Cosmetology: Milady Theory Workbook (Ch. 5) Infection Control - Principles & Practices

23 August 2022
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question
Explain in your own words why it is important to study infection control.
answer
Infection control is important because it affect clients and personal health and safety. It is top priority & responsibility to prevent illness, disease propagation and legal burden at all time at all cost. Also, poor infection control will jeopardize the owner's state license.
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Regarding regulating the practice of cosmetology, what is the difference between federal agencies and state agencies?
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Federal agencies set guidelines for manufacturing, sale, chemical ingredients and use of equipment. These guidelines also provide for monitoring of safety in the workplace and place limits on the types of services you can perform in the salon. State agencies regulate licensing, enforcement, and your conduct when you are working in the salon. (P.71)
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What does OSHA stand for?
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Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
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OSHA was created as part of the U. S. Department of Labor (DOL) to ________________________.
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OSHA was created as part of the U. S. Department of Labor (DOL) to regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace.
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What is the purpose of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)?
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Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) created to ensure that the hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are evaluated and details regarding their hazards are transmitted to employers and employees.
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Explain why you think OSHA's standards are important to you personally as a cosmetologist.
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Because many products are using in salons, OSHA standards address issues relating to handling, mixing, storing, and disposing of products, general safety in the workplace, and your right to know about any potentially hazardous ingredients contained in the products you use and how to avoid these hazards. (P.71)
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True or False? Federal and state laws require manufacturers to supply a Safety Data Sheet (SDS), previously known as Material Safety Data Sheet, only for those products that are potentially hazardous.
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False. Federal and state laws require salons to obtain SDSs from the chemical product manufacturers and/or distributors for each professional product that is used. (P.73)
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List the 16 categories of information contained in a Safety Data Sheet.
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Identification, Hazard(s) identification, Composition/information on ingredients, First-aid measures, Fire-fighting measures, Accidental release measures, Handling and Storage, Exposure controls/personal protection, Physical and chemical properties, Stability and reactivity, Toxicological
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True or False? Federal and state laws require salons to obtain an SDSs from the chemical product manufacturers and/or distributors for each professional product that is used in the salon.
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Answer: True (P.73)
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All salon employees must _____ the information included on each SDS and _____ they have done so by _____ a _____ sheet for the product. (P.73)
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All salon employees must obtain the information included on each SDS and prove they have done so by signing a sign-off sheet for the product. (P.73)
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What does the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) register?
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All types of disinfectants sold and used in the United States. (P.73)
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Define the term disinfectant.
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Chemical products that destroy most bacteria (excluding spores), fungi, and viruses on surfaces. (P.73)
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Some _____ can be harmful to salon tools and equipment.
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Some products, chemicals, disinfectants can be harmful to salon tools and equipment.
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True or False? As a rule of thumb, it is always better to use a tuberculocidal disinfectant when cleaning up a spill in the salon.
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Answer: False
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True or False? By law, a disinfecting product must be used in the manner prescribed on its manufacturer's label and be registered with the EPA.
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Answer: True
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True or False? If you do not follow the instructions for mixing, contact time, and the type of surface the disinfecting product can be used on, you are not complying with federal law.
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Answer: True
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Why do state regulatory agencies exist?
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To protect salon professionals and to protect consumers health, safety, and welfare while they receive salon services. Laws are written by both federal and state legislatures that determine the scope of practice and establish the guidelines for regulatory agencies to make rules.
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List four examples of state regulatory agencies.
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Licensing Agencies, State Board of Cosmetology, Commissions, Health Department
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State agency rules are enforced through ______ and _____ of consumer complaints.
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State agency rules are enforced through inspections and investigations of consumer complaints.
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Explain why it is important for a cosmetologist to understand and follow state laws and rules at all times.
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Because cosmetologists deal with numerous clients that may carry disease, and they are using products that contains chemicals that can cause harm. Guild lines ensure cosmetologists are knowledgeable on how to handle, mix, store, dispose of products and what to do in case of emergency and in different situation. State laws and rules protect cosmetologist, clients and protect personal health and safety. Violator may lead to fine, penalty, loss of license, lawsuit and/or jeopardize public health and safety.
