FSHN Exam 2

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following is NOT considered a basal function? 1. circulation of your blood and lymph 2. maintaining your body temperature 3. walking up stairs 4. respiration (inhaling and exhaling air)
answer
walking up stairs
question
Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism? 1. 3,360 kcal 2. 1,855 kcal 3. 3,024 kcal 4. 1,375 kcal
answer
1,855 kcal
question
The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's 1. gender. 2. age. 3. lean body mass. 4. fat body mass.
answer
lean body mass.
question
True or False. BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height^2 (in meters).
answer
True
question
A person who is ill with a fever will experience 1. an increased thermic effect of food. 2. an increased basal metabolic rate. 3. a decreased thermic effect of food. 4. a decreased basal metabolic rate.
answer
an increased basal metabolic rate.
question
Leptin is a hormone produced by what kind of cells? 1. pancreatic cells 2. liver cells 3. adipose cells 4. muscle cells
answer
adipose cells
question
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity? 1. The individual will lose both adipose and lean body tissue. 2. The individual will lose mostly adipose tissue. 3. The individual will not lose any body weight. 4. The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.
answer
The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.
question
Which of these is the MOST important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss? 1. carbohydrates 2. fat 3. calories 4. protein
answer
calories
question
Which of the following does NOT increase food intake? 1. serotonin 2. beta-endorphins 3. neuropeptide Y 4. decreased blood glucose levels
answer
serotonin
question
True or False. The energy we expend to maintain respiration and circulation is known as the energy cost of physical activity.
answer
False.
question
True or False. BMI is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.
answer
False.
question
Which nutrient requires the LEAST amount of energy to digest, transport, and store? 1. alcohol 2. carbohydrate 3. fat 4. protein
answer
fat
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet? 1. the DASH diet 2. Protein Power 3. Sugar Busters 4. the Atkins diet
answer
the DASH diet
question
True or False. Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain.
answer
False.
question
In theory, what would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcal every day for four weeks (e.g., about 28 days)? 1. 3 lbs 2. 4 lbs 3. 0.5 lbs 4. 2 lbs
answer
4 lbs
question
Which of the following is NOT a potential health risk associated with eating a low-carbohydrate diet? 1. increased risk of some forms of cancer 2. increased risk for heart disease caused by consuming too much saturated fat 3. low blood glucose levels, leading to diminished cognitive functioning and ketoacidosis 4. increased risk for type 2 diabetes
answer
increased risk for type 2 diabetes
question
Which of the following is NOT a function of uncoupling proteins? 1. improve resistance to weight gain and obesity 2. inhibit ATP formation 3. stimulate appetite 4. increase energy loss through body heat
answer
stimulate appetite
question
True or False. Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease.
answer
True.
question
The label on a ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kilocalories are there in two cups of this cereal? 1. 324 2. 187 3. 162 4. 256
answer
324
question
A protein hormone produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite is 1. leptin. 2. ghrelin. 3. PYY. 4. uncoupling protein.
answer
ghrelin.
question
True or False. The glycogen stored in muscle cells is used primarily to provide glucose for red blood cells.
answer
False.
question
The richest dietary source of resistant starch is 1. whole grains. 2. vegetables. 3. fruit. 4. legumes.
answer
legumes.
question
Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels? 1. glucagon 2. insulin 3. thyroxin 4. epinephrine
answer
thyroxin
question
In the diet, the nondigestible parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds are known as 1. dietary fiber. 2. functional fiber. 3. starches. 4. total fiber.
answer
dietary fiber.
question
A high-fiber diet might help decrease blood cholesterol levels by 1. keeping stools soft. 2. causing fiber to bind with bile and more cholesterol to be excreted. 3. preventing ketosis. 4. trapping cholesterol in pockets in the large intestine.
answer
causing fiber to bind with bile and more cholesterol to be excreted.
question
Which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high? 1. insulin 2. CCK 3. estrogen 4. glucagon
answer
insulin
question
Foods in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food are known as 1. fortified. 2. genetically modified. 3. enriched. 4. organic.
answer
fortified.
question
Mikayla's doctor has suggested that she increase the fiber content of her diet. Which of the following would NOT be good advice for Mikayla? 1. Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day. 2. Purchase bread and grain products in which the first ingredient listed is "whole grain." 3. Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day. 4. Avoid excessive amounts of fiber as this could result in bloating and gas.
answer
Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day.
question
True or False. Research has shown that aspartame promotes the development of Alzheimer's disease.
answer
False.
question
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of 1. one monosaccharide and one polysaccharide. 2. two polysaccharides. 3. two monosaccharides. 4. two oligosaccharides.
answer
two monosaccharides.
question
Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance in energy intake versus energy expenditure. true false
answer
true
question
Which of the following is NOT a function of uncoupling proteins? inhibit ATP formation increase energy loss through body heat stimulate appetite improve resistance to weight gain and obesity
answer
stimulate appetite
question
A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called: morbid obesity. overweight. obesity. severe obesity
answer
morbid obesity.
