The Enlightenment And The American Revolution

26 August 2022
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question
What idea did John Locke advocate for the role of a government?
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John Locke: *Advocated the idea of natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. *He argued that the people formed governments to protect their natural rights and that the best kind of government has limited power and is accepted by all citizens.
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Explain the economic policy of laissez faire.
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Laissez faire is a policy that was developed by the physiocrats to replace mercantilism because it required government regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade. The policy basically allows businesses to operate with little or no government interference.
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How did the Enlightenment affect some rulers in Europe, and what are these rulers know as?
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The enlightenment affected certain rulers in Europe, specifically *Fredrick II - religious tolerance, disliked torture *Catherine II - religious tolerance, disliked torture *Joseph II - religious tolerance, found out what his citizens did not like about the government and attempted to change it. These rulers were known as despots.
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How does the Bill of Rights reflect a key Enlightenment idea?
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The Bill of Rights reflects the key Enlightenment idea of natural rights because it recognized that people had basic rights that the government must protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press.
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How did Enlightenment thinkers inspire revolutionaries to push for radical changes in government and society?
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The Enlightenment thinkers inspired revolutionaries to push for radical changes in government and society by making it known to the people that the proper type of government was one that protect the liberties of the people, or as stated by John Locke: life, liberty and property, and do not exert absolute power.
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Choose one philosopher from this unit and describe how he or she might respond to a human rights issue that has been in the news recently.
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Voltaire, a philosophe whom expressed his views through his writings that were then censored by the government through the means of exile and book burning, would absolutely revile the new internet censorship bills of today because it is taking away our liberty of the freedom of speech which is something he fought to keep his entire life.
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What did Thomas Hobbes believe was the basic nature of human beings?
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Thomas Hobbes believed that the basic nature of human beings was to be naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish.
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What kind of government did Hobbes believe was best for human society?
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Hobbes believed that an absolute monarchy would be the proper type of government because people would fight, rob, and oppress each other if there wasn't a strict government to control them.
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What was John Locke's view of basic human nature?
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John Locke thought that people were basically reasonable and moral.
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What did Locke conclude was the proper kind of government?
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John Locke believed that the best type of government would be a government that had limited power, protected natural rights, was accepted by all citizens, and could be overthrown by the people.
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Explain the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
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Enlightenment ideas influenced the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights by giving the Framers the ideas for checks and balances, individual freedom, and government by the people.
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Summarize the reasons why Enlightenment ideas were slow to influence the lives of most Europeans.
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Enlightenment ideas were slow to influence the lives of most Europeans because the vast majority of them were uneducated and lived in rural villages so it took a long time for the message to even reach them.
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What did those opposed to Enlightenment ideas do to stop the spread of information?
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Those opposed to Enlightenment ideas attempted to stop the spread of information through the use of censorship, or restricting access to ideas and information, they banned and burned books, and imprisoned writers.
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Identify the roles that censorship and salons played in the spread of new ideas.
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* ensoriship and salons both played roles in the spread of new ideas *censorship slowed it down through banning and burning books, which in turn forced writers to encode their message in fictional works that couldn't be decoded because the vast majority of Europeans were uneducated. *Salons promoted the spread of new ideas because they provided a place in which people could gather to discuss and promote philosophies without being censored.
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As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political changes took place?
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As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, society faced many cultural changes: *The change from baroque to rococo, classical music, and novels. *Society also faced many political changes as well, for example the removal of the serfdom, freedom of religion, and the abashment of torture.
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Why did Adam Smith support laissez faire?
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Adam Smith supported laissez faire because he thought that the market would be more productive if the government did not have a say in economic policies.
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Explain how science led to the Enlightenment.
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Science led to the Enlightenment because it was answering questions based on reason and natural law, which they soon found could be applied to society.
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Summarize how economic thinking changed during this time.
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Economic thinking during the Age of Enlightenment changed from the policy of mercantilism, which is where everything required government control in order to maintain a fair balance of trade, to laissez faire, which is where business operates with little or no government interference and operates on the principal of supply and demand.
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How did Locke's ideas challenge Europe's traditional order?
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Locke's ideas challenged Europe's traditional order because he claimed that the power is from the people, not God, which goes completely against the current theory of that time which is the divine right of kings in which there is one absolute ruler that has been chosen by God.
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What led to change more, the Enlightenment or the American Revolution?
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I believe that the American Revolution led to more change because it was a complete overhaul on government based on Enlightenment principals where people's liberties are protected and government and the power is limited. This was a concept that the absolute monarchs, even the despots, were completely opposed to at this time because they wanted to exert absolute power.
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physiocrats
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focused on economic reforms. Like the philosophes, they looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system
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How did scientific progress promote trust in human reason?
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Scientific progress convinced Europeans of the power of human reason. If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws, or laws that governed human nature? Thus, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, which came to be known as the Enlightenment. Through the use of reason, people and governments could solve social, political, and economic problems.
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How did the social contract and separation of powers affect views on government?
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People entered into a social contract, in order to live in an organized society. Only an absolute monarchy can ensure an orderly society. The separation of powers is the best way to protect liberty. Each branch of government should serve as a check on the others. Thinkers called philosophes believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society.
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How did new ideas affect society and the economy?
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*freedom of speech * expose abuse and corruption *oppose slave trade *religious freedom *minimal government controls *women's interests, more decision making *equal education for girls and boys *physiocrats focused on economic reforms including free trade and they didn't like tariff's(taxes).
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What influences spurred Britain's rise to global power?
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*Britain's location on the ocean put it in a position to control trade. *They had fewer restrictions on trade than other *In the 1700's they were on the winning side of the European conflicts. *their territory expanded closer to home.
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How did George III reassert royal power?
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*ended the Whig domination *he chose his own ministers *He dissolved the cabinet system *he made parliament follow his will
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What were the chief characteristics of the 13 English colonies?
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colonists shared common values, respect for individual enterprise, and an increasing sense of their own identity separate from that of Britain
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How did growing discontent lead to the American Revolution?
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a. The seven years war, called the French and Indian War in the north America, had drained the British treasury b. A series of violent clashes intensified the crisis c. The declaration claimed that people had the right " to alter or abolish" unjust government- a right to revolt
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How did the new constitution reflect the ideas of the Enlightenment?
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The new constitution reflected the Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. • they saw government in terms of a social contract. They provided for an elective legislature and an elected president. • The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal government and the states. • The federal government was separated among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Each branch was provided with checks and balances on the other branches. • The Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, recognized that people had basic rights that the government must protect.
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Compare the views of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke on human nature. How did these views influence their ideas on the proper role of government?
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Hobbes believed people were naturally cruel, greedy and selfish and needed strong control or people would hurt each other, so society needed a strong government. John Locke thought people were reasonable and moral and should have natural rights. Government should have limited power and protect the citizens natural rights.
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Why were Enlightenment ideas slow to influence the lives of most Europeans?
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They spread more quickly with educated people, but most Europeans were peasants with little or no education, and probably couldn't even read. Culture in Europe was also based on old traditions, people don't like change.
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What group of people used the phrase "no taxation without representation"? Why? What key issue did the phrase represent and what important event did it bring about?
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The phrase was a protest against British imposed taxes. Britain imposed taxes without letting the colonist's representatives in parliament give their opinion. Taxation was the issue and it brought about the American Revolution.
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How might the outcome of the American Revolution have been different if France had not participated?
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Americans could have possible lost because the British had better trained soldiers, more resources and a huge fleet. Also more money. The French were key in our victory.