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What is the difference between laws and rules?
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Laws (statutes)are written by both federal and state legislatures that determine the scope of practice (what each license allows the holder to do) and that establish guidelines for regulatory agencies to make rules. Rules and regulations are more specific than laws. Rules are written by the regulatory agency or the state board, and they determine how the law must be applied. Rules establish specific standards of conduct and can be changed or updated frequently.
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The invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens is called _____.
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The invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens is called infection.
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List the four types of microorganisms that are important in the practice of cosmetology.
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Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Parasites
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Why are the four types of microorganisms listed in the previous question potentially harmful?
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They can cause infectious disease(s) and may be spread from person to person.
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25. Use the following terms to complete the sentences below: fungicidal, clean, disinfection, viricidal , bactericidal. a) _____ refers to something that is capable of destroying viruses. b) To _____ means to remove all visible debris, dirt, and many disease-causing germs by scrubbing using soap and water or detergent and water. c) The process of _____ destroys most, but not necessarily all, harmful organisms on environmental surfaces. d) To destroy a fungi, you would need to use something labeled as a _____. e) A product that is _____ is capable of destroying bacteria.
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a.) Viricidal refers to something that is capable of destroying viruses. b.) To clean means to remove all visible debris, dirt, and many disease-causing germs by scrubbing using soap and water or detergent and water. c.) The process of disinfection destroys most, but not necessarily all, harmful organisms on environmental surfaces. d.) To destroy a fungi, you would need to use something labeled as a fungicidal. e.) A product that is bactericidal is capable of destroying bacteria.
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Explain why a cosmetologist is obligated to provide safe services in the salon.
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Because, if client is infected or harmed may lead to legal burden, penalties and loose license. Contagious diseases or pathogens which causes harms may infect clients and spread to community.
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One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics are known as _____. Where can they exist? _____
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One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics are known as bacteria. They can exist anywhere.
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Most bacteria are ________ which means they are harmless and may perform useful functions.
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Most bacteria are non-pathogenic which means they are harmless and may perform useful functions.
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List some of the useful functions of nonpathogenic bacteria.
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1.) Make yogurt, cheese and some medicines. 2.) Break down food. 3.) Protect against infection. 4.) Stimulate immune system.
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Pathogenic bacteria are harmful because they may cause _____ or infection when they invade the body.
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Pathogenic bacteria are harmful because they may cause disease or infection when they invade the body.
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31. Match each of the following bacteria with its unique shape. _____ 1. Cocci a) Curved lines _____ 2. Staphylococci b) Spiral or corkscrew-shaped _____ 3. Streptococci c) Short, rod-shaped _____ 4. Diplococci d) Round-shaped _____ 5. Bacilli e) Grape-like clusters _____ 6. Spirilla f) Spherical
answer
1. Cocci, D.) Round-shaped 2. Staphylococci, E.) Grape-like clusters 3. Streptococci, A.) Curved lines 4. Diplococci, F.) Spherical 5. Bacilli, C.) Short, rod-shaped 6. Spirilla, B.) Spiral or corkscrew-shaped
question
Pus-forming bacteria that cause abscesses, pustules, and boils are known as _____.
Pus-forming bacteria that cause abscesses, pustules, and boils are known as _____.
answer
Staphylococci. Staphylococci are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils. (P. 77).
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Pus-forming bacteria that cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning are known as _____.
Pus-forming bacteria that cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning are known as _____.
answer
Streptococci. Streptococci are pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning (P. 77)
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Diplococci are bacteria that cause diseases such as _____.
Diplococci are bacteria that cause diseases such as _____.
answer
Diplococci are spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia (P. 77)
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35. How do the following bacteria move about?
a.) Cocci
b.) Bacilli
c.) Spirilla
35. How do the following bacteria move about? a.) Cocci b.) Bacilli c.) Spirilla
answer
a.) Cocci, no motility b.) Bacilli, flagella (snake like motion) or cilia (rowing like motion) c.) Spirilla, flagella, cilia
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36. A term that means "moving about" is _____ while the term _____ refers to self- movement.