question
Heat-producing brown adipose tissue containing uncoupling proteins has been found only in animals and newborn humans. true false
answer
false
question
People trying to gain weight should eat slightly more than half of their kilocalories from complex carbohydrates. true false
answer
true
question
Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease. true false
answer
true
question
People with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m^2 are considered: morbidly obese. obese. overweight. at a healthy weight.
answer
overweight
question
The energy we expend to maintain respiration and circulation is known as the energy cost of physical activity. true false
answer
false
question
Which of these is the MOST important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss? fat carbohydrates calories protein
answer
calories
question
BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height^2 (in meters). true false
answer
true
question
In Theory, what would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcal every day for four weeks (28 days) 3lbs .5lbs 4lbs 2lbs
answer
4lbs
question
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity The individual will lose mostly adipose tissue The individual will not lose any body weight The individual will lose both adipose & lean body tissue The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue
answer
The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue
question
Being underweight increases a person's risk of developing type 1 diabetes. sleep apnea. high blood pressure. infection and illness.
answer
infection and illness
question
Which of the following would NOT be practical advice to overcome the "I don't have enough time!" barrier to physical activity? Meet your friends for a lunchtime walk, jog, or workout. Skip the elevator and take the stairs. When you are talking on the phone, pace instead of sitting still. Force yourself to exercise at least 45 minutes every day
answer
Force yourself to exercise at least 45 minutes every day.
question
Which of the following is NOT a potential health risk associated with eating a low-carbohydrate diet? increased risk for heart disease caused by consuming too much saturated fat low blood glucose levels, leading to diminished cognitive functioning and ketoacidosis increased risk of some forms of cancer increased risk for type 2 diabetes
answer
increased risk for type 2 diabetes
question
Over winter break, Matthew returned home and celebrated the holidays with his extended family. With all of the rich meals he enjoyed at several holiday feasts, and the plentiful snacks while watching football games, he gained 5 pounds in twenty-one days. On average, how many Calories per day did he consume in excess of his body's needs? 3500 1568 833 512
answer
833 Explanation: about 3500 calories = 1 pound 5 pounds = 17500 calories 17500/21 = 833
question
The thrifty gene theory suggests that adult body weight is determined by the weight of our parents. our adult weight is determined by our weight at birth. our bodies are designed to maintain weight within a narrow range. some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.
answer
some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.
question
Appetite is a learned behavior True False
answer
True
question
The early weight loss often seen on a high-protein diet is actually a result a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down. a loss of body muscle as the high protein stimulates proteolysis. a loss of adipose tissue and total fat stores. lower caloric intake
answer
a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down.
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet? Sugar Busters Protein Power the Atkins diet the DASH diet
answer
the DASH diet
question
In theory, what would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcal every day for four weeks (e.g., about 28 days)? 0.5 lbs 4 lbs 3 lbs 2 lbs
answer
4 lbs
question
The three components of total energy expenditure include 1. basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and sleep activity. 2. basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food. 3.basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and adaptive thermogenesis. 4. basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food, and adaptive thermogenesis.
answer
2. basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food.
question
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3 to 5 percent per decade after they reach what age? 20 30 70 50
answer
30
question
BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height^2 (in meters). True False
answer
True
question
A person with which of the following BMI values has the highest increased risk for premature mortality? 18.5 kg/m2 16 kg/m2 30 kg/m2 35 kg/m2
answer
35 kg/m2
question
Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism? 3,360 kcal 1,375 kcal 3,024 kcal 1,855 kcal
answer
1,855 kcal
question
The amount of energy expended by the body in digesting, absorbing, transporting, metabolizing, and storing nutrients is called adaptive thermogenesis. the thermic effect of food. the nutrient expenditure quotient. the basal metabolic rate
answer
the thermic effect of food.
question
Which nutrient requires the LEAST amount of energy to digest, transport, and store? alcohol fat carbohydrate protein
answer
fat
question
BMI is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition. True False
answer
False
question
Jill is 5'10" tall and weighs 167 pounds. What is her BMI (body mass index)? 32 kg/m2 20 kg/m2 24 kg/m2 27 kg/m2
answer
24 kg/m2
question
The label on a ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kilocalories are there in two cups of this cereal? 256 187 324 162
answer
324
question
The thermic effect of fat is higher than that of carbohydrate or protein. True or False
answer
False
question
Which of the following is the MOST well-known high-protein diet? DASH diet grapefruit diet Atkins diet Ornish diet
answer
Atkins Diet
question
Which of the following does NOT result in satiety? the release of PYY into the bloodstream expansion of the stomach decrease in blood sugar nutrient absorption from the smallintestine
answer
decrease in blood sugar
question
Which of these is the MOST important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss?carbohydrates protein fat calories
answer
calories
question
Which of the following is NOT a function of uncoupling proteins? increase energy loss through body heat inhibit ATP formation improve resistance to weight gain and obesity stimulate appetite
answer
stimulate appetite
question
One distinct advantage of the BMI is that it is able to account for body composition. True or False
answer
False
question
Over winter break, Matthew returned home and celebrated the holidays with his extended family. With all of the rich meals he enjoyed at several holiday feasts, and the plentiful snacks while watching football games, he gained 5 pounds in twenty-one days. On average, how many Calories per day did he consume in excess of his body's needs? 1,568 833 3,500 512
answer
833
question
A person who is ill with a fever will experience... a decreased thermic effect of food. a decreased basal metabolic rate. an increased thermic effect of food. an increased basal metabolic rate.
