question
Panic of 1819
answer
The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States [1][2] followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821.[3][4][5] The Panic announced the transition of the nation from its colonial commercial status with Europe
question
Tariff of 1816
answer
is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from foreign competition. Prior to the War of 1812, tariffs had primarily served to raise revenues to operate the national government.[1] Another unique aspect of the tariff was the strong support it received from Southern states.[2]
question
Tallmadge Amendment
answer
..., This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
question
Missouri Compromise
answer
..., an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
question
Rush-Bagot Treaty
answer
..., 1817; The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes.
question
The Adams-Onis Treaty
answer
..., Got Florida for the USA after the Seminole War. Spain ceded all of Florida to the USA and gave up its claim to the territory north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return, the American government gave up Texas.
question
The Monroe Doctrine
answer
..., Primarily the work of JQAdams, said the the USA would consider any foreign challenge to the sovereignty of existing American nations an unfriendly act. No European colonization in the Americas
question
Erie Canal
answer
..., an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
question
American System
answer
..., an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
question
Overspeculation
answer
..., Means to over "guess." The majority of the people felt the stock market will go up, so they greedily buy, when in reality it's the peak already and stock market prices will drop soon.
question
nativists
answer
..., of or relating to or advocating nativism
question
constituents
answer
..., an abstract part of something
question
inflation
answer
..., a general and progressive increase in prices
question
species
answer
..., a specific kind of something
question
emancipation
answer
..., freeing someone from the control of another
question
James Monroe
answer
..., 5th President of the United States
question
John C. Calhoun
answer
..., South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
question
Daniel Webster
answer
..., United States politician and orator (1782-1817)
question
Henry Clay
answer
..., United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
question
John Quincy Adams
answer
..., Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
question
Chapter 11: Sectional Tension Grows 1820-1850
answer
...
question
Eli Whitney
answer
..., United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
question
peculiar institution
answer
..., southern euphemism for slavery
question
Chapter 12: Jackson's Democracy 1824-1840
answer
...
question
John C. Calhoun
answer
..., South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
question
Anti-Masons
answer
..., people who believed that the Free-Mason Society was "undemocratic" and "exclusive" because it was a secret society. Formed part of the Whig Party, because both Jackson and Van Buren were Free-Masons
question
National Republicans
answer
..., supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
question
Whigs
answer
..., conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
question
Panic of 1837
answer
..., When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
question
Southern Carolina Exposition
answer
..., written by john c. calhoun of SC; outlined south's anger towards the "tariff of abominations" & that they believed it to be unconstitutional because it severely altered trade with europe
question
Trail of Tears
answer
..., The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
question
Gibbons v. Ogden
answer
..., Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
question
Specie Circular
answer
..., issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
question
Tariff of 1828
answer
..., a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
question
Tariff of 1832
answer
..., a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
question
Force Bill
answer
..., 1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
question
Indian Removal Act
answer
..., Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
question
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
answer
..., (1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
question
Worcester v. Georgia
answer
..., Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
question
Andrew Jackson
answer
..., 7th president of the US
question
Daniel Webster
answer
..., United States politician and orator (1782-1817)
question
Robert Hayne
answer
..., Believed that states should have more rights. He was from South Carolina. He debated Daniel Webster about the doctrine of states rights.
question
corrupt bargain
answer
..., In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
question
pet bank
answer
..., State banks where Jackson deposited all federal money in his attempt to kill the Bank of the United States.
question
spoils system
answer
..., the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
question
kitchen cabinet
answer
..., an inner circle of unofficial advisors to the head of a government
question
suffrage
answer
..., a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
question
Chapter 13: Antebellum Renaissance 1790-1860
answer
...
question
Charles Finney
answer
..., This Presbyterian minister appealed to his audience's sense of emotion rather than their reason. His "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. He insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God. This region of New York became known as the "burned-over district," because this minister preached of the dangers of eternal damnation across the countryside
question
Dorothea Dix
answer
..., Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
question
Horace Mann
answer
..., United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
question
Harriet Tubman
answer
..., United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
question
Sojourner Truth
answer
..., United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
question
Fredrick Douglas
answer
..., former slave + abolitionist, stood up for his beliefs, fought for womens + blacks rights, runaway slave, newspaper-the north star
question
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
answer
..., Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement; Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.
question
Joseph Smith
answer
..., religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
question
Brigham Young
answer
..., United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
question
Ralph Waldo Emerson
answer
..., United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
question
Henry David Thoreau
answer
..., United States writer and social critic (1817-1862)
question
Nathaniel Hawthorne William Lloyd Garrison
answer
...
question
American Temperance Society American Antislavery Society
answer
...
question
Liberty Party
answer
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
question
Foreign Antislavery Society
answer
..., This abolitionist group did not believe in women's rights and formed a separate from that of Mott and Garrison. Women were not allowed in membership
question
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
answer
..., largest sect of Mormonism
question
Mormon Church
answer
..., church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah
question
Transcendentalists
answer
..., advocate of Transcendentalism
question
Shakers
answer
..., a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
question
Oneida Commune
answer
..., a religious community established in central New York in 1848, its members shared property, practiced group marriage, and reared children under communal care.