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Locomotion means "moving about". Motility refers to self- movement.
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37. Match each term with its correct definition. ___ 1. Germs ___ 2. Microorganism ___ 3. Parasite ___ 4. Bacteria ___ 5. Virus ___ 6. Infection ___ 7. Toxin ___ 8. Direct transmission ___ 9. Indirect transmission i) A submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism a) Poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms b) Transmission of body fluids or blood through contact with an intermediate contaminated object c) One-celled microorganisms having both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful and some are harmless d) Organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size e) Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens f) Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching, kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking g) An organism that grows, feeds, and shelters on or in another organism while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism h) Synonym for any disease-producing organism 38. Unscramble these words and use them to complete the sentences below.
answer
1. Germs, Synonym for any disease-producing organism. 2. Microorganism, Organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size. 3. Parasite, an organism that grows, feeds, and shelters on or in another organism while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. 4. Bacteria, One-celled microorganisms having both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful and some are harmless. 5. Virus, A submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism. 6. Infection, Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens. 7. Toxin, poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms 8. Direct transmission, Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching, kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking. 9. Indirect, Transmission of body fluids or blood through contact with an intermediate contaminated object
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38. _____ generally consist of an outer cell wall containing a liquid called _____. They grow and _____. The life cycle of bacteria is made up of two distinct phases: the active stage and the or spore-forming stage.
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Bacteria generally consist of an outer cell wall containing a liquid called protoplasm. They grow and reproduce. The life cycle of bacteria is made up of two distinct phases: the active stage and the inactive or spore-forming stage.
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39. During the active stage, bacteria: a.) change color b.) die c.) grow and reproduce d.) dry out
answer
During the active stage, bacteria grow and reproduce (c)
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40. The division of a bacteria cell is called ____. The cells that are formed are called ____.
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The division of a bacteria cell is called binary fission. The cells that are formed are called daughter cells.
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41. What type of conditions do bacteria require to multiply? a) Cool and dark b) Warm and clean c) Dark and dry d) Warm, dark, and damp
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d.) Warm, dark, and damp
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42. a.) What happens to bacteria in favorable conditions? b.) What happens in unfavorable conditions?
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In favorable conditions bacteria grow and reproduce. In unfavorable conditions, they died or become inactive.
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43. Why do certain bacteria, such as tetanus and botulism, coat themselves with wax-like out shells?
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They are in inactive or spore-forming stage, so they can withstand unfavorable condition for a long time.
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44. What happens to bacteria when favorable conditions are restored?
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The spores change into the active form and begin to grow and reproduce.
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45. There can be no bacterial infection without the presence of _____.
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Pathogenic bacteria
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46. ____ is the body's reaction to injury, irritation, or infection; it may be characterized by _____, ____,and _____.
answer
Inflammation is the body's reaction to injury, irritation, or infection; it may be characterized by redness, heat, pain and swelling.
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47. What is pus?
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Pus is a fluid containing white blood cells, bacteria, dead cells, and is the byproduct of the infectious process.
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48. A local infection is one that is _____ to a particular part of the body.
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A local infection is one that is confined to a particular part of the body.
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49. Give an example of a local infection.
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A pimple or an abscess
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50. Staphylococci are among the most common human bacteria and are more frequently spread through skin-to-skin contact or through ____.
answer
the use of unclean tools
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51. An example of a staph infection is MRSA, which stands for _____.
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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.
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52. Historically, MRSA occurred most frequently in people who have _____ immune systems or who had undergone _____ procedures.
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Historically, MRSA occurred most frequently in people who have weakened immune systems or who had undergone medical procedures.
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53. MRSA initially appears as a skin infection such as ____.
answer
pimple, rash, or boil
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54. True or False? It is possible for a client to have a staph infection without knowing it.
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True- asystematic
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55. A disease that spreads from one person to another by contact is said to be contagious or ____.