answer
an increased basal metabolic rate.
question
In photosynthesis, the pigment maltose absorbs sunlight to make glucose. True or False
answer
False
question
Molasses is made from sugarcane. tree sap. fructose. honey.
answer
sugarcane
question
When blood glucose levels drop, which hormone brings glucose out of storage to raise blood glucose levels? glucagon adrenaline glycogen insulin
answer
glucagon
question
The glycemic load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its fat content. weight. glycemic index. protein content.
answer
glycemic index
question
Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans. True or False
answer
False
question
Which of the following carbohydrates is the end product of photosynthesis? galactose glucose glycogen lactose
answer
glucose
question
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sugar is 300 grams a day. True or False
answer
False
question
Up to what percentage of a person's total energy intake should carbohydrates make up, based on the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)? 70% 65% 15% 30%
answer
65%
question
Carbohydrates contain carbon, helium, and sodium. carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. carbon, sulfur, and potassium. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
answer
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
question
Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes. True or False
answer
False
question
During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat? 1. insulin 2. adrenaline 3. estrogen 4.lipoprotein lipase
answer
adrenaline
question
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and glycerols are the three types of lipids commonly found in foods. True/False
answer
False
question
Which of the following is a fat replacer? phosphate trans fat olestra saccharin
answer
olestra
question
Saturated fatty acids can occur in either cis or trans shape. True False
answer
False
question
A fatty acid that contains a chain of ten carbons and one double bond is called what? a saturated, medium chain fatty acid a saturated, long chain fatty acid a monounsaturated, long chain fatty acid a monounsaturated, medium chain fatty acid
answer
a monounsaturated, medium chain fatty acid
question
Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid? fatty acids phospholipids sterols triglycerides
answer
sterols
question
Which of the following is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, yet neutral in flavor, making it a good choice for cooking oil? butter coconut oil canola oil corn oil
answer
canola oil
question
Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers? elevated blood cholesterol levels hypertension allergies gastrointestinal distress
answer
gastrointestinal distress
question
Which of the following groups would have the lowest risk for toxicity from eating shark and other fish with high levels of environmental contaminants? children breastfeeding women pregnant women teenaged boys
answer
teenaged boys
question
Only plants can synthesize cholesterol. True False
answer
False
question
Which of the following groups would have the lowest risk for toxicity from eating shark and other fish with high levels of environmental contaminants? teenaged boys breastfeeding women children pregnant women
answer
teenaged boys
question
To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as bile. lipase. hydrochloric acid. bicarbonate.
answer
bile
question
Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the likely presence of trans fatty acids in a product? partially hydrogenated vegetable oil vitamin E licithin liquid corn oil
answer
partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
question
The most common sterol in our diet is cholesterol. phytosterol. olestra. stanol.
answer
cholesterol
question
Saturated fats are found primarily in foods derived from plants. found in whole milk and beef. liquid at room temperature. protective of our health.
answer
found in whole milk and beef
question
Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature? polyunsaturated monounsaturated saturated short-chain
answer
saturated
question
Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat? skim milk steamed broccoli canola oil butter
answer
butter
question
People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories. true false
answer
false
question
How many double bonds does a saturated fatty acid contain between carbons? one more than two none two
answer
none
question
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and glycerols are the three types of lipids commonly found in foods. true false
answer
false
question
Glycogen is NOT a good source of dietary carbohydrate. true false
answer
true
question
Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes. true false
answer
false
question
Up to what percentage of a person's total energy intake should carbohydrates make up, based on the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)? 70% 30% 15% 65%
answer
65%
question
Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase. true false
answer
true
question
When blood glucose levels drop, which hormone brings glucose out of storage to raise blood glucose levels? glucagon glycogen adrenaline insulin
answer
glucagon
question
Because they are not digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon. true false
answer
false
question
individuals with which untreated disease are at risk for developing ketoacidosis? diverticulitis diabetes hypertension heart diseas
answer
diabetes
question
Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels? thyroxin glucagon epinephrine insulin
answer
thyroxin
question
Excessive production of insulin can result in hypoglycemia. True False
answer
true
question
Which of the following is NOT a health problem related to eating too much sugar? hyperactivity in children obesity tooth decay diabetes
answer
hyperactivity in children
question
The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called emulsification. hydrogenation. deamination. pressurization.