question
Knickerbockers
answer
..., trousers ending above the knee
question
Nat Turner's Rebellion
answer
..., Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
question
Maine Law
answer
..., passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
question
The North Star
answer
..., antislavery newspaper published by Fredrick Douglass
question
Declaration of Sentiments
answer
..., declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
question
Walden
answer
..., written by Henry David Thoreau; a personal account of his life spent in a cabin on the edge of Walden Pond, where he lived simply and found truth
question
On Civil Disobedience
answer
..., thoreau's writings contemplating the mexican war, "the work of comparatively few individuals using the government as their tool" refused to pay his taxes
question
Underground Railroad
answer
..., abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves
question
Seneca Falls
answer
..., The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
question
Perfectionism
answer
..., a disposition to feel that anything less than perfect is unacceptable
question
cult of domesticity
answer
..., the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
question
antebellum
answer
..., belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War
question
Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny 1830-1860
answer
...
question
Sam Houston
answer
..., United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
question
James K. Polk
answer
..., president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
question
Bear Flag Republic
answer
..., aka the California republic; the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14, 1846, in the town of Sonoma against the authorities of the Mexican province of California; the Republic lasted less than a month. The republic eventually became the present-day state of California.
question
Wilmot Proviso
answer
..., Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
question
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
answer
..., Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
question
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
answer
..., 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
question
Oregon Trail
answer
..., pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country
question
Mandate
answer
..., the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory
question
Chapter 15: A Tenuous Balance-On the Brink of Civil War 1848-1860
answer
...
question
Harriet Beecher Stowe
answer
..., United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
question
George Fitzburgh
answer
..., says slavery in South is better than wage slavery in North
question
John Brown
answer
..., abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
question
apologists
answer
..., Christian thinkers who defended and explained Christian beliefs
question
Free-soil party
answer
..., Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
question
49ers
answer
..., People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold.
question
Republican Party
answer
..., the younger of two major political parties in the United States
question
border ruffians
answer
..., missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in kansas's election during the mid-1850's
question
Constitutional Union Party
answer
..., a former political party in the United States
question
Confederate States of America
answer
..., a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
question
Gadsden Purchase
answer
..., purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
question
Fugitive Slave Law
answer
..., Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
question
The Compromise of 1850
answer
..., Slavery becomes outlawed in Washington D.C., California is admitted as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico will determine whether slavery is allowed through popular sovereignty. Also, the Fugitive Slave Law is passed.
question
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
answer
..., 1854; sponsored by Senator Stephen Douglas, this would rip open the slavery debate; and create the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
question
Lecompton Constitution
answer
..., supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
question
Dred Scott v. Sanford
answer
..., Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
question
Freeport Doctrine
answer
..., During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
question
Bleeding Kansas
answer
..., A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
question
Harper's Ferry
answer
..., John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
question
popular sovereignty
answer
..., The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
question
Chapter 16: The Civil War 1861-1865
answer
...
question
Robert E. Lee
answer
..., Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
question
Ulysses S. Grant
answer
..., an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
question
Abraham Lincoln
answer
..., 16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
question
John Wilkes Booth
answer
..., was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
question
Copperheads
answer
..., northern democrat who advocated making peace with the Confederacy during the Civil War
question
freedmen
answer
..., former slaves
question
New York Draft Riots
answer
..., July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
question
Bull Run
answer
..., either of two battles during the American Civil War (1861 and 1862)
question
Second Battle of Bull Run
answer
..., Lee and Pope fought and Lee came out victorious and then continued onto MD in hope of striking a blow that would not only encourage foreign intervention but also seduce the still wavering Border State and its sisters from the Union
question
Antietam
answer
..., the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
question
Gettysburg
answer
..., a small town in southern Pennsylvania, The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
question
Anaconda Plan
answer
..., Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
question
Emancipation Proclamation
answer
..., Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
question
Thirteenth Amendment
answer
..., The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
question
The Homestead Act of 1862
answer
..., provided a settler with 160 acres of land if he promised to live and work for it at least five years, about 500,000 families took advantage of it
question
The Morrill Land Grant of 1862
answer
..., The act gave federal lands to states for the purpose of building schools that would teach agriculture and technical trades
question
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862
answer
..., This act apporved the building of a transcontinental railroad that would utterly transform the West by linking the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific
question
Appomattox Court House
answer
..., famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
question
greenbacks
answer
..., Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
question
ironclads
answer
..., Wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War.
question
scorched-earth
answer
..., burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Used by Alexander in Russia against Napoleon
question
writ of habeas corpus
answer
..., court order that the authorities show cause for why they are holding a prisoner in custody. Deters unlawful imprisonment
question
agrarian
answer
..., relating to land; relating to the management or farming of land
question
Chapter 17: The Trials of Reconstruction 1863-1877
answer
...
question
Freedmen's Bureau
answer
..., 1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
question
scalawags
answer
..., southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
question
carpetbaggers
answer
..., northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
question
ku klux klan
answer
..., a secret society of white Southerners in the United States
question
redeemers
answer
..., Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
question
exodusters
answer
..., African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
question
rutherford B. hayes
answer
..., 19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
question
reconstruction
answer
..., the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
question
proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction
answer
..., (Dec. 1863) issued by Lincoln: offered full pardon to Southerners who would take oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge emancipation
question
wade-davis bill
answer
opposed 10% plan and called for more that 50%
question
10 percent plan
answer
..., It was a reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln)
question
civil rights bill of 1866
answer
..., first congressional attempt to guarantee black rights in the south, passed over johnson's veto
question
fourteenth amendment
answer
..., made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country
question
military reconstruction act
answer
..., It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law
question
tenure of office act
answer
..., 1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
question
fifteenth amendment
answer
..., The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
question
force acts
answer
..., the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
question
the compromise of 1877
answer
..., It withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the south, and appointed a Democrat to the president's cabinet.