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communicable
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56. List the more common contagious diseases that will prevent a cosmetologist from servicing a client. ____.
answer
common cold, ringworm, conjunctivitis (pinkeye), viral infections, and natural nail, toe, or foot infections.
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57. List 12 ways contagious diseases are commonly spread.
answer
1. Dirty Hands 2. Infected Nails. 3. Open Sores. 4. Pus 5. Mouth Discharge 6. Shared Drinking Cups 7. Telephone Receivers 8. Towels 9. Nasal Discharge 10. Coughing 11. Sneezing 12. Spitting
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58. What are two differences between bacteria and viruses? 1.) 2.)
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1.) Virus can live and reproduce only by taking over other cells and becoming part of them. 2.) Bacteria can live and reproduce on their own.
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59. True or False? Vaccinations prevent viruses from growing in the body, but are not available for all viruses.
answer
True
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60. The human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect the bottoms of the _____.
answer
Feet
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61. A client who shows signs of an HPV infection should not receive a ____ service.
answer
pedicure
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62. Disease-causing microorganisms that are carried in the body by blood or body fluids are called _____.
answer
bloodborne pathogens
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63. List nine ways bloodborne pathogens can be spread inside the salon.
answer
1. Haircutting 2. Chemical Burns 3. Shaving 4. Nipping 5. Clipping 6. Facial Treatments 7. Tweezing 8. Broken Skin 9. Waxing
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64. It is against the law for a cosmetologist to _____, even if the client insists.
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It is against the law for a cosmetologist to intentionally cut living skin, even if the client insists.
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65. Cutting hardened tissue and removing a callus are both considered _____.
answer
medical procedures
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66. What are the three types of hepatitis that are of concern in the salon?
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A,B,and C.
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67. Which of the three types of hepatitis is the most difficult to kill on a surface?
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Hepatitis B.
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68. What does HIV stand for?
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus
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69. What does AIDS stand for? What is AIDS?
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AIDS stand for, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body's immune system.
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70. Name some ways in which HIV is not spread.
answer
holding hands, hugging, kissing, sharing food, household items- phones, toilet seats
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71. _____, which include molds, mildews, and yeasts, can cause _____ diseases such as ringworm.
answer
Single cell organisms, which include molds, mildews, and yeasts, can cause contagious diseases such as ringworm.
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73. _____ is a superficial fungal infection caused by a variety of dermatophytes. What does it affect?_____ Whom does it mostly affect? _____ .
answer
Tinea barbae is a superficial fungal infection caused by a variety of dermatophytes. What does it affect? Skin- bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scale Whom does it mostly affect? Older adolescent and adult males.
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72. Although it affects plants or grows on inanimate objects, _____ does not cause human infections in the salon.
answer
Although it affects plants or grows on inanimate objects, mildew does not cause human infections in the salon.
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74. List the two steps that should be followed to clean and disinfect clipper blades effectively. 1.) _____ 2.) _____
answer
1.) Remove all visible hair and debris from clippers using compressed air. 2.) The non electrical parts can then be cleaned and disinfected.
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75. Nail infections can be spread by using _____ implements or by not properly _____ the surface of the natural nail before applying an enhancement.
answer
Nail infections can be spread by using dirty implements or by not properly preparing the surface of the natural nail before applying an enhancement.
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76. A _____ nail infection is more common on the feet than on the hands.
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A fungal nail infection is more common on the feet than on the hands.
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77. _____ nail infections commonly occur on both the hands and the feet.
answer
Bacterial nail infections commonly occur on both the hands and the feet.
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78. Which of the following is the most frequently encountered infection on the foot resulting from nail services? a.) Tinea barbae b.) Tinea pedis c.) Tinea capitis
answer
b.) Tinea pedis
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79. _____ are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another _____ , referred to as a host, while contributing _____to the survival of that organism.
answer
Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism, referred to as a host, while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism.
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80. Name three external parasites that affect the human skin. 1.) 2.) 3.)