answer
hydrogenation
question
Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient? a. Phospholipids are not naturally found in the healthy body. b. Beneficial GI bacteria produce phospholipids. c. They provide no useful function in the human body. d. Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
answer
d. Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
question
Fatty acids released from storage travel in the blood attached to the protein cysteine. lysine. methionine. albumin.
answer
albumin
question
True or False. Several recent research studies have indicated people who eat an ounce or two of nuts each day in addition to their usual diet did NOT gain weight as would be expected from their increased caloric intake.
answer
True
question
True or False. The term monounsaturated describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain.
answer
True
question
What is the daily recommended intake of saturated fat? a. no more than 5% of total energy intake b. no more than 10% of total energy intake c. as little as possible d. no more than 2% of total energy intake
answer
b. no more than 10% of total energy intake
question
The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a pesco-vegetarian. vegan. lacto-vegetarian. lacto-ovo vegetarian.
answer
lacto-ovo vegetarian
question
True or False. Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels
answer
False. It's associated with high cholesterol levels
question
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance? a. a 30-year-old man with a temperature of 103.7°F b. a 10-year-old boy recovering from severe burns c. a 20-year-old female who is consuming 500 calories a day d. a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
answer
d. a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
question
Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system? buffers antibodies transport proteins enzymes
answer
antibodies
question
Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans? vitamin B12 iron vitamin C calcium
answer
vitamin C
question
Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of prions. vitamins B12 and D. antioxidants. carcinogens.
answer
antioxidants
question
True or False. The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a complementary amino acid.
answer
False. It's called a limiting amino acid.
question
Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the stomach. gallbladder. pancreas. mouth.
answer
stomach
question
What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat? nitrogen oxygen hydrogen carbon
answer
nitrogen
question
True or False. Bodybuilders and weight lifters need as much as 2 times more protein than the RDA.
answer
True
question
Excessive production of insulin can result in hypoglycemia
answer
True
question
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
answer
two monosaccharides.
question
Insoluble fiber consumption is associated with decreased
answer
risk of diverticulosis.
question
Which of the following is a monosaccharide?
answer
galactose
question
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and
answer
liver.
question
Sweetened soft drinks are the most common source of added sugars in the American diet.
answer
True
question
Molasses is made from
answer
sugarcane.
question
Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes
answer
False
question
Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.
answer
False
question
Sugar alcohols are most often used in which of the following products?
answer
chewing gums
question
Diets high in trans and what other type of fatty acid contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer?
answer
saturated
question
Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the likely presence of trans fatty acids in a product?
answer
partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
question
Which of the following is a fat replacer?
answer
olestra
question
How much trans fat is recommended in the diet?
answer
as little as possible
question
as little as possible
answer
found in whole milk and beef.
question
If an ingredient label indicates a product contains partially hydrogenated oils, it will almost assuredly contain trans fats.
answer
True
question
How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?
answer
225 kilocalories
question
Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?
answer
Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
question
Nuts are a good source of
answer
healthful unsaturated fats
question
Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats?
answer
nuts and nut butters
question
Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength
answer
False
question
When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a
answer
buffer.
question
Most Americans consume sufficient or excess amounts of dietary protein.
answer
True
question
The majority of athletes can obtain an adequate amount of protein from eating a healthy diet.
answer
True
question
The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called
answer
transcription.
question
Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the
answer
stomach.
question
In phenylketonuria (PKU), which amino acid becomes conditionally essential?
answer
tyrosine
question
During the process of protein synthesis, what is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell's ribosome called?
answer
translation
question
Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body.
answer
False
question
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the
answer
amine group.
question
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called alteration. deamination. transamination. gene expression.
answer
transamination.
question
The twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids refers to what part of a protein's structure? primary secondary tertiary quaternary
answer
secondary
question
Which of the following is an excellent source of protein that includes foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas? legumes quorn nuts quinoa
answer
legumes
question
Peptide bonds are chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid. True False
answer
True
question
A deficiency of protein can lead to what condition in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces? celiac disease edema marasmus acidosis
answer
edema
question
The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a complementary amino acid. True False
answer
false
question
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the amine group. hydrogen group. side chain. acid group.
answer
amine group.
question
The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is deamination. True False
answer
false
question
The majority of protein digestion occurs in the mouth. True False
answer
false
question
During the process of protein synthesis, what is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell's ribosome called? translation transcription deamination denaturation
answer
translation
question
Cashews are high in saturated fats. True False
answer
false
question
In people who are physically active, extra fat consumed in the diet is stored first in lymphatic tissue. adipose cells. muscle tissue. the liver.
answer
muscle tissue.
