Micro - Ch. 17 (Pre Lectures)

24 July 2022
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Which part of the adaptive immune response involves B cells? Neither humoral nor cell-mediated Humoral Both humoral and cell-mediated Cell-mediated
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Humoral
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Antibodies are a part of which type of immunity? Both humoral and cell-mediated Neither humoral nor cell-mediated Cell-mediated Humoral
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Humoral
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The primary immune response involves a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline. a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a rapid decline. an immediate increase in the concentration of antibodies, followed by an immediate and sharp decline. an immediate increase in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a slow decline.
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a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline.
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According to the animation, for approximately how many days is IgG present in the serum? Ten days Fifteen days Twenty days Five days
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Ten days
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According to the animation, on what day does IgM first appear? Day fifteen Day one Day five Day ten
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Day five
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Which cells are involved in a secondary response? Memory B cells Memory B cells and plasma cells Plasma cells T cells
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Memory B cells and plasma cells
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How is the secondary response different from the primary response in terms of antibody concentration in the blood? The secondary response is slower, but produces more antibodies than the primary response. The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response. The secondary response is faster, but does not produce more antibodies than the primary response. There is no difference with regard to antibody concentration in the blood.
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The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response.
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According to the animation, on which day does the production of IgG occur in the secondary response? Day fifteen Day two Day five Day ten
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Day five
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An anamnestic response is the term used to describe the production of antibodies from a plasma cell. the appearance of antibodies in serum. another name for primary response. another name for secondary response.
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another name for secondary response.
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Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection? The production of identical B cells producing different antibodies The production of identical T cells producing the same antibody The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody The production of different antigens by the same B cell
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The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
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What is produced by the process of clonal expansion? Memory B cells Plasma cells and memory B cells Plasma cells, T cells, and memory B cells Plasma cells
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Plasma cells and memory B cells
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An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as BCR. antibodies. T-dependent antigens. T-independent antigens.
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T-independent antigens.
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Based on the animation, T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell? CD4 TCR BCR Antigen MHC
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MHC
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How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days? Memory B cells can also produce antibodies. T cells can also produce antibodies. Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second. Each plasma cell can proliferate into more plasma cells.
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Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second.
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Phagocytosis is a process for engulfing large particles (>1Ξm). Which feature of antibodies will help to make particles larger, therefore enhancing phagocytosis? agglutination complement activation neutralization opsonization
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agglutination
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The flu virus mutates fairly frequently. Its adhesive proteins change such that we have different "strains" of influenza each year. When a particular flu virus mutates such that its adhesive proteins change, which function of antibodies is disrupted? opsonization complement activation neutralization agglutination
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neutralization
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__________________ stimulated with ___________ differentiate into __________, which secrete antibodies into the bloodstream. B-cells, antigen, plasma cells Phagocytes, antigen, B-cells Antigen, plasma cells, B-cells Plasma cells, antigen, B-cells
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B-cells, antigen, plasma cells
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What makes agglutination by antibodies possible? Antibodies can inactivate toxins. Antibodies can recognize bacteria as well as viruses. Antibodies are produced by plasma cells. Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.
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Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.
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What is the role of plasma cells in humoral immunity? Plasma cells produce antibodies. Plasma cells engulf viruses. Plasma cells are phagocytes. Plasma cells neutralize toxins. Plasma cells activate the complement system.
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Plasma cells produce antibodies.
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How might a pathogenic bacterium be affected by antibodies? The antibodies may stick to multiple bacteria, causing agglutination. The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria. The antibodies may coat the surface of the bacteria (opsonization), allowing for it to be tagged for phagocytosis. The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host.
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The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria.
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Where are MHC molecules located on a cell? They are not associated with any one location on the cell In the nucleus On the surface of the cell Inside the cell cytoplasm
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On the surface of the cell
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What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins? They are small fragments of nucleic acids, 8-10 nucleotides in length. They are large proteins from the host. They are derived from bacteria. They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.
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They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.