question
black codes
answer
..., Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
question
sharecropping
answer
..., System in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
question
pardons
answer
..., freedom from punishment
question
sharecroppers
answer
..., people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
question
scalawags
answer
..., southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
question
carpetbagers
answer
..., Term for a northern Republican who moved to the south after the Civil War
question
filibuster
answer
..., a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
question
Chapter 18: The Closing of the Frontier 1865-1900
answer
...
question
George Custer
answer
..., United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
question
49ers
answer
..., People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold.
question
sodbusters
answer
..., name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
question
national Grange of Patrons of Husbandry
answer
..., This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement of the farmer' collective plight
question
Interstate Commerce Commission
answer
..., a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
question
Turner's Frontier Thesis
answer
..., argued that the American character was shaped by the existance of the frontier and the way Americans interacted and developed the frontier, he felt that the frontier encouraged individualism and democracy
question
Homestead Act of 1862
answer
..., this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
question
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
answer
..., dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
question
Plessy v. Ferguson
answer
..., A 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
question
Jim Crow laws
answer
..., Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
question
Interstate Commerce Act
answer
..., Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
question
A Century of Dishonor
answer
..., Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
question
Sutter's Mill
answer
..., location where gold was discovered in California in 1848, setting off the gold rush
question
long drives
answer
..., A cattle drive in which Texas ranchers drove herds of cattle north to be sold in northern markets
question
Ghost Dance
answer
..., a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
question
grandfather clauses
answer
..., law that excused a voter from literacy test if his grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1 1867
question
agribusiness
answer
..., a large-scale farming enterprise
question
Chapter 19: The Rise of Industry 1865-1900
answer
...
question
Cornelius Vanderbilt
answer
..., United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
question
Andrew Carnegie
answer
..., United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
question
John D. Rockefeller
answer
..., Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
question
Horatio Alger
answer
..., United States author of inspirational adventure stories for boys
question
robber barons
answer
..., Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
question
U.S. Steel
answer
..., powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP morgan
question
Standard Oil Company
answer
..., Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
question
scabs
answer
..., Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
question
National Labor Union
answer
..., 1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
question
Knights of Labor
answer
..., 1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
question
American Federation of Labor
answer
..., a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
question
Pullman Palace Car Company
answer
..., manufactured railroad cars; nationwide conflict between labor unions and railraods; 3000 employees began a wilde cat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, stopping traffic in chicago
question
The Great Railroad Strike
answer
...pullman strike
question
Sherman Antitrust Act
answer
..., First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
question
United States v. E.C. Knight
answer
..., 1895 Supreme Court case-ruled that the Sherman Antitrust Act could only be applied only to commerce, not to manufacturing. As a result, the U.S.Department of Justice secured few convictions until the law was strengthened during the Progressive Era
question
Central Pacific Railroad
answer
..., A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
question
Union Pacific Railroad
answer
..., (USG) , railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants
question
Promontory Point
answer
..., Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed
question
transcontinental railroad
answer
..., Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
question
vertical integration
answer
..., absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
question
horizontal integration
answer
..., absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
question
interlocking directorates
answer
..., the consolidation of rival enterprises, to ensure harmony officers of a banking syndicate were placed on boards of these rivals
question
laissez faire
answer
..., the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
question
nouveau riche
answer
..., French for "new rich." Refered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper classof the late 1800s.
question
social Darwinism
answer
..., The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
question
trickle down theory
answer
..., decreased income taxes for the wealthy would promote business and therefore the whole economy
question
yellow-dog contract
answer
..., Contracts some employers forced workers to sign that made the workers promise not to join a union
question
closed shops
answer
..., an agreement in which a company agrees to hire union members only
question
scabs
answer
..., Negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers
question
depression
answer
..., a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
question
arbitration
answer
..., (law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management)
question
collective bargaining
answer
..., Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
question
Chapter 20: From a Rural to an Urban America 1865-1900
answer
...
question
"Boss" Tweed
answer
..., William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
question
Thomas Nast
answer
..., Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
question
Jane Addams
answer
..., the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
question
Francis Willard
answer
..., Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
question
Carrie A. Nation
answer
..., muscualr and anti derranged woman, she estroyed saloons in her wild anti drinking crusade.
question
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
answer
..., United States suffragist and feminist
question
Susan B. Anthony
answer
..., social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
question
Mark Twain
answer
..., United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
question
Frederick Law Olmsted
answer
..., United States landscape architect primarily responsible for the design of Central Park in New York City (1822-1903)
question
Scott Joplin
answer
..., United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868-1917)
question
Joseph Pulitzer
answer
..., United States newspaper publisher (born in Hungary) who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911)
question
William Randolph Hearst
answer
..., United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
question
Nativists
answer
..., of or relating to or advocating nativism
question
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
answer
..., an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it.