question
Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids. True False
answer
true
question
Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids? butter coconut oil corn oil beef fat
answer
corn oil
question
Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine? sterol phospholipid low density lipoprotein (LDL) chylomicron
answer
chylomicron
question
Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter. True False
answer
true
question
The American Heart Association advises consumers to use mayonnaise instead or butter or margarine. choose trans fat free margarines over butter. choose butter over trans fat free margarine. avoid butter and margarine all together.
answer
choose trans fat free margarines over butter.
question
One of your friends is trying to decrease his intake of saturated fat. Which of the following items would you recommend he choose to add to his coffee? half and half non dairy creamer fat free milk or 1% milk whipping cream
answer
fat free milk or 1% milk
question
A triglyceride is comprised of three glycerols and one fatty acid. three fatty acids and one glycerol. three phospholipids and one glycerol. three glycerols and one phospholipid.
answer
three fatty acids and one glycerol.
question
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and glycerols are the three types of lipids commonly found in foods. True False
answer
false
question
Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete? The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism. Active athletes cannot eat a sufficient amount of calories to meet the RDAs for the B vitamins. Carbohydrates are a poor source of the B vitamins. During exercise large amounts of the B vitamins are lost in the urine.
answer
The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.
question
Lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues. True False
answer
True
question
Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading? diarrhea improved performance water retention gastrointestinal distress
answer
Improved performance
question
What is the cause of sports anemia? low blood hemoglobin levels poor dietary intake of iron-rich foods increased plasma volume due to training dehydration
answer
increased plasma volume due to training
question
Amino acids are the primary fuel source utilized in both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. True False
answer
False
question
In which of the following types of exercise would creatine phosphate (CP) be an important source of energy? running a 10-kilometer road race biking up a mountain sprinting in a 100-meter race playing in a football game
answer
sprinting in a 100-meter race
question
Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen? Betty, a 55-year-old woman who is healthy but inactive Frank, a 45-year-old man who is healthy but inactive Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman Jack, a 65-year-old man with diabetes
answer
Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman
question
The currency of energy for most cells in the body is ATP. True False
answer
True
question
Approximately what percentage of Americans report that they do NOT engage in any leisure-time activity? 10 percent 16 percent 25 percent 50 percent
answer
25 percent
question
George plays basketball for his high school team, and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories? low blood glucose levels impaired performance on the court low hemoglobin weight loss
answer
weight loss
question
The amount of ATP produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than how many minutes? 10 60 30 3
answer
3
question
Creatine use is permitted by collegiate and professional sports organizations. True False
answer
true
question
Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body. True False
answer
false
question
Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to increase muscle flexibility and strength. increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source. increase the transport of amino acids to exercising muscle. regenerate ATP for energy.
answer
increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source.
question
Which of the following is NOT a long-term, irreversible effect of steroid use? severe acne delayed closure of the growth plates of the long bones liver damage infertility
answer
delayed closure of the growth plates of the long bones
question
Fatty-acid molecules provide MOST of the energy for sprinting in a 1500-meter race. high-intensity, short-term activity. long-term activity such as hiking. participation in a marathon.
answer
long-term activity such as hiking.
question
Which of the following is FALSE concerning aerobic metabolism? It leads to muscle fatigue. It provides fuel for low-intensity exercise. It supplies more energy than anaerobic exercise. Its by-products are carbon dioxide and water.
answer
It leads to muscle fatigue.
question
At rest, the body's fuel source is primarily protein. amino acids. carbohydrate. fat.
answer
fat
question
In which of the following types of exercise would creatine phosphate (CP) be an important source of energy? sprinting in a 100-meter race biking up a mountain playing in a football game running a 10-kilometer road race
answer
sprinting in a 100-meter race
question
The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet. True False
answer
False
question
High Protein diets are typically high in fat and low in carbohydrate True False
answer
True
question
Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans T or F
answer
true
question
keeping a journal or log of daily food intake, including social or emotional cues that cause overeating, helps modify unhealthy eating behaviors T or F
answer
True
question
The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is the amount of lean body mass one has. T or F
answer
True
question
The insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is cellulose lignan mucilage pectin
answer
cellulose
question
The term "enriched" on a food label signifies that the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in. nutrients were added to the food that have additional health benefits beyond those naturally found in the food. the food was processed without any artificial additives. nutrients were added to the food that did not originally exist in the food.
answer
the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in.
question
A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ketoacidosis. type 2 diabetes. type 1 diabetes. hypoglycemia.
answer
hypoglycemia
question
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells? glucagon estrogen CCK insulin
answer
insulin
question
Which of the following is NOT a symptom/side effect of ketosis? ketoacidosis (acidic pH of the blood) dehydration high blood cholesterol bad breath
answer
high blood cholesterol
question
A lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease called diverticulosis. Crohn's disease. celiac disease. colon cancer.
answer
diverticulosis
question
Aspartame cannot be used to prepare cooked foods because its amino acids form ketones. heat destroys its flavor. its glycemic load becomes too high. once it is heated, the body cannot metabolize it
answer
heat destroys its flavor
question
A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is gluconeogenesis. ketosis. carbohydrate loading. glycogen surging.
