The Dominion of New England occurred in the time period of the 1670's & 1680's. King James II attempts to consolidate all of the New England colonies (that includes: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire) into one large colony. By doing so, he's taking away the rights of the people in those colonies, because they no longer have much say in their government. He wants to expand it eventually to include New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey and make them under one rule. King James II tries to tighten his control over the colonies and curve the rights of the people. The significance of this is that the Glorious Revolution puts the end to the Dominion of New England and restores the rights of the people.