A&P II Chapter 17 Reading

25 July 2022
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question
Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume?
erythrocytes 
 platelets 
 plasma 
 leukocytes
Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume? erythrocytes platelets plasma leukocytes
answer
plasma
question
What is a hematocrit? Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a whole blood sample. Hematocrit is the percentage of all formed elements in a whole blood sample. Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample. Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.
answer
Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.
question
Which of these is true of the materials making up the buffy coat in centrifuged blood? They are denser then plasma and erythrocytes. They are less dense than both erythrocytes and plasma. They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma. They are denser than erythrocytes but less dense than plasma.
answer
They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
question
Which of the following is NOT regulated by the blood? pH level nutrient levels body temperature fluid volume
answer
nutrient levels
question
Which of the following is NOT a function of blood? hormone production protection distribution regulation
answer
hormone production
question
Which of the following is NOT a formed element in whole blood? erythrocytes platelets albumin leukocytes
answer
albumin
question
Which of the following plasma proteins is improperly matched with its function? fibrinogen: clotting alpha globulin: transport of metal ions and fat-soluble vitamins gamma globulins: lipid transport albumin: osmotic pressure
answer
gamma globulins: lipid transport Gamma globulins are also called immunoglobulins and are part of the immune response.
question
Which of the following would NOT be a characteristic of normal blood? pH of 7.4 5 million RBC per microliter less viscous than water sticky texture
answer
less viscous than water
question
In a centrifuged sample of blood, what should NOT be in the plasma portion of the sample? electrolytes platelets albumin fibrinogen
answer
platelets
question
Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to clotting? albumin beta globulins alpha globulins fibrinogen
answer
fibrinogen
question
Which of the formed elements is present in the greatest concentration? erythrocytes granular leukocytes platelets agranular leukocytes
answer
erythrocytes
question
Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______. decreased production of EPO by their kidneys decreased erythropoiesis decreased reticulocyte counts None of the listed responses is correct.
answer
decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
question
Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte? Erythrocytes are nucleated cells. Erythrocytes are cell fragments. Erythrocytes are larger than other cells in the blood. Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.
answer
Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.
question
What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases?
albumin 
 hemoglobin 
 antibodies 
 fibrinogen
What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases? albumin hemoglobin antibodies fibrinogen
answer
hemoglobin
question
What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?
reduced availability of oxygen 
 a high hematocrit 
 excess oxygen in the bloodstream 
 too many platelets
What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells? reduced availability of oxygen a high hematocrit excess oxygen in the bloodstream too many platelets
answer
reduced availability of oxygen
question
Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport?
iron 
 amino acids of the globin 
 heme group 
 spectrin
Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport? iron amino acids of the globin heme group spectrin
answer
amino acids of the globin
question
How many oxygen molecules can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?
two 
 four 
 eight
How many oxygen molecules can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule? two four eight
answer
four
question
During which phase in erythrocyte development does the color of hemoglobin overcome the color of the stained ribosomes?
phase 1 
 phase 2 
 phase 3
During which phase in erythrocyte development does the color of hemoglobin overcome the color of the stained ribosomes? phase 1 phase 2 phase 3
answer
phase 2
question
What is a young, anucleate erythrocyte called?


polychromatic erythroblast 
 hemopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) 
 reticulocyte 
 proerythroblast
What is a young, anucleate erythrocyte called? polychromatic erythroblast hemopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) reticulocyte proerythroblast
answer
reticulocyte
question
What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?

bone marrow 
 lungs 
 liver 
 kidneys
What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis? bone marrow lungs liver kidneys
answer
bone marrow
question
What part of the hemoglobin molecule is eventually metabolized to stercobilin in the feces?
 globin 
 iron 
 transferrin 
 a portion of the heme group
What part of the hemoglobin molecule is eventually metabolized to stercobilin in the feces? globin iron transferrin a portion of the heme group
answer
a portion of the heme group
question
What erythrocyte production disorder results from an autoimmune disease associated with vitamin B12 absorption?