answer
carbohydrate loading
question
Saturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature. T or F
answer
False
question
Which of the following statements is FALSE about sterols? Sterols are found in both plant and animal foods. Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid. Cholesterol is the most common sterol found in the human diet. The human body produces sterols.
answer
Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid
question
Lipids that contain multiple carbon-ring structures are known as phospholipids. T or F
answer
False
question
The label on a box of chocolate cookies claims that they are "low-fat." By law each serving must contain at least 25% less fat as compared to a standard serving. less than 0.5 grams of fat. at least 50% less fat as compared to a standard serving. 3 grams or less of fat.
answer
3 grams or less of fat
question
As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance. T or F
answer
False
question
How many strings of amino acids does a polypeptide consist of? more than four two more than ten nine
answer
more than ten
question
The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a(n) protease. electrolyte. hormone. enzyme.
answer
electrolyte
question
Which of the following is NOT a component of an amino acid molecule? a fatty acid group an amine group a central carbon an acid group
answer
fatty acid group
question
A complete protein contains all 9 essential amino acids. is composed of only di- and tripeptides. has not been denatured. contains all 20 amino acids.
answer
contains all 9 essential amino acids
question
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the hydrogen group. side chain. amine group. acid group.
answer
amine group
question
In phenylketonuria (PKU), which amino acid becomes conditionally essential? alanine cysteine tyrosine phenylalanine
answer
tyrosine
question
Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin. T or F
answer
True
question
After completing an exercise session, adequate hydration in an athlete is BEST determined by urine that is light yellow in color. absence of leg cramps. no sweat production. lack of fatigue and soreness in the muscles.
answer
urine that is light yellow in color
question
The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements. T or F
answer
False
question
During exercise, what source(s) of energy is/are used by the body for glucose? fatty acids stored in adipose tissue glucose found in bones protein found in blood glycogen stored in muscles
answer
glycogen stored in muscles
question
The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise. T or F
answer
False
question
Endurance training improves the muscle's ability to use lactic acid for energy during exercise. T or F
answer
True
question
Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes? improves the ability to extract fat from the blood during exercise improves the ability of muscles to store fat increases the number and activity of various enzymes involved in fat metabolism replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
answer
replaces carbs as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
question
Due to the high cost, physical education programs are no longer mandated in schools throughout the United States. T or F
answer
False
question
Jorge is a weight lifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs? It is impossible for Jorge to get adequate amounts of protein without eating meat, fish, and poultry. Jorge cannot meet his protein needs without taking protein supplements. It is a good practice for Jorge to consume a minimum of 2 grams of protein/kilogram of body weight to increase his muscle mass. Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.
answer
Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.
question
Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity. T or F
answer
True
question
The longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown. T or F
answer
True
question
Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells? a. Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule. b. Energy is released when ATP is transported out of the cell membrane. c. Energy is released when adenosine binds to three phosphate molecules. d. Energy is released when two molecules of ATP combine.
answer
Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.
question
Which of the following weekly routines most closely follows the FIT principle recommendations to improve flexibility? a. full-range-motion yoga stretches (twice per stretch) twice a week b. swimming 30 minutes twice a week at 64% max heart rate c. thirty-minute Pilates stretching class five mornings a week d. two sets of weight lifting 5-lb barbells twice a week
answer
full-range-motion yoga stretches (twice per stretch) twice a week
question
More than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise. T or F
answer
True
question
Flexibility is defined as the ability to move a joint fluidly through its full range of motion. T or F
answer
True
question
The primary way the body loses heat is through feces. sweating. respiration. urine.
answer
sweating
question
Which of the following BEST describes exercise? a. ability to move a joint fluidly through the complete range of motion b. leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured c. maximal force or tension level that can be produced by a muscle group d. any movement produced by muscles that increases energy expenditure
answer
leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured
question
Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans? iron vitamin B12 calcium vitamin C
answer
vitamin C
question
Carlos is a healthy 19-year-old college student who is sedentary. He is 5'11" tall and weighs 175 pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend he consume each day? 75 grams 55 grams 64 grams 84 grams
answer
64 grams...How to solve .8 (protein intake grams per kg of body weight) x weight in kg
question
Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called deamination. transcription. denaturation. translocation.
answer
denaturation
question
Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy. True False
answer
True
question
Which of the following is NOT a reason athletes have higher dietary protein needs than sedentary individuals? During exercise more protein is needed to carry oxygen in the blood. During exercise additional protein is needed to repair the tissue damaged during exercise. During exercise additional protein is needed to make glucose to prevent hypoglycemia. During exercise, protein is used as a primary source of energy.
answer
During exercise, protein is used as a primary source of energy.
question
Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of antioxidants. prions. vitamins B12 and D. carcinogens.
answer
antioxidants
question
Which of the following is an excellent source of protein that includes foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas? legumes quorn quinoa nuts
answer
legumes
question
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called gene expression. deamination. alteration. transamination.