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Which organelle assists directly with the presentation of MHC-I antigens? The nucleus The endoplasmic reticulum The phagosome The mitochondria The Golgi apparatus
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The endoplasmic reticulum
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When does MHC-II loading occur? During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens During viral infection During phagocytosis of an invading pathogen After passing through the endoplasmic reticulum
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During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens
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Which of the cells listed below can present antigens on Class II MHC proteins? Virus infected epithelial cells Healthy epithelial cells Tumor cells Macrophages
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Macrophages
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Antigen processing and presentation is only accomplished by bacterial cells. is the way foreign cells engulf macrophages. is a way for a cell to give information about its activities. is a way for viruses to infect cells.
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is a way for a cell to give information about its activities.
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Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens? All cells of the body can engulf invading cells. Antigens are required for cell-to-cell attachment. Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus. Antigens are infectious and can spread to normal cells.
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Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus.
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How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured? They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells. They spread viruses to other cells. They engulf virally infected cells.
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They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells.
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Which structure do antigen presenting cells utilize to directly help them present bacterial antigens? Golgi apparatus Nucleus Phagolysosome Mitochondria
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Phagolysosome
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Which of the following are likely to be found on an MHC-I protein? Bacterial cell wall fragment Bacterial flagella Bacterial DNA Damaged mitochondrial fragment Membranes from a neighboring dead host cell
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Damaged mitochondrial fragment
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What would a virally infected skin epithelial cell have on its cell surface? Class II MHC with macrophage antigens Class I MHC with skin cell antigens Class II MHC with liver cell antigens Class II MHC with viral antigens
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Class I MHC with skin cell antigens
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Which of the following would you likely see on the surface of a human dendritic cell following phagocytosis of a bacterium? Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens Class II MHC with dendritic cell antigens Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens and Class II MHC with engulfed bacteria Class II MHC with engulfed bacterial antigens
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Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens and Class II MHC with engulfed bacteria
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Tom has a genetic disorder in which he does not synthesize class I MHC proteins or functional NK cells. Which of the following statements would be true for Tom? Tom would be more susceptible to bacterial infections. Tom would not be able to produce antibodies against viruses. Tom would be less susceptible to helminth infections. Tom would not be able to destroy virally-infected cells.
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Tom would not be able to destroy virally-infected cells.
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Which type of cell directly attacks infected cells? Bacterial cells Helper T-cells Cancerous cells Cytotoxic T-cells
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Cytotoxic T-cells
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Immune cells that secrete cytokines and activate other immune cells are: Cytotoxic T-cells Abnormal body cells Invading pathogenic bacteria Helper T-cells Virally infected cells
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Helper T-cells
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HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity? Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body. HIV transforms the T-cells into cancer cells. HIV reprograms these cells to attack the body cells. HIV causes cytokines to be produced at much higher levels, altering the normal function of the immune system.
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Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body.
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How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together? Cytotoxic T-cells produce cytokines to activate helper T-cells. Cytotoxic T-cells attack abnormal body cells, while helper T-cells attack virally infected cells. Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system. Helper T-cells produce cytotoxic T-cells.
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Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.
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What is apoptosis? The proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells. A protein molecule that forms a pore in the membranes of infected cells. The receptor on a cytotoxic T-cell that recognizes MHC molecules. The process of programmed cell death.
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The process of programmed cell death.
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What is the function of the CD8 receptor? Produce IL-2 Activate cytokines Bind to MHC molecules Produce gamma interferon
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Bind to MHC molecules
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What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells? They are infected by viruses. They can differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells. They are destroyed via apoptosis. They can mature and attack infected cells. Each activated cytotoxic T-cell proliferates, forming a clone of cells specific to the same antigen. They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.
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They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.
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Which molecule triggers apoptosis? Perforin IL-2 Gamma-interferon Granzyme MHC
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Granzyme
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Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation? Production of IL-2 and gamma-interferon receptors Secretion of granzymes and perforin CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells Clonal proliferation
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CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells
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Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell? IL-1 Receptors CD4 TCR IL-2 Receptors
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TCR
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TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate cytotoxic T-cells. B cells. macrophages. natural killer cells.
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B cells.
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Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell? IL-2 receptors IL-1 receptors MHC proteins CD8 receptors
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MHC proteins
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When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells? Before autostimulation Immediately after the binding of the CD4 receptor After proliferation into a clonal population After B cell activation
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After proliferation into a clonal population
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Natural killer cells are activated by TH2 cells. antigen-presenting cells. TH1 cells. bacterial cells.
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TH1 cells.