aplastic anemia 
 renal anemia 
 pernicious anemia 
 hemorrhagic anemia
What erythrocyte production disorder results from an autoimmune disease associated with vitamin B12 absorption? aplastic anemia renal anemia pernicious anemia hemorrhagic anemia
answer
pernicious anemia
question
Suppose that an individual injects himself with erythropoietin in order to raise his level of endurance, an act that is usually illegal in competitive sports. Which of the following could result? polycythemia a lower hematocrit reduced tendency for blood to clot decreased blood viscosity
answer
polycythemia
question
Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production? testosterone erythropoietin a drop in normal blood oxygen levels hyperventilating
answer
hyperventilating
question
Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus.
answer
True
question
Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin. It can bind a maximum of three oxygen molecules. It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups. When hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen, it appears blue. It is found in the plasma portion of blood.
answer
It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.
question
Bilirubin is created when red blood cells are recycled. How is it removed from the blood stream? the liver the pancreas the spleen the kidneys
answer
the liver
question
Which of the following is correctly matched? hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
answer
pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
question
Abnormally low levels of erythrocytes caused by excessive bleeding is called______. sickle-cell anemia hemorrhagic anemia thalassemia polycythemia
answer
hemorrhagic anemia
question
In a cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy, the decision to utilize a CSF capable of specifically stimulating the production of only the granular leukocytes would require that the CSF acts exclusively on ______. lymphoid stem cells myeloid stem cells myeloblasts lymphoblasts
answer
myeloblasts
question
Blood is a type of connective tissue. What primary germ layer is responsible for producing both blood and phagocytic brain glial cells? ectoderm mesoderm endoderm periderm
answer
mesoderm
question
When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number? basophils eosinophils lymphocytes neutrophils
answer
neutrophils
question
Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

lymphocytes 
 eosinophils 
 basophils 
 monocytes
Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production? lymphocytes eosinophils basophils monocytes
answer
lymphocytes
question
Identify the leukocytes in the figure in order. monocyte, eosinophil, lymphocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, basophil, lymphocyte neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte
answer
neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte
question
Which of these develops from lymphoid stem cells?

monocytes 
 lymphocytes 
 erythrocytes 
 granulocytes
Which of these develops from lymphoid stem cells? monocytes lymphocytes erythrocytes granulocytes
answer
lymphocytes
question
Which cells of the myeloid stem cell pathway have accumulated granules?
myeloblasts 
 myelocytes 
 monocytes 
 promyelocytes
Which cells of the myeloid stem cell pathway have accumulated granules? myeloblasts myelocytes monocytes promyelocytes
answer
myelocytes
question
From which cell do the granulocytes descend?
myeloblast 
 lymphoid stem cell 
 promonocyte 
 monoblast
From which cell do the granulocytes descend? myeloblast lymphoid stem cell promonocyte monoblast
answer
myeloblast
question
On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) __________. basophil monocyte lymphocyte eosinophil
answer
monocyte
question
Which granulated leukocyte is most likely to be active during a bacterial infection? monocytes basophils neutrophils lymphocytes
answer
neutrophils
question
All lymphocytes are also leukocytes.
answer
True Lymphocytes are specialized leukocytes. Lymphocytes include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells.
question
Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes? positive chemotaxis leukocytosis diapedesis amoeboid motion
answer
leukocytosis
question
Which leukocyte might you expect to find in higher quantities in a person experiencing allergies? neutrophil basophil eosinophil lymphocyte
answer
eosinophil
question
Which of the following leukocyte is NOT correctly matched with its function? eosinophil: bacterial macrophage monocytes: macrophage lymphocytes: immune response against viral infections basophils: inflammation
answer
eosinophil: bacterial macrophage
question
What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other formed elements?