question
The Anti-Saloon League
answer
..., Started in the 1890s and was against saloons and drinking
question
National American Woman Suffrage Association
answer
..., militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
question
The Gilded Age
answer
..., 1877-1900; rapid industrialization, urbanization, immigration; rise of big business and the labor movement; the Populist movement
question
Chinese Exclusion Act
answer
..., (1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
question
Our Country
answer
..., written in 1885 intended to promote domestic missionary activity in the American West. It may have encouraged support for imperialistic United States policy among American Protestants. He pleaded for more missionary work in the nation's cities, and for reconciliation to end racial conflict. He was one of the first to warn that Protestants (most of whom lived in rural areas or small towns) were ignoring the problems of the cities and the working classes.
question
Tammany Hall
answer
..., a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
question
Social Gospel
answer
..., Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
question
ghettos
answer
..., city slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures
question
tenement
answer
..., a rundown apartment house barely meeting minimal standards
question
political machines
answer
..., Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
question
temperance
answer
..., restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food
question
Chapter 21: Populists and Progressives 1890-1919
answer
...
question
Stalwarts
answer
..., Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
question
halfbreeds
answer
..., republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters.
question
mugwumps
answer
..., A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
question
greenback party
answer
..., a former political party in the United States, A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy, Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
question
farmer's alliance
answer
..., A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
question
populist party
answer
..., U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
question
gold bug
answer
..., Democrats and Republicans opposed to free silver and who supported the gold standard because tehy feared implications to currency value with free silver.
question
muckrakers
answer
..., This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
question
northern securities company
answer
..., A railroad monopoly formed by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill which violated Sherman Antitrust Act
question
federal trade commission
answer
..., an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
question
national american women suffrage association
answer
..., organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women
question
national women's party
answer
..., a women's organization founded in 1916 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men
question
niagara movement
answer
..., in 1905 Dubois started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with white progressives sympathetic to their cause to form NAACP, the new organization later led to the drive for equal rights.
question
league of women voters
answer
..., League formed in 1920 advocating for women's rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
question
advancement of colored people
answer
..., The Advancement of Colored People was a civil rights organization for ethnic minorities. This is the largest organization in the US, so it has a lot of influence, meaning that minorities had more hope for equality.
question
panic of 1893
answer
..., Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
question
"cross of gold" speech
answer
..., An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
question
progressive era
answer
..., time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
question
wisconsin experiment
answer
..., wisconsin was the first state in the union to institute direct primaries in which state voters nominated their own slate of candidates instead of the state legislature picking them
question
great migration
answer
..., movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
question
pendleton civil service act of 1881
answer
..., This act reformed the corrupt patronage system of obtaining civil service jobs. No longer could political cronyism secure government positions - all potential civil service employees had to take an exam to prove their worthiness.
question
seventeenth amendment
answer
..., allowed americans to vote directly for U.S senators
question
square deal
answer
..., Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
question
elkins act
answer
..., (1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
question
hepburn act
answer
..., This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
question
the Jungle
answer
novel by Upton Sinclair which called for reform in the meat-packing industry
question
Pure Food and Drug Act
answer
..., the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
question
Meat Inspection Act
answer
..., Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
question
Mann-elkins act
answer
..., passed in 1910, it empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) for the first time to initiate rate changes, extend regulation to telephone and telegraph companies and set up a Commerce Court to expedite appeals from the ICC rulings
question
16th amendment
answer
..., Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
question
underwood tariff bill
answer
..., Congressional measure to provide the a substantial reduction of rates, and the first ever implementation of a graduated income tax on incomes $3000+
question
federal reserve act
answer
..., a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
question
federal reserve system
answer
..., the central bank of the United States
question
clayton antitrust act
answer
..., New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
question
nineteenth amendment
answer
..., granted women the right to vote in 1920
question
birth of a nation
answer
..., Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
question
triangle shirtwaist factory
answer
..., this factory kept doors locked to avoid theft trapping workers inside when a fire erupted; alerted reformers to the terrible conditions of industrial workers
question
initiative, referendum, and recall
answer
..., These were three changes intended to increase the individual voter's influence in government. It gives a person the power to propose laws, states that certain laws passed by the state legislature do not take effect unless they are approved by a majority of the citizens, and strengthens the control of voters over elected officials.
question
accommodation
answer
...
question
spoils system
answer
..., the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
question
patronage
answer
..., (politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
question
direct primaries
answer
..., an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election
question
Jacob Coxey
answer
..., Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
question
Theodore Roosevelt
answer
..., 26th President of the United States
question
Ida Tarbell
answer
..., A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
question
Lincoln Steffens
answer
..., United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936)
question
Jacob Riis
answer
..., Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
question
Robert La Follete
answer
..., progressive leader/ gov. of Wisconsin gave power back to people, regulated utilities rates, instituted taxes on inheritance, first to tie state gov. & university together
question
Samuel Gompers
answer
..., United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
question
Mother Jones
answer
..., United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)
question
Carrie Chapman Catt
answer
..., Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
question
Booker T. Washington
answer
..., African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
question
W.E.B. Du Bois
answer
..., fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
question
Alice Paul
answer
..., United States feminist (1885-1977)
question
Chapter 22: Foreign Policy 1865-1919
answer
...
question
William Jennings Bryan
answer
..., United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
question
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
answer
..., heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
question
Rough Riders
answer
..., Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
question
Great White Fleet
answer
..., 1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
question
Committee on Public Information
answer
..., It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
question
War Industries Board
answer
...
