Chapter 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology

25 July 2022
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question
How are matter and energy used in ecosystems? A) Matter is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not. B) Energy is cycled through ecosystems; matter is not. C) Energy can be converted into matter; matter cannot be converted into energy. D) Matter can be converted into energy; energy cannot be converted into matter. E) Matter is used in ecosystems; energy is not
answer
A) Matter is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not.
question
A cow's herbivorous diet indicates that it is a(n) A) primary consumer. B) secondary consumer. C) decomposer. D) autotroph. E) producer.
answer
A) primary consumer.
question
To recycle nutrients, the minimum an ecosystem must have is A) producers. B) producers and decomposers. C) producers, primary consumers, and decomposers. D) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers. E) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers.
answer
B) producers and decomposers.
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What is the most important role of photosynthetic organisms in an ecosystem? A) converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds B) absorbing solar radiation C) producing organic detritus for decomposers D) dissipating heat E) recycling energy from other tropic levels
answer
A) converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds
question
Ecosystems are A) processors of energy and transformers of matter. B) processors of matter and transformers of energy. C) processors of matter and energy. D) transformers of matter but not of energy. E) neither transformers or processors of matter nor energy.
answer
B) processors of matter and transformers of energy.
question
If the Sun were to suddenly stop providing energy to Earth, most ecosystems would vanish. Which of the following ecosystems would likely survive the longest after this hypothetical disaster? A) tropical rainforest B) tundra C) benthic ocean D) grassland E) desert
answer
C) benthic ocean
question
Which of the following is true of detrivores? A) They recycle chemical elements directly back to primary consumers. B) They synthesize organic molecules that are used by primary producers. C) They convert organic materials from all trophic levels to inorganic compounds usable by primary producers. D) They secrete enzymes that convert the organic molecules of detritus into CO2 and H2O. E) Some species are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic.
answer
C) They convert organic materials from all trophic levels to inorganic compounds usable by primary producers.
question
Subtraction of which of the following will convert gross primary productivity into net primary productivity? A) the energy contained in the standing crop B) the energy used by heterotrophs in respiration C) the energy used by autotrophs in respiration D) the energy fixed by photosynthesis E) all solar energy
answer
C) the energy used by autotrophs in respiration
question
Which of these ecosystems accounts for the largest amount of Earth's net primary productivity? A) tundra B) savanna C) salt marsh D) open ocean E) tropical rain forest
answer
D) open ocean
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Which of these ecosystems has the highest net primary productivity per square meter? A) savanna B) open ocean C) boreal forest D) tropical rain forest E) temperate forest
answer
D) tropical rain forest
question
How is it that the open ocean produces the highest net primary productivity of Earth's ecosystems, yet net primary productivity per square meter is relatively low? A) Oceans contain greater concentrations of nutrients compared to other ecosystems. B) Oceans receive a greater amount of solar energy per unit area. C) Oceans have the greatest total area. D) Oceans possess greater species diversity. E) Oceanic producers are generally much smaller than its consumers.
answer
C) Oceans have the greatest total area.
question
Aquatic primary productivity is most limited by which of the following? 3 A) light and nutrient availability B) predation by fishes C) increased pressure with depth D) disease E) temperature
answer
A) light and nutrient availability
question
Aquatic ecosystems are least likely to be limited by which of the following nutrients? A) nitrogen B) carbon C) phosphorus D) iron E) zinc
answer
B) carbon
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As big as it is, the ocean is nutrient-limited. If you wanted to investigate this, one reasonable avenue would be to A) follow whale migrations in order to determine where most nutrients are. B) observe Antarctic Ocean productivity from year to year to see if it changes. C) experimentally enrich some areas of the ocean and compare their productivity to that of untreated areas. D) compare nutrient concentrations between the photic zone and the benthic zone in various locations E) contrast nutrient uptake by autotrophs in oceans of different temperatures.
answer
C) experimentally enrich some areas of the ocean and compare their productivity to that of untreated areas.
question
A porcupine eats 3,000 J of plant material. 1,600 J is indigestible and is eliminated as feces. 1,300 J are used in cellular respiration. What is the approximate production efficiency of this animal? A) .03% B) 1% C) 3% D) 10% E) 30%
answer
C) 3%
question
Which of the following lists of organisms is ranked in correct order from lowest to highest percent in production efficiency? A) mammals, fish, insects B) insects, fish, mammals C) fish, insects, mammals D) insects, mammals, fish E) mammals, insects, fish
answer
A) mammals, fish, insects
question
Trophic efficiency is A) the ratio of net secondary production to assimilation of primary production. B) the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next. C) a measure of how nutrients are cycled from one trophic level to the next. D) usually greater than production efficiencies. E) about 90% in most cosystems
answer
B) the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.
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In general, the total biomass in a terrestrial ecosystem will be greatest for which trophic level? A) producers B) herbivores C) primary consumers D) tertiary consumers E) secondary consumers
answer
A) producers
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For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass, and energy are essentially the same-they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for this pattern is that A) secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers. B) at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organisms alive. C) as matter passes through ecosystems, some of it is lost to the environment. D) biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top carnivores. E) top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers.
answer
B) at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organisms alive.