answer
transamination
question
Which of the following is NOT a major function of protein in the human body? synthesis of hormones providing energy to the body growth and maintenance of new tissue maintaining fluid balance
answer
providing energy to the body
question
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the amine group. side chain. hydrogen group. acid group.
answer
amine group
question
Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen? Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman Jack, a 65-year-old man with diabetes Frank, a 45-year-old man who is healthy but inactive Betty, a 55-year-old woman who is healthy but inactive
answer
Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman
question
The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called fatty acid breakdown. glucolysis. ketoacidosis. glycolysis.
answer
glycolysis
question
Which of the following weekly routines most closely follows the FIT principle recommendations to improve flexibility? swimming 30 minutes twice a week at 64% max heart rate full-range-motion yoga stretches (twice per stretch) twice a week two sets of weight lifting 5-lb barbells twice a week thirty-minute Pilates stretching class five mornings a week
answer
full-range-motion yoga stretches (twice per stretch) twice a week
question
Which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity? heart rate distance traveled per unit of time (e.g., steps per hour) blood glucose level blood pressure
answer
heart rate
question
The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited. True False
answer
False
question
The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet. True False
answer
False
question
Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to increase the transport of amino acids to exercising muscle. increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source. regenerate ATP for energy. increase muscle flexibility and strength.
answer
increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source.
question
What type of study compares self-reports of physical activity with rates of illness and mortality? exercise training studies case-control studies population-based epidemiological studies clinical trials
answer
population-based epidemiological studies
question
Which of the following is NOT a long-term, irreversible effect of steroid use? delayed closure of the growth plates of the long bones liver damage infertility severe acne
answer
delayed closure of the growth plates of the long bones
question
When oxygen is scarce, cellular pyruvic acid will be converted to glucose. fatty acids. lactic acid. ATP.
answer
lactic acid
question
When oxygen availability is limited in the cell, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
answer
True
question
Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells?
answer
energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.
question
The primary end product of glycolysis is
answer
pyruvic acid.
question
lacing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called
answer
the overload principle
question
The primary way the body loses heat is through
answer
sweating.
question
To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness, you should train a minimum of how many day(s) per week?
answer
3
question
Flexibility is defined as the ability to move a joint fluidly through its full range of motion.
answer
True
question
The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.
answer
False
question
Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol
answer
True
question
What is meant by the overload principle?
answer
improving fitness by placing extra physical demand on the body
question
Fiber is composed of long chains of monosaccharides. T/F
answer
False
question
The glycogen stored in muscle cells is used primarily to provide glucose for red blood cells. T/F
answer
False
question
Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar. T/F
answer
True
question
Because they are not digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon. T/F
answer
False
question
Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes. T/F
answer
False
question
Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes. T/F
answer
False
question
Overconsumption of simple sugars causes hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children. T/F
answer
False
question
Mikayla's doctor has suggested that she increase the fiber content of her diet. Which of the following would NOT be good advice for Mikayla? Avoid excessive amounts of fiber as this could result in bloating and gas. Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day. Purchase bread and grain products in which the first ingredient listed is "whole grain." Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day.
answer
Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day.
question
When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form lactose. maltose. sucrose. galactose.
answer
sucrose
question
One of your friends is trying to decrease his intake of saturated fat. Which of the following items would you recommend he choose to add to his coffee? whipping cream non dairy creamer half and half fat free milk or 1% milk
answer
fat free milk or 1% milk
question
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is what percentage of total energy intake? no more than 15% no more than 20% no more than 35% no more than 50%
answer
no more than 35%
question
Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine? sterol low density lipoprotein (LDL) chylomicron phospholipid
answer
chylomicron
question
Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient? They provide no useful function in the human body. Phospholipids are not naturally found in the healthy body. Beneficial GI bacteria produce phospholipids. Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
answer
Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
question
Medium-chain fatty acids are how many carbon atoms in length? at least 12 at least 16 at least 14 at least 6
answer
at least 6
question
Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy. T/F
answer
False
question
Several recent research studies have indicated people who eat an ounce or two of nuts each day in addition to their usual diet did NOT gain weight as would be expected from their increased caloric intake. T/F
answer
True
question
The label on a box of chocolate cookies claims that they are "low-fat." By law each serving must contain at least 25% less fat as compared to a standard serving. at least 50% less fat as compared to a standard serving. less than 0.5 grams of fat. 3 grams or less of fat.
answer
3 grams or less of fat.
question
Which of the following foods contains hidden fats?olive oil butter chocolate cake zucchini
answer
chocolate cake
question
The spherical compounds made up of bile and phospholipids that transport dietary fat into the intestinal mucosal cells are the salivary enzymes. micelles. albumins. chylomicrons.
answer
micelles
question
Because of their increased protein needs, it is unhealthy for athletes to choose to become vegetarians. T/F
answer
False
question
The type of protein-energy malnutrition characterized by a general lack of protein in the diet is called marasmus. kwashiorkor. cystic fibrosis. sickle cell anemia.