reticulocyte 
 megakaryoblast 
 hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) 
 lymphoid stem cell
What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other formed elements? reticulocyte megakaryoblast hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) lymphoid stem cell
answer
hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)
question
Which of the following best explains how platelets enter the blood? They are formed in the spleen and are released directly into the blood. They are formed in and released by the thymus. They form in the blood itself as it passes through the lungs. They are passed through the wall of a bone marrow capillary.
answer
They are passed through the wall of a bone marrow capillary.
question
Which formed element can be described as membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments?
monocytes 
 erythrocytes 
 lymphocytes 
 platelets
Which formed element can be described as membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments? monocytes erythrocytes lymphocytes platelets
answer
platelets
question
What factor stimulates platelet formation? plasmin thrombopoietin interleukin 2 erythropoietin
answer
thrombopoietin
question
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the role of platelets in hemostatic reactions? Platelets release chemicals that attract and bind other platelets. Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation. Platelets do not stick to intact endothelial cells. Platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers.
answer
Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation.
question
During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel?
A
B
C
D
During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel? A B C D
answer
D The gelling of blood due to formation of insoluble fibrin occurs during the coagulation stage.
question
What
What "clot buster" enzyme removes unneeded clots after healing has occurred during fibrinolysis? plasminogen thrombin plasmin fibrin
answer
plasmin
question
Which of the following would NOT lead to a bleeding disorder? thrombocytopenia impaired liver function excess calcium in the diet vitamin K deficiency
answer
excess calcium in the diet
question
Which step in hemostasis involves activation of formed elements in the blood? vascular spasm platelet plug formation coagulation fibrin production
answer
platelet plug formation
question
Hemostasis is important for __________. stoppage of bleeding white blood cell production red blood cell production red blood cell recycling
answer
stoppage of bleeding
question
Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting pathways? One is triggered by tissue damage, while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage. One is faster than the other. One involves calcium ions, while the other does not. One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.
answer
One is faster than the other.
question
Digesting a clot after it is formed requires activation of what plasma protein by tPA? plasminogen plasmin thrombin fibrinogen
answer
plasminogen
question
What protein involved in coagulation provides the activation for the final step in clotting? thrombin fibrin fibrinogen prothrombin activator
answer
thrombin
question
During erythroblastosis fetalis, a Rh- mother's anti-Rh antibodies that have crossed the placenta will cause agglutination of the fetus's Rh+ RBCs. However, the reverse problem never happens when a Rh+ mother is pregnant with a Rh- fetus, that is, antibodies produced by the fetus cannot cause agglutination of the mother's Rh+ RBCs. This is true because ______. agglutinins are physically too large to pass across the placenta fetal antibodies are immature and non-functional antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus the placenta is a barrier that prevents the passage of all antigens
answer
antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus
question
AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type's lack of agglutinogens.
answer
False AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type's lack of antibodies.
question
Choose the incompatible transfusion. Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood. Donate type A blood to a recipient with type AB blood. Donate type B blood to a recipient with type AB blood. Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
answer
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
question
A person who lacks agglutinogen A but has agglutinogen B would have blood type __________. B A O AB
answer
B
question
Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)? AB-negative female pregnant with an AB-negative baby A-positive female pregnant with a B-positive baby B-negative female pregnant with an AB-positive baby O-positive female pregnant with a B-positive baby
answer
B-negative female pregnant with an AB-positive baby
question
Which statement is true? Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood. Type AB is the universal donor. Type O is the universal recipient. A person with type AB blood does produce agglutinins.
answer
Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood.
question
Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal recipient? O AB B A
answer
AB
question
A patient has a suspected electrolyte imbalance, what blood test would reveal an electrolyte imbalance? platelet count differential white blood cell count Complete Blood Count (CBC) Comprehensive Medical Panel (CMP)
answer
Comprehensive Medical Panel (CMP)
question
Which of the following sets of measurements from Harold's CBC does his doctor use to evaluate his body's ability to oxygenate his tissues?
answer
hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC
question
Which of the following sets of measurements from Harold's CBC does his doctor use to evaluate the health of his immune system?
answer
WBC, neutrophil, basophil count
question
Doctors have determined that Harold is anemic. Which of the following pieces of evidence directly supports this diagnosis?
answer
fatigue, dizziness, and low hematocrit
question
Based on Harold's history of gastritis, his doctor ordered a blood test in order to measure his levels of vitamin B12. Which of the following explains why his doctor would take this action?
answer
The stomach makes intrinsic factor, which is required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine.
question
There are many different types of anemia. Based on the evidence in this case, what type of anemia does Harold likely have?
answer
pernicious anemia
question
Harold's doctor noted that he was experiencing a mild tachycardia. Which of the following best explains why Harold would be experiencing tachycardia in this case?
answer
Harold is showing signs and symptoms of having trouble oxygenating his tissues. The elevated heart rate helps to compensate for this problem.
question
The three types of formed elements of blood are ________.
answer
leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes
question
The two most abundant components of whole blood, in order of most abundant and second-most abundant, are _________.
answer
plasma, erythrocytes
question
Maggie's cuts are successfully treated, and the physician elects not to transfuse any blood products. A week later she visits her primary physician to have her sutures removed, and her hematocrit has improved. Calculate this HCT: the total volume is 5 ml, and the plasma volume is 3.4 ml. Is it normal?
answer
32%. This value is low for a woman. In this question, students must calculate packed cell volume by subtracting the plasma volume value from the total blood volume (5 - 3.4 = 1.6 ml); then, 1.6/5 ml Ɨ 100 = 32%. The normal hematocrit in healthy females is approximately 42% Ā± 5%, and in a healthy male, it is 47% Ā± 5%.
question
Assuming all of the following fluid-replacement options are equal (with respect to risks, availability, and cost), which would be the most optimal for Maggie when you consider her significant blood loss?
answer
whole blood (blood that is the normal consistency of blood in the body)
question
A test tube of Maggie's blood goes unused in the lab, and the stagnant blood coagulates. This is due to which pathway of blood clotting?
answer
intrinsic pathway
question
In the laboratory, the technician determines Maggie's blood type. Maggie's blood agglutinates in anti-A antibodies, but has no reaction in anti-B or anti-D antibodies. What is Maggie's blood type?
answer
A-
question
What blood type(s) can Maggie safely receive?
answer
A- and O-
question
If Maggie needed a blood transfusion immediately upon her arrival to the ED, before her blood type could be established, what type could be safely transfused?
answer
O-
question
The infusion of mismatched blood causes a "transfusion reaction" in which the infused RBCs go through __________.
answer
agglutination and hemolysis