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Which of the following is primarily responsible for limiting the number of trophic levels in most ecosystems? A) Many primary and higher-order consumers are opportunistic feeders. B) Decomposers compete with higher-order consumers for nutrients and energy. C) Nutrient cycles involve both abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. D) Nutrient cycling rates tend to be limited by decomposition. E) Energy transfer between tropic levels is in almost all cases less than 20% efficient.
answer
E) Energy transfer between tropic levels is in almost all cases less than 20% efficient.
question
A secondary consumer, such as a fox, receives what percent of the energy fixed by primary producers in a typical field ecosystem? A) 0.1% B) 1% C) 10% D) 20% E) 90%
answer
B) 1%
question
Which statement best describes what ultimately happens to the chemical energy that is not converted to new biomass in the process of energy transfer between trophic levels in an ecosystem? A) It is undigested and winds up in the feces and is not passed on to higher trophic levels. B) It is used by organisms to maintain their life processes through cellular respiration reactions. C) Heat produced by cellular respiration is used by heterotrophs to thermoregulate. D) It is dissipated into space as heat in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. E) It is recycled by decomposers to a form that is once again usable by primary producers.
answer
D) It is dissipated into space as heat in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
question
Nitrogen is available to plants only in the form of A) N2 in the atmosphere. B) nitrite ions in the soil. C) uric acid from animal excretions. D) amino acids from decomposing plant and animal proteins. E) nitrate ions in the soil.
answer
E) nitrate ions in the soil.
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How does phosphorus normally enter ecosystems? A) cellular respiration B) photosynthesis C) rock weathering D) geological uplifting (subduction and vulcanism) E) atmospheric phosphorous dust
answer
C) rock weathering
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Human-induced modifications of the nitrogen cycle can result in A) eutrophication of adjacent wetlands. B) decreased availability of fixed nitrogen to primary producers. C) accumulation of toxic levels of N2 in groundwater. D) extermination of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on agricultural lands. E) deprivation of nitrogen to ecosystems adjacent to nitrogen application.
answer
A) eutrophication of adjacent wetlands.
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The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey is an example of A) eutrophication. B) predation. C) biological magnification. D) the green world hypothesis. E) chemical cycling through an ecosystem.
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C) biological magnification.
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Which of the following is a tertiary consumer? A) hawk B) snake C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass
answer
B) snake
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Which of the following probably contains the highest concentration of toxic pollutants (biological magnification)? A) hawk B) snake C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass
answer
A) hawk
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Which of the following causes an increase in the intensity of UV radiation reaching the Earth? A) depletion of atmospheric ozone B) turnover C) biological magnification D) greenhouse effect E) eutrophication
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A) depletion of atmospheric ozone
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Which of the following describes carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor re-reflecting infrared radiation back toward Earth? A) depletion of atmospheric ozone B) turnover C) biological magnification D) greenhouse effect E) eutrophication
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D) greenhouse effect
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Which of the following is caused by excessive nutrient runoff into lakes? A) depletion of atmospheric ozone B) turnover C) biological magnification D) greenhouse effect E) eutrophication
answer
E) eutrophication
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Which of the following causes excessively high levels of toxic chemicals in fish-eating birds? A) depletion of atmospheric ozone B) turnover C) biological magnification D) greenhouse effect E) eutrophication
answer
C) biological magnification
question
Agricultural lands frequently require nutritional supplementation because A) nitrogen-fixing bacteria and detrivores do not cycle nutrients as effectively as they do on wild lands. B) the nutrients that enter the plants are not returned to the soil on lands where they are harvested. C) the prairies that comprise good agricultural land tend to be nutrient-poor. D) grains raised for feed must be fortified, and thus require additional nutrients. E) cultivation of agricultural lands inhibits the decomposition of organic matter.
answer
B) the nutrients that enter the plants are not returned to the soil on lands where they are harvested.
question
Burning fossil fuels releases oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Ultimately, these are probably responsible for A) the death of fish in Norwegian lakes. B) rain with a pH as low as 3.0. C) calcium deficiency in soils. D) direct damage to plants by leaching nutrients from the leaves. E) A, B, C, and D are all correct.
answer
E) A, B, C, and D are all correct.
question
Which of the following organisms is incorrectly paired with its trophic level? A) cyanobacterium‚ź£primary producer B) grasshopper‚ź£primary consumer C) zooplankton‚ź£primary producer D) eagle‚ź£tertiary consumer E) fungus‚ź£detritivore
answer
C) zooplankton‚ź£primary producer
question
Which of these ecosystems has the lowest net primary production per square meter? A) a salt marsh B) an open ocean C) a coral reef D) a grassland E) a tropical rain forest
answer
B) an open ocean
question
The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is known as A) population viability analysis. B) landscape ecology. C) conservation ecology. D) restoration ecology. E) resource conservation.
answer
D) restoration ecology.