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1.) Ticks 2.) Fleas 3.) Mites
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81. Match each of the following terms with its definition. 1. Immunity 2. Natural immunity exposure to natural allergens like pollen 3. Acquired immunity infection a) Both inherited and developed through healthy living b) Ability to overcome disease through inoculation or c) The body's ability to destroy,-resist, and recognize
answer
1. Immunity, (C.) The body's ability to destroy, resist, and recognize. 2. Natural immunity, (A.) Both inherited and developed through healthy living. 3. Acquired immunity infection, (B.) Ability to overcome disease through inoculation or exposure to natural allergens like pollen.
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82. Proper ____ can prevent the spread of disease caused by exposure to potentially infectious material on an item's surface.
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Proper infection control can prevent the spread of disease caused by exposure to potentially infectious material on an item's surface.
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83. When proper cleaning and then ____ with an appropriate ____ disinfectant occur, virtually all pathogens of concern in the salon can be effectively eliminated.
answer
When proper cleaning and then disinfecting with an appropriate EPA registered disinfectant occur, virtually all pathogens of concern in the salon can be effectively eliminated.
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84. ____ , which is the process that destroys all microbial life, is an infection-control method that can be used, but it is very rarely mandated.
answer
Sterilization, which is the process that destroys all microbial life, is an infection-control method that can be used, but it is very rarely mandated.
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85. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires that autoclaves be tested ____ to ensure they are properly sterilizing implements.
answer
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires that autoclaves be tested weekly to ensure they are properly sterilizing implements.
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86. Define the term decontamination. ____
answer
The removal of blood and all other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface and the removal of visible debris or residue such as dust, hair, or skin.
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87. Putting antiseptics on your skin, or just washing your hands with soap and water, will reduce the number of pathogens on your hands, but it does not ____ .
answer
clean them properly
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88. When cleaning, you must remove all ____ from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and ____ to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item.
answer
When cleaning, you must remove all visible & invisible dirt and debris, from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and properly disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item.
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89. True or False? Three ways to clean tools and implements include washing and scrubbing with soap and water, using an ultraviolet unit, and using a cleaning solvent.
answer
False, you can only use ultrasonic
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90. An autoclave that incorporates heat and pressure is typically required for effective ____ .
answer
sterilization
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91. What is the accepted method for testing an autoclave to ensure it is properly sterilizing implements? ____
answer
spore test
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92. True or False? The vast majority of pathogens and contaminants can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning.
answer
True
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93. True or False? If you are in a hurry to get to your next client, it is acceptable to use a disinfectant on an instrument and skip the step of cleaning it first.
answer
False
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94. Disinfectants are products that destroy most___ excluding spores, on surfaces.
answer
Disinfectants are products that destroy most bacteria, fungi, and viruses excluding spores, on surfaces.
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95. Explain how sterilization is different from disinfection.
answer
• Sterilization process destroy completely. • Disinfection process eliminates most microorganisms on nonliving surfaces but its ineffective against bacterial spores
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96. Explain why disinfectants should not be used on human skin, hair, or nails.
answer
It can cause skin irritation and allergy. Disinfectants can be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
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97. Disinfectants must be registered by the___ . CDC or FDA or EPA
answer
EPA
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98. What does it mean if a disinfectant has the word concentrate on its label? ___ It must be diluted as instructed before using. ___ It is ready to use right out of the container. ___ It is less potent than other types of disinfectants.
answer
It must be diluted as instructed before using
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99. Define the term contact time.
answer
The amount of visibly moist time required to be effective against pathogens.
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100. Define efficacy as applied to disinfectant terms.
answer
The ability to produce an effect; effectiveness.
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101. When compared to a hospital, a salon has a ______ infection risk. ___ higher ___ lower
answer
Lower
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102. What are four things a cosmetologist should know about accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP)? 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.)
answer
1.) AHP is disinfectant which based on stabilized hydrogen peroxide 2.) Needs to be changed only every 14 days 3.) Nontoxic to skin and environment 4.) There is an AHP formula that is available for disinfecting pedicure tubs.
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103. Explain why you need to remove all dirt and other matter you can see on tools and implements before immersing them in disinfectant solution.
answer
Debris and residue will interfere (block) disinfectant and prevent proper disinfection.