question
Big Four
answer
..., Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)
question
League of Nations
answer
..., an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
question
Socialists
answer
..., person who supports community ownership of property and the sharing of all profits
question
Seward's Folly or Seward's Icebox
answer
..., William Seward (secretary of State) bought Alaska from the Russians in 1867 in an attempt to spread American influence. He was criticized by the press for his choice, but public attitude changed after the discovery of gold.
question
Spanish-American War
answer
..., In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
question
Boxer Rebellion
answer
..., A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
question
Gentleman's Agreement
answer
..., an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
question
Great War
answer
..., a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
question
Communist Revolution
answer
..., A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
question
Red Scare
answer
..., a period of general fear of communists
question
Teller Amendment
answer
..., Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
question
Insular Cases
answer
..., Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
question
Platt Amendment
answer
..., Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
question
Open Door Policy
answer
..., A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
question
Hay Pauncefote Treaty
answer
..., permission granted by Panama for the US to dig a canal ; permitted by the British in order to make friends with US in hope of future support against Germany ; negociated under Roosevelt ; greatly facilitated trade
question
Roosevelt Corollary
answer
..., Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
question
Treaty of Portsmouth
answer
..., (1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
question
Sussex Ultimatum
answer
..., In response to the German torpedoes Sussex steamer, Wilson told Germany that if they didnt stop sinking merchant ships with warning, he would break diplomatic relations.
question
Fourteen Points
answer
..., President Woodrow Wilson's plan for a just world bases on the Allies' aims to end World War I No secret treaties, freedom of the seas, no tariffs, reduce arms, adjust colonial claims, establish an association of nations
question
Selective Services Act
answer
..., This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. The age limits were later changed to 18 and 45.
question
Espionage Act
answer
..., This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
question
Sedition Act
answer
..., made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
question
Schenck vs United States
answer
..., under the Espionage Act of 1917, a person can not use the first ammendment as protection when speaking against the US government and military
question
Article X
answer
..., This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
question
Versailles
answer
...
question
jingoism
answer
..., extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
question
reconcentrating
answer
..., This practice placed Cuban natives into central locations under direct Spanish control to help prevent revolution.
question
yellow journalism
answer
..., sensationalist journalism
question
gunboat diplomacy
answer
..., diplomacy in which the nations threaten to use force in order to obtain their objectives
question
dollar diplomacy
answer
..., diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
question
moral diplomacy
answer
..., foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
question
U boat
answer
..., a German submarine that was the first submarine employed in warfare, initially used during WW1
question
Lusitania
answer
..., American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
question
mandates
answer
..., Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
question
reservationists
answer
..., Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
question
irreconcilables
answer
..., Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
question
imperialism
answer
..., any instance of aggressive extension of authority
question
nationalism
answer
..., love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
question
spheres of influence
answer
..., areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
question
self-determination
answer
..., the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
question
reparations
answer
..., compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury
question
Chapter 23: A new Era 1920's
answer
...
question
Frederick W. Taylor
answer
..., The original "efficiency expert" who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911, preached the gospel of efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.
question
Henry Ford
answer
..., United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
question
William Jennings Bryan
answer
..., United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
question
Sigmund Freud
answer
..., Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
question
John Scopes
answer
..., Tennessee highschool teacher who violated a state law by teaching evolution
question
Ohio Gang
answer
..., A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
question
Poker Cabinet
answer
..., president harden was known to play poker, so him and his cabinet would play poker a lot
question
Lost Generation
answer
..., Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
question
United Negro Improvement Association
answer
..., A group founded by Marcus Garvey to promote the settlement of American blacks in their own "African homeland"
question
flappers
answer
..., Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
question
Washington Disarmament Conference
answer
..., included major naval powers in world, agreeed to limit number and size of battle ships that nation could own, and banned construction of a new battle ship
question
Jazz Age
answer
..., Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
question
Roaring Twenties
answer
..., the decade of the 1920's which got this nickname because of the times presperity and excitement
question
Harlem Renaissance
answer
..., a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
question
Dawes Plan
answer
..., A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
question
McNary-Haugen Bill
answer
..., A plan to rehabilitate American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products *Effects of the protective tariff and burdens of debt and taxation had created a serious agricultural depression and grew steadily worse
question
Kellogg-Briand Pact
answer
..., agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
question
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
answer
..., This said that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions that were taken over by force. (This doctrine is related to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931)
question
Good Neighbor Policy
answer
..., FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
question
Volstead Act
answer
..., The Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
question
Quota Act
answer
..., Limited the number of immigrants allowed into the United States. It favored immigrants from Northern and western Europe.
question
immigration act
answer
..., This was passed in 1924 which cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants. The main purpose was to freeze America's existing racial composition which was largely Northern European. It also prevented Japanese immigration which led to fury in Japan.
question
national origins act
answer
..., Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
question
scientific management
answer
..., a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
question
rugged individualism
answer
..., The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
question
laissez-faire
answer
is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights.[1]
question
speakeasies
answer
..., Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally
question
Chapter 24: The Great Depression and the New Deal 1929-1938
answer
...
