How do sociologists distinguish a group from a crowd?
- Individuals associated with a group don't have ongoing social relations.
- Individuals associated with a group feel a shared identity.
- Individuals associated with a group don't share any common attribute.
- Individuals associated with a crowd remain in contact.
Individuals associated with a group feel a shared identity.
Which type of group is characterized by long-term, intimate, and face-to-face relationships?
Many sociologists have worried that the modern economy demands both geographic and occupational mobility, which in turn means bureaucratic organizations have become the norm. What sort of groups might become weaker or strained if people have to move frequently throughout their lives for work?
- primary groups
- secondary groups
Why would sociologists who study social networks and employment pay attention to the frequency with which a person has been in contact with each member of his or her social network?
- to see just how extensive the network is
- to measure the anomie of the network
- to determine if groupthink occurred in a social network
- to see if a particular tie is strong or weak
to see if a particular tie is strong or weak
Émile Durkheim worried that individuals would feel less and less connected to groups in an increasingly fragmented modern world, which would lead to
- anomie or normlessness.
- the rise of hate groups.
- a need for new types of etiquette.
anomie or normlessness.
What do we call groups that are used as standards to evaluate ourselves—either positively, in terms of the qualities we aspire to achieve, or negatively, in terms of the qualities we wish to avoid?
- reference groups
The Solomon Asch experiment, in which groups of participants were asked to compare the lengths of lines, demonstrated that
- an authoritarian leader can strongly influence group members.
- peer pressure emerges when a group's task is relatively difficult or demanding.
- groups have great power to induce conformity.
- the larger the group is, the less each member has a sense of individual responsibility.
groups have great power to induce conformity.
What is the strongest type of conformity that can occur as a result of social influence or peer pressure?
- social loafing
In 1978, cult-leader Jim Jones forced more than 900 of his followers to drink poisoned Flavor Aid, leading to their deaths. In the run-up to this event, Jones had strictly enforced discipline, mocked and ridiculed anyone who expressed doubts, and even had doubters sedated. This extreme effort to enforce conformity is an example of
- peer pressure.
- the expressive self.
- an out-group.
Individual members of a large group often neglect their responsibilities when a task needs to be completed because it is impossible for any one person to receive credit or blame. This phenomenon is called
- group polarization.
- regression toward the mean.
- social loafing.
According to Max Weber's typology of power, what type of authority does a king wield?
- traditional authority
- legal-rational authority
- influential power
- charismatic authority
Which of the following statements about bureaucracies is true?
- Unlike Weber's prediction, few organizations today are structured as bureaucracies.
- People who work in bureaucracies may feel alienation as a result of being treated in terms of roles, rules, and functions rather than as individuals.
- Their rules are written carefully so as to never impede the purpose of the organization.
- They are organized in a way that breaks down hierarchies of management so that all members feel a sense of equality with one another.
People who work in bureaucracies may feel alienation as a result of being treated in terms of roles, rules, and functions rather than as individuals.
Which of the following would sociologists consider the best definition of deviance?
- criminal activities
- violations of social norms
- immoral or unethical behaviors
- actions that are harmful to society
violations of social norms
What must behavior, trait, or belief do in order to be considered deviant?
- violate a law
- inspire feelings of revulsion or disgust
- cause harm or injury to someone
- depart from a norm and generate a negative reaction
depart from a norm and generate a negative reaction
There are usually serious consequences when a politician is caught cheating on his spouse. In some cases, the politician is forced to resign from his office when his constituents loudly express their unhappiness with such behavior. According to Émile Durkheim, what function does this reaction serve?
- It helps to clarify moral boundaries and reinforce the idea that marital infidelity is wrong.
- The public outcry helps rehabilitate the offender so he won't cheat in the future.
- It helps protect the family members of the politician from scrutiny and media coverage.
- It helps to deter politicians from cheating in the future.
It helps to clarify moral boundaries and reinforce the idea that marital infidelity is wrong.
Some Americans are angry about the number of immigrants who enter the country every year. An adherent of structural functionalism would argue that this anger
- is a form of cyberbullying, since the anger is generally expressed online.
- is unequally distributed, since it is mainly aimed at poor and working-class immigrants.
- hurts the economy by preventing immigration.
- promotes social cohesion among nonimmigrants as they come together and label immigrants as outsiders.
promotes social cohesion among nonimmigrants as they come together and label immigrants as outsiders.
Which theory suggests crimes committed by the upper classes are typically treated more leniently than crimes committed by the lower classes because laws represent the interests of those in power?
- functionalist theory
- conflict theory
- principled deviance
- differential association theory
What is one of the principal reasons people turn to deviant behavior in the United States according to the structural strain theory of deviance as articulated by Robert Merton?
- American society is very lax in enforcing laws.
- The goal of success is shared by a majority of people, but not everyone has equal means for achieving that goal.
- There are a lot of people with inborn antisocial tendencies.
- The media sensationalizes deviant behavior, which is why it becomes increasingly attractive to young people.
The goal of success is shared by a majority of people, but not everyone has equal means for achieving that goal.
Robert Merton developed structural strain theory to explain why deviance happens. To what sort of strain does the theory's name refer?
- strain between deviant and nondeviant citizens
- strain between socially approved goals and the means of achieving them
- strain between different value systems within a society
- strain between social norms that are codified in laws and those that are not
strain between socially approved goals and the means of achieving them
How do self-fulfilling prophecies work?
-Our social locations are a crucial factor in determining how others see us; therefore, social status is the most important determinant of deviance.
- We tend to respond to the physical and social marks that discredit our identities and leave us vulnerable to negative social judgments.
- We respond not only to the objective features of a situation but also to its meaning. Once meaning has been assigned to our behavior, the consequences of that behavior are determined by the meaning.
- We learn to be deviant through our interactions with others who break the rules.
We respond not only to the objective features of a situation but also to its meaning. Once meaning has been assigned to our behavior, the consequences of that behavior are determined by the meaning.
In what aspects of stigma are symbolic interactionists interested?
- how people manage their stigmatized identities on an everyday basis
- how stigma always leads to positive life outcomes
- how stigma leads to increased self-esteem
- which stigmas are fair and which are unjustly applied
how people manage their stigmatized identities on an everyday basis
Hate crimes targeting Arab Americans and those mistakenly identified as Arab increased after Arab identity became stigmatized. What sort of stigma was this?
How do sociologists define positive deviance?
- deviance that actively harms someone physically
- deviance that relates to a criminal record
- actions initially considered deviant, but later deemed appropriate
- the acts that come with secondary deviance
actions initially considered deviant, but later deemed appropriate
W. I. Thomas famously argued that if people define situations as real, then
- they will be forced to provide evidence.
- others will label them as deviant.
- they are real in their consequences.
- it will lead to tertiary deviance.
they are real in their consequences.
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