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104. The label on a disinfectant product states "complete immersion." Explain what this means.
answer
Complete immersion means there is enough liquid in the container to cover all surfaces of the item being disinfected, including the handles, for 10 minutes or for the time recommended by the manufacturer
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105. True or False? To disinfect large surfaces such as tabletops, carefully apply the disinfectant onto the pre-cleaned surface, or use a disinfectant spray and allow it to remain wet for 5 minutes.
answer
False- 10 minutes!
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106. _____, also known as quats, are effective disinfectants for salon use, when properly used in the salon.
answer
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
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107. List six disadvantages of phenolic disinfectants.
answer
1.) Very high pH, and can damage the skin and eyes. 2.) Harmful to environment if dispose to the drain 3.) Can't use to disinfect pedicure tubs or equipment 4.) Damage plastic and rubber 5.) Cause certain metals to rust 6.) Known carcinogens
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108. True or False? Any type of household bleach may be used as an effective disinfectant.
answer
False
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109. Name five disadvantages of using bleach as a disinfectant.
answer
1. too much can damage plastics and metals 2. corrosive to metals 3. corrosive to plastics 4. can cause skin irritation 5. can cause eye damage
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110. Identify each of the following items used in a salon as either multi-use or single-use. Nippers Cotton balls Permanent wave rods Combs Shears Nail files Wooden sticks
answer
Multi-use items are: Nippers, Permanent Wave Rods, Combs, Shears. Single use items are: Cotton balls, Nail files, Wooden sticks.
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111 . True or False? Currently, no states require salons to clean and disinfect their multi-use tools and implements.
answer
False
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112. According to state rules, how often should multi-use tools and equipment be cleaned and then disinfected?
answer
before and after every service
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113. Why is it good practice to keep a logbook of all equipment usage, cleaning, disinfecting, testing, and maintenance?
answer
To give your clients a peace of mind and it is required by state regulatory agencies.
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114. In the salon, how should soiled linens and towels be stored until they can be properly laundered?
answer
Store soiled linens and towels in covered or closed containers, away from clean linens and towels
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115. True or False? Mix all disinfectants according to the manufacturer's directions, always adding water to the disinfectant.
answer
True
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116. True or False? A water sanitizer does not properly clean or disinfect equipment.
answer
True
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117. The true benefit of hand washing comes from the _____ created by the _____ that can "pull" pathogens off the skin surface.
answer
117. The true benefit of hand washing comes from the friction created by the soap bubbles that can "pull" pathogens off the skin surface.
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118. (!') ACTIVITY: Using the following chart as a template, research the various disinfectant products used in the school and in your home. (Answers will vary based on the disinfectants the students find at home and in the school.)
answer
Google It
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119. What are Standard Precautions?
answer
Standard Precautions are guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that require the employer and employee to assume that all human blood and body fluids are potentially infectious.
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120. Explain why strict infection control practices should be followed for every client.
answer
Some are asystematic
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121. Contact with nonintact skin, blood, body fluid, and/or other potentially infectious materials that is the result of the performance of an employee's duties is known as _____.
answer
exposure incident
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122. _____ should be a part of the normal routine for you and your coworkers so the salon and staff project a professional image.
answer
Infection control practices should be a part of the normal routine for you and your coworkers so the salon and staff project a professional image.
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123. How often should you sweep hair off the floor of the salon? a.) After every client b.) Once a day c.) As part of the closing routine
answer
a.) After every client
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124. What are the benefits of keeping trash in a covered waste receptacle?
answer
Reduces fires hazards & odors.
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125. To maintain a professional image, try to avoid touching your _____, _____ , or _____ during client services.
answer
To maintain a professional image, try to avoid touching your face, mouth, or eyes during client services.
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126. Where should clean and disinfected tools be stored?
answer
Clean, covered container, or a clean drawer
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127. How often should fans, ventilation systems, and humidifiers be cleaned?
answer
Weekly
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128. What is a way to ensure proper air quality in the salon?
answer
Effective exhaust system