question
Dr. Francis Townsend
answer
..., Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
question
Huey Long
answer
..., As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
question
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
answer
..., 32nd President of the United States
question
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
answer
gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses. The loans were nearly all repaid. It was continued by the New Deal and played a major role in handling the Great Depression in the United States and setting up the relief programs that were taken over by the New Deal in 1933.[1]
question
Bonus Army
answer
..., Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
question
Brain Trust
answer
..., Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
question
Congress of Industrial Organizations
answer
..., a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
question
united auto workers
answer
..., Out of several competing auto unions, this one was gradually emerging preeminent in the early and mid-1930s. But although ot was gaining recruits, it was making little progress in winning recognitions from the corperations. Automobile workers eployed an effective new technique for challenging corperate oppositions: the sit-down strike.
question
black cabinet
answer
..., group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president.
question
American liberty league
answer
formed in 1934, primarily by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
question
okies
answer
..., the farmers, who in the Great Depression, were forced to move, many moved to Oklahoma
question
fair employment practices committee
answer
companies with government contracts not discriminate on the basis of race or religion. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry during World War II.
question
black tuesday
answer
..., October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
question
first hundred days
answer
..., This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time
question
new deal
answer
..., the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
question
gentleman's agreement
answer
..., an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
question
second new deal
answer
..., a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.
question
Roosevelt recession
answer
..., 1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
question
hawley smoot tariff
answer
..., charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
question
emergency banking relief act
answer
..., gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened
question
glass-steagall act
answer
..., established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation
question
PWA
answer
..., Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
question
civilian conservation corps
answer
..., Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks
question
TVA
answer
..., (Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
question
national recovery administration
answer
..., Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
question
section 7a
answer
..., this section of NIRA stated that labor unions could exist and was the first time the gov't supported labor unions
question
WPA
answer
..., Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
question
social security act
answer
..., Guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
question
national industrial recovery administration
answer
..., This was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 to supervise industry—the act also created the Public works Administration to create jobs.
question
national labor relations act
answer
..., A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
question
fair labor standards act
answer
..., 1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
question
judicial reorganization bill
answer
..., proposed that FDR be allowed to name a new federal judge for every sitting judge who had reached the age of seventy and had not retired; soundly defeated in Congress; FDR came under intense criticism for trying to seize too much power
question
indian reorganization act
answer
..., Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
question
dust bowl
answer
..., a region subject to dust storms
question
bull market
answer
..., a market characterized by rising prices for securities
question
the three Rs
answer
..., Relief, Reform, Recovery
question
fireside chats
answer
..., informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
question
margin
answer
..., (finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold
question
repatriation
answer
..., the act of returning to the country of origin
question
mobilization
answer
..., act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops"
question
anti-semetic
answer
..., adj. anti-jew; against the Jewish people
question
fascist
answer
..., a member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator
question
Chapter 25: The road to the Second World War 1929-1945
answer
...
question
il Duce
answer
..., "the leader," Mussolini's nickname
question
Benito Mussolini
answer
..., Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
question
Rosie the Riveter
answer
..., symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
question
Roosevelt
answer
..., 26th President of the United States
question
Churchill
answer
..., British statesman and leader during World War II
question
Stalin
answer
..., Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
question
Luftwaffe
answer
..., the German airforce
question
Kamikazes
answer
..., Japanese suicide pilots
question
Women's army corps
answer
..., women volunteers who seved in non-combat positions
question
women appointed for voluntary emergency service
answer
..., These women supported the war effort by flying supply missions, decoding codes, and repairing machines (Not WAFS or WAC)
question
women's auxiliary ferrying squadron
answer
..., WAFS; these women supported the ww2 effort
question
office of war mobilization
answer
..., Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during World War II
question
office of price administration
answer
..., WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
question
office of war information
answer
..., established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
question
navajo code talkers
answer
..., Navajo soldiers in the Pacific used their own language as a code for sending vital messages. Hard to understand.
question
united nations
answer
..., an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
question
montevideo conference
answer
..., The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
question
D-day
answer
..., June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
question
Battle of the Bulge
answer
..., a battle during World War II
question
V-E Day
answer
..., May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
question
Zoot Suit Riots
answer
..., A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
question
Sudetenland
answer
..., an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
question
Pearl Harbor
answer
..., a harbor on Oahu west of Honolulu
question
Selective Service Act
answer
..., This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
question
Neutrality Act of 1939
answer
..., European democracies might buy American war materials on a "cash-and-carry basis"; improved American moral and economic position
question
Destroyers-for-bases
answer
..., To circumvent the provisions of the Neutrality Acts to help Great Britain, the U.S. gave England fifty destroyers in return for the right to build American bases on British territory in the Caribbean
question
Lend-Lease Act
answer
..., allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
question
Atlantic Charter
answer
..., 1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
question
Executive Order 9066
answer
..., 2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
question
GI Bill
answer
..., law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
question
Employment Act of 1946
answer
..., Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power
question
Taft-Hartley Act
answer
..., Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
question
appeasement
answer
..., the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of), policy of giving in to an aggressor's demands in order to keep the peace
question
cash-and-carry
answer
..., policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
question
four freedoms
answer
..., Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
question
bracero
answer
..., a Mexican laborer who worked in the United States on farms and railroads in order to ease labor shortages during World War II
question
genocide
answer
..., systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
question
Chapter 26: The Cold War 1945-1963
answer
...
