Which middle ear ossicle is attached to, and transmits vibratory motion to, the oval window?
The stapes is attached to the oval window, a thin membrane that separates the middle ear and the internal ear. The function of the ossicles is to transmit the vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window. In sequence, the tympanic membrane vibrations are transferred to the malleus, then the incus, and finally the stapes. As the stapes vibrates, it moves the oval window, which in turn sets the fluids of the internal ear into motion, eventually exciting the hearing receptors.
Transduction of lower frequency sound waves occurs at the __________ of the cochlea.
C. proximal end
The apex is wider and more flexible, which makes it more receptive to lower frequencies.
Height of a wave is called the __________.
The amplitude, or height, of the sine wave crests reveals a sound's intensity, which is related to its energy, or the pressure differences between its compressed and rarefied areas.
Which of the following correctly matches the equilibrium receptor organs to the type of equilibrium it monitors?
A. maculae/static equilibrium
B. maculae/dynamic equilibrium
C. crista ampullaris/static equilibrium
D. saccule/dynamic equilibrium
The maculae ("spots"), one in each saccule wall and one in each utricle wall, are sensory receptor organs that monitor the position of the head in space (with respect to gravity). Because gravity is constant, this is sometimes called our sense of static equilibrium.
All of the following conditions would stimulate the pancreatic beta cells to release insulin EXCEPT one. Which one?
A. a rise in blood amino acid levels
B. sympathetic activation
C. acetylcholine release on the pancreatic cells
D. a rise in blood glucose levels
Sympathetic activation is designed to increase blood glucose levels, so it inhibits the release of insulin.
Which of the following best describes gluconeogenesis?
A. conversion of glucose to fat
B. synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
C. creation of glycogen from glucose
D. breakdown of glycogen into glucose
The term genesis means "to create," and neo means "new," so this term literally means "to create new sugar."
Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone, or area, with the class of hormones it produces?
A. zona reticularis: aldosterone
B. zona fasciculata: catecholemines
C. zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids
D. medulla: glucocorticoids
The zona glomerulosa produces mineralocorticoids
What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release?
The parathyroid is stimulated by the actual level of calcium in the blood rather than by neural or hormonal stimulus.
Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?
The parathyroid glands secrete PTH, which increases blood calcium levels.
What is the primary function of hormones?
A. influence metabolic activity of glands by electrochemical impulses
B. alter cell activity
C. cause allergic reactions
D. activate extracellular enzymes
The primary function of hormones is to alter cell activity by altering plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, stimulating synthesis of enzymes or regulating molecules, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretory activity, or stimulating mitosis.
What property of a hormone would allow it to pass unassisted through a plasma membrane?
D. bound to a protein complex
Hormones that are lipid-soluble can dissolve through the plasma membrane.
What allows a cell to respond to a hormone?
A. the presence of a specific hormone receptor
B. the structure of the hormone
C. the location of the cell
D. the gland that releases the hormone
Every hormone has a specific receptor that causes as action for that cell.
Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?
D. None of the listed responses is correct.
None of the hormones given is produced by the posterior pituitary.
What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?
A. hormonal stimuli
B. humoral stimuli
C. neural stimuli (from the sympathetic division of the ANS)
D. All of the listed responses are correct.
The anterior pituitary requires hormonal stimuli from the hypothalamus.
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