Skills Lesson: Types Of Evidence And Logical Fallacies

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Statistics that are used to draw conclusions about larger groups are called __________. A. inferential B. descriptive C. analogical D. anecdotal
A. inferential
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Which of the following are fallacies of relevance? A. equivocation and division B. hasty generalization and false analogy C. faulty analogy and non sequitur D. popular appeal and personal attack
D. popular appeal and personal attack
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Which of the following is a fallacy of syllogism? A. non sequitur B. personal attack C. division D. argument from the negative
A. non sequitur
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That baseball team won the World Series, so the players must be outrageously talented baseball players. Which logical fallacy is present in this argument? A. argument from the negative B. equivocation C. faulty analogy D. division
D. division
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A statistic is a(n) __________ that describes groups or samples of objects. A. observation B. analogy C. number D. experiment
C. number
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Which of the following is a type of evidence? I. empirical II. statistical III. anecdotal A. I only B. I and II C. II and III D. I, II, and III
D. I,II, and III
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An examination of a school handbook from a local public high school shows that the "expectations" of students are more like laws by which a citizen must abide to live in a society. "Respect the teacher's position as leader in the classroom . . . " sounds like a statement of a tyrant. These "expectations" seem forced upon the students with no freedom. If schools want students to be successful citizens, they should allow students to take the courses they want and let them breathe. Which change would make the evidence stronger? A. supporting the analogical evidence with empirical evidence by providing a comparison to a similar situation in a foreign country B. supporting the empirical evidence with anecdotal evidence by giving an example of how a specific teacher enforced the rules C. supporting the anecdotal evidence with empirical evidence by examining a range of school handbooks from various public schools D. supporting the anecdotal evidence with empirical evidence that suggests schools are wasting money by enforcing rules
C. Supporting the anecdotal evidence with empirical evidence by examining a range of school handbooks from various public schools.
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Which logical fallacy often includes a premise that appeals to what is believed or done by the mainstream or the elite? A. hasty generalization B. popular appeal C. faulty analogy D. equivocation
B. popular appeal
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What is a logical fallacy? A. a mistake in thinking or reasoning B. a system of thought analysis C. a true or false statement D. a process of reaching conclusions
A. a mistake in thinking or reasoning
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Evidence that is based on personal observation is considered __________. A. inferential B. statistical C. anecdotal D. descriptive
C. anecdotal
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What is the difference between a fact and an opinion? A. Opinions can be verifiable as true or false, while facts cannot. B. Facts can be verifiable as true or false, while opinions cannot. C. Facts are based on feelings, beliefs, and perspectives. D. Opinions are not based on feelings, beliefs, and perspectives.