question
Mao Tse-Tung
answer
..., Communist leader of China; gained power through the Chinese civil war; defeated US backed Chiang Kai Shek
question
Dwight D. Eisenhower
answer
..., leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
question
Fidel Castro
answer
..., Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
question
Alger Hiss
answer
..., A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
question
Joseph McCarthy
answer
..., 1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
question
Department of Defense
answer
..., A department of the federal executive branch entrusted with formulating military policies and maintaining American military forces. Its top official is the civilian secretary of defense. It is headquartered in the Pentagon.
question
National Security Council
answer
..., A committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
question
Central Intelligence Agency
answer
..., an agency created after World War 2 to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad, conspiracy, and meddling as well.
question
Nationalists (koumintang)
answer
..., Chinese nationalists who retreated to Taiwan in 1949 with Chaing Kai-Shek after being defeated by the People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Civil War; established Red China, the Republic of China, and set up the Cold War
question
South East Asian Treaty Organization
answer
..., Identical to NATO in Asia, one of the reasons that the United States was drawn into the Vietnam War
question
House Un-American Activities Committee
answer
..., an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security".When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee
question
NASA
answer
..., Founded in 1958 to compete with Russia's space program. It gained prestige and power with Kennedy's charge to reach the moon by the end of the 1960s. Over the years, NASA has sent experditions to the moon, developed and managed the space station and space shuttle programs and sent probes to Mars
question
The Geneva Convention
answer
..., At this convention in 1954, the region of Indochina was divided into three nations: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The convention also decided to divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with the communists led by Ho Chi Minh in the North and anti-communists led by Ngo Dinh Diem in the South. It was further decided that elections to reunite Vietnam would occur in two years.
question
Cuban Missile Crisis
answer
..., an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
question
Truman Doctrine
answer
..., First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
question
Marhshall Plan
answer
American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.
question
Warsaw Pact
answer
..., treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
question
National Security Act
answer
..., Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
question
Eisenhower Doctrine
answer
..., Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
question
Smith Act
answer
..., 1940 act which made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government. Was used by Truman 11 times to prosecute suspected Communists
question
National Highway Act
answer
..., Eisenhower's plan to build an interstate highway system that would connect the US and help in military movements during a war.
question
Aswan Dam
answer
..., It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power.
question
Bay of Pigs
answer
..., In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
question
Berlin Airlift
answer
..., Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
question
brinksmanship
answer
..., The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
question
massive retaliation
answer
..., The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
question
S.O.S. red phone
answer
hotline between nation's presidents during cold war
question
McCarthyism
answer
..., The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
question
Sputnik
answer
..., First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
question
Chapter 27: A Split America 1950-1959
answer
...
question
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
answer
..., An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee
question
Rosa Parks
answer
..., NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus; her action and the long boycott that followed became an icon of the quest for civil rights and focused national attention on boycott leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
question
Jonas Salk
answer
..., developed the polio vaccine in 1952
question
Warren Court
answer
..., the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
question
Little Rock Nine
answer
..., Incident in which nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High in 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement.
question
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
answer
..., Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
question
Brown v. Board of Education
answer
..., 1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
question
The Feminine Mystique
answer
..., written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
question
white flight
answer
..., 50's movement where middle-class white Americans fled to suburbs leaving inner cities to decay
question
beatniks
answer
..., a United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
question
Chapter 28: Turbulent Times 1960-1969
answer
...
question
Richard M. Nixon
answer
..., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
question
John F. Kennedy
answer
..., president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
question
Malcolm X
answer
..., 1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
question
Stokely Carmichael
answer
..., head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
question
Ho Chi Minh
answer
..., Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South Vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
question
Warren Commission Office of Equal Oppurtunity
answer
...
question
The department of Housing and Urban Development
answer
..., This department was founded in 1966 to provide low-cost housing and federal funding to rid cities of urban blight.
question
The Nation of Islam
answer
..., The Black Muslims - believe in separation between the blacks and whites
question
Kerner Commission
answer
..., created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
question
Vietcong
answer
..., the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
question
National Organization of Women
answer
..., founded by Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez; lobbied for equal opportunity where the EEOC was lacking (gender discrimination); lawsuits and mobilization of public opinion
question
New Frontier
answer
..., The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
question
Freedom Summer
answer
..., In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
question
Woodstock
answer
..., 3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
question
Tet Offensive
answer
..., 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
question
Ho Chi Minh Trail
answer
..., A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
question
The Great Society
answer
...,1964 Lyndon Johnson's program for poverty relief, healthcare, civil rights, etc. during his presidency. Improved nation's moral and people's lives
question
Immigration Act of 1965
answer
..., Abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere
question
civil rights act of 1964
answer
..., the law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
question
voting rights act of 1965
answer
..., a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
question
gulf of tonkin resolution
answer
..., The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
question
port huron statement
answer
...,1962 Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
question
equal rights amendment
answer
..., constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
question
Chapter 29: The Thawing of the Cold War 1970-1990
answer
...
question
Sirhan Sirhan
answer
..., Assassinated Robert Kennedy on June 6, 1968 in Chicago after hearing pro-Israeli remarks in his victory statement after having won the California primaries.
question
Henry Kissinger
answer
..., The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
question
Anwar Sadat
answer
..., Former President of Egypt (1st Arab leader to recognize and make peace with Israel) He was assassinated Oct. 6 1981 for making peace with Israel.