answer
kwashiorkor.
question
A substance-usually a protein-that the body recognizes as a foreign invader, triggering an immune response is an antibody. antibiotic. antihistamine. antigen.
answer
antigen.
question
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance? a 30-year-old man with a temperature of 103.7°F a 10-year-old boy recovering from severe burns a 20-year-old female who is consuming 500 calories a day a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
answer
a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
question
Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called transcription. deamination. denaturation. translocation.
answer
denaturation.
question
A complete protein contains all 9 essential amino acids. has not been denatured. contains all 20 amino acids. is composed of only di- and tripeptides.
answer
contains all 9 essential amino acids.
question
Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered nonessential? 11 20 none 9
answer
11
question
Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans? iron vitamin C calcium vitamin B12
answer
vitamin C
question
MOST of the proteins in the body are synthesized from nine amino acids. ten fatty acids. twenty amino acids. fifteen fatty acids.
answer
twenty amino acids.
question
Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes? improves the ability to extract fat from the blood during exercise replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training increases the number and activity of various enzymes involved in fat metabolism improves the ability of muscles to store fat
answer
replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
question
Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete? Active athletes cannot eat a sufficient amount of calories to meet the RDAs for the B vitamins. During exercise large amounts of the B vitamins are lost in the urine. The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism. Carbohydrates are a poor source of the B vitamins.
answer
The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.
question
In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial? marathon weight lifting cross-country skiing distance swimming
answer
weight lifting
question
Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body. T/F
answer
False
question
Appetite is a learned behavior. T/F
answer
T
question
The energy we expend to maintain respiration and circulation is known as the energy cost of physical activity. T/F
answer
F
question
You weighed a team of football players and, according to their Body Mass Index, they are categorized as overweight and obese. Which of the following would you MOST LIKELY conclude? The BMI tables must be wrong; throw them out. Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated BMIs. The majority are probably obese and should make efforts to lose weight. Their bones may be well mineralized, which is responsible for their BMI.
answer
Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated BMIs.
question
Lance would like to lose two pounds a week. If his present energy intake is 4,200 kcal a day and his energy expenditure does not change, how many kilocalories should he consume each day to achieve his goal? 3,700 2,000 2,500 3,200
answer
3,200
question
The early weight loss often seen on a high-protein diet is actually a result of a loss of body muscle as the high protein stimulates proteolysis. lower caloric intake. a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down. a loss of adipose tissue and total fat stores.
answer
a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down.
question
Which of the following does NOT define a "healthy body weight?" a weight that is acceptable to society a weight appropriate for your age and physical development a weight compatible with normal blood pressure, lipid levels, and glucose tolerance a weight that is acceptable to you
answer
a weight that is acceptable to society
question
Heat-producing brown adipose tissue containing uncoupling proteins has been found only in animals and newborn humans. T/F
answer
False
question
In men, a waist-to-hip ratio higher than what is associated with an increased risk for chronic disease? 30.0 0.90 18.5 0.80
answer
0.90
question
The set-point theory suggests that our bodies are designed to maintain our weight within a narrow range. T/F
answer
True
question
Individuals with a BMI of less than 18.5 have an increased risk of health problems and death. T/F
answer
True
question
Body mass index (BMI) is BEST described as a. a ratio of an individual's body weight to their height squared b. an individual's body density squared c. a ratio of an individual's fat tissue to their lean tissue mass squared d. the percentage of an individual's body weight as compared to a reference standard
answer
a ratio of an individual's body weight to their height squared.
question
Over winter break, Matthew returned home and celebrated the holidays with his extended family. With all of the rich meals he enjoyed at several holiday feasts, and the plentiful snacks while watching football games, he gained 5 pounds in twenty-one days. On average, how many Calories per day did he consume in excess of his body's needs? a. 3,500 b. 833 c. 512 d. 1,568
answer
833
question
Which of the following is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation, by detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals? a. the mouth b. the stomach c. the hypothalamus d. the small intestine
answer
the hypothalamus
question
What is the National Weight Control Registry? a. recommendations from hundreds of registered dietitians suggesting ways to achieve a healthy body weight b. a government agency that monitors fad diets for quackery c. an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year d. a list of medical doctors specially trained at treating individuals with obesity
answer
an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year
question
Which of the following are the preferred fuels for MOST body functions? a. ketones and protein b. carbohydrate and fat c. fat and protein d. protein and fat
answer
carbohydrate and fat
question
The primary energy source used by the body at rest is a. protein b. glycogen c. carbohydrate d. fat
answer
fat
question
Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth? a. salivary amylase b. pancreatic amylase c lactase d. maltase
answer
salivary amylase
question
One tablespoon of honey contains more calories than one tablespoon of table sugar T/F
answer
true
question
Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape. True False
answer
False