question
Menachem Begin
answer
..., Leader of Israel who signed a peace treaty with Egypt withdrawing from Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip and returning them to Egypt
question
Ayatollah Khomeini
answer
..., Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. (p. 859)
question
George H. W. Bush
answer
..., republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
question
American Independent Party
answer
..., headed by George Wallace who entered the 1968 election and called for the continuation of segregation of blacks
question
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
answer
..., an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
question
Committee to Re-elect the Presdient
answer
... was a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration. Besides its re-election activities, CRP employed money laundering and slush funds and was directly and actively involved in the Watergate scandal.[1]
question
Commonwealth of Independent States
answer
..., Confederacy of independent states of the former Soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
question
Yom Kippur War
answer
..., Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 (on Yom Kippur)
question
Reagan Revolution
answer
..., the policies of the first reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
question
Iran-Contra Scandal
answer
..., Reagan sent money to the Contra's in Nicaragua with the money he got for selling arms to Iran
question
Solidarity movement
answer
..., Polish nationalists who began to protest the SOviet oppression
question
war powers act
answer
..., Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power
question
strategic arms limitation treaty (salt 1)
answer
..., treaty between the US and the Soviet to stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the two countries. Talks began in 1969 and agreements were signed on May 26, 1972
question
camp david accords
answer
..., The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
question
SALT II
answer
..., Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
question
START 1
answer
..., Bush and Gorbachev signed the this. It reduced nuclear warheads to less than 10000 each. It led to Start II which reduced weapon level to 1960s level. The cold war was officially over.
question
Berlin Wall
answer
..., In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
question
Vietnamization
answer
..., President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
question
detente
answer
..., relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
question
staglation
answer
..., ECONOMIC CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY RISING INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT
question
challenger
answer
..., A politician running for an office that he does not hold at the time of the election. Challengers run against incumbents or in open-seat elections.
question
star wars
answer
..., Strategic Defense Initiative pursued by Reagan in the 1980s; involved satellite defense against missiles
question
glasnost
answer
..., Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
question
perestroika
answer
..., a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
question
executive
answer
..., someone who manages a government agency or department
question
privelege
answer
..., (n.) a special right, benefit, or permission
question
Chapter 30: Changes in Post-Cold War America
answer
...
question
William (Bill) Clinton
answer
..., Democratic president (1993-2001) whose two-term presidency witnessed rapid economic growth but also a sexual scandal that fueled an impeachment effort, which he survived.
question
Timothy McVeigh
answer
..., in 1995, the murrow federal building in oklahoma city was attacked by a large bomb that killed 168 people; the bombing was the act of this extremist
question
Osama Bin Laden
answer
..., Saudi-born Muslim extremist who funded the al Qaeda organization that was responsible for several terrorist attacks, including those on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001.
question
George W. Bush
answer
..., 1946 - 43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
question
Saddam Hussein
answer
..., President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.
question
Hillary Clinton
answer
..., Prominent child care advocate and health care reformer in Clinton administration; won U.S. senate seat in 2000; secretary of state
question
Barack Obama
answer
..., Illinois Senator who won the presidency in 2008, first African-American President, advocate for universal healthcare, an end to the Iraqi War, and economic recovery.
question
John McCain
answer
..., This Republican senator was a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War and is seeking the Republican nomination in the 2008 presidential election
question
Sarah Palin
answer
..., governor of Alaska who was the first female to ever be nominated for VP as a Republican
question
Al-Qaeda
answer
..., a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
question
Taliban
answer
..., a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
question
"War on Terror"
answer
..., Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
question
9/11
answer
..., A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.
question
Watts Riots
answer
..., 1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.
question
Hurricane Katrina
answer
..., highest storm surge on record, costliest hurricane on record, 1836 dead, permanent displacement of over 500,000 people, evacuation of large urban population center, storm surge of 25 ft on coast of Mississippi
question
2008 Financial Crisis
answer
..., Occurred because of bad practices in the financial sector related to home mortgages. The government eventually bailed out the banks with over 700 billion dollars. the real estate bubble burst in the US, setting in motion a financial crisis of enormous proportions
question
Immigration Act of 1965
answer
..., Abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere
question
Immigration and Control Act of 1986
answer
..., Provided an opportunity for illegal immigrants to become legal residents (one time amnesty). Penalties to employers who knowingly hired illegal immigrants.
question
Proposition 209
answer
..., 1996 California initiative that banned all affirmative action programs.
question
International Money Fund
answer
..., encourage world trade by regulating currency exchange rates (founded International Bank for Reconstruction and Development=World Bank) to promote economic growth in war ravaged and underdeveloped areas
question
North American Free Trade Agreement
answer
..., NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market
question
Patriot Act
answer
..., This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
question
Drive 55
answer
..., This plan, supported by President Carter was meant to reduce the amount of gasoline expended by the average American.
question
Three Mile Island
answer
..., 1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
question
AIDS
answer
..., a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
question
weapons of mass destruction
answer
..., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can kill tens of thousands of people all at once
question
World Wide Web
answer
..., Computer network consisting of a collection of internet sites that offer text and graphics and sound and animation resources through the hypertext transfer protocol
question
Internet
answer
..., a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange
question
reverse discrimination
answer
..., Using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people.