Chapter 9 Nutrition

25 July 2022
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T/F Women in their reproductive years are likely to carry more intra-abdominal fat than are women past menopause.‚Äč
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False
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T/F Waist circumference indicates visceral fatness, and above a certain girth, disease risks rise.‚Äč
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True
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T/F Eating certain foods can elevate the basal metabolic rate, and thus promote weight loss.‚Äč
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False
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T/F Taller people need proportionately more energy than shorter people to balance their energy budgets.‚Äč
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True
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T/F For someone with at least one obese parent, the chance of becoming obese is estimated to be between 30 and 70 percent.‚Äč
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True
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T/F Physical inactivity alone does not cause obesity.‚Äč
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False
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T/F The BMI is very valuable in helping muscular athletes determine their health risks.
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False
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T/F No single body composition or weight suits everyone; needs vary by gender, lifestyle, and stage of life.‚Äč
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True
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T/F ‚ÄčLeptin is a hormone produced by the body to stimulate the appetite and encourage eating.
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False
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T/F The set-point theory states that the body's regulatory controls will maintain body weight over time and resist efforts to lose weight by dieting.‚Äč
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True
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T/F High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to be much more effective than other low-calorie plans in promoting successful weight loss.‚Äč
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False
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T/F Society plays a role in eating disorders because rates ofeating disorders in non-Western cultures increase whenthinness is accepted as an ideal.‚Äč
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True
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T/F Bulimia is more prevalent than anorexia nervosa and is more common in women than men.‚Äč
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True
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What is NOT a risk of being underweight?‚Äč A. ‚Äčearlier death during a famine or siege B. ‚Äčhigher risk of developing heart disease C. ‚Äčgreater risk of starvation when suffering from cancer D. ‚Äčhigher risk of death following surgery E. ‚Äčgreater risk of malnutrition when hospitalized
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B. Higher risk of developing heart disease
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Which condition is NOT a result of obesity?‚Äč A. diabetes‚Äč B. ‚Äčosteoporosis C. ‚Äčhypertension D. ‚Äčadipokineimbalance E. ‚Äčsleep apnea
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B. Osteoporosis
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Excess fat ____ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.‚Äč A. ‚Äčunder the skin around the hips B. ‚Äčin the extremities C. ‚Äčdeep within the shoulders D. ‚Äčunder the skin of the chest E. ‚Äčdeep within the abdomen
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E. Deep within the abdomen
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Waist circumference reflects the degree of ____ in proportion to body fatness.‚Äč A. ‚Äčvisceral fatness B. ‚Äčgynoid obesity C. ‚Äčsubcutaneous fat D. ‚Äčtotal body fatness E. ‚Äčlean tissue
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A. Visceral fatness
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A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates:‚Äč A. ‚Äčnormal weight. B. ‚Äčoverweight. C. ‚Äčunderweight. D. ‚Äčobesity. E. ‚Äčmorbid obesity.
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B. Overweight
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A rule of thumb that has been used in the past but does not apply equally to everyone is that one pound of body fat is equal to ____ calories.‚Äč A. 2500‚Äč B. ‚Äč3000 C. 3500 D. ‚Äč4000 E. ‚Äč4200
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C. 3500
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Which statement about basal metabolism is true?‚Äč A. ‚ÄčIt supports the voluntary but not the unconscious work that the body performs. B. It can be changed rapidly through vigorous exercise.‚Äč C. It accounts for the smallest component of the average person's daily energy expenditure.‚Äč D. ‚ÄčIt is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine. E. ‚ÄčIt increases in response to malnutrition or fasting.
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D. It is directly controlled by hormone thyroxine
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About ____ percent of a meal's energy value is used up in stepped-up metabolism in the five or so hours following that meal.‚Äč A. ‚Äč5 B. ‚Äč10 C. ‚Äč15 D. ‚Äč20 E. ‚Äč25
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B. 10
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All of the following factors are associated with a higher basal metabolic rate except:‚Äč A. ‚Äčstress. B. ‚Äčstarvation. C. ‚Äčfever. D. ‚Äčyouth. E. ‚Äčgreater height.
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B. Starvation
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Older people generally need less energy than younger people due to:‚Äč A. ‚Äčincreasedbasal metabolic rate. B. ‚Äčchronic diseases that stress the body. C. ‚Äčdecreases in height. D. ‚Äčdeclines in lean body mass with age. E. ‚Äčreduced total caloric intakes.
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D. Declines in lean body mass
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Body mass index is unsuitable for use with:‚Äč A. ‚Äčadolescents. B. ‚Äčcasual exercisers. C. ‚Äčwomen younger than 50. D. ‚ÄčCaucasians. E. ‚Äčpregnant women.
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E. Pregnant women
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A man of healthyweight may have, on the average, ____ percent of hisbody weight as fat.‚Äč A. ‚Äč5 B. ‚Äč10 C. ‚Äč15 D. ‚Äč20 E. ‚Äč30
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D. 20
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Hunger makes itself known roughly ____ hours after eating.‚Äč A. ‚Äč1-2 B. ‚Äč2-3 C. ‚Äč3-5 D. ‚Äč4-6 E. ‚Äč6-8
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D. 4-6
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The hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to a gain in body fatness that helps to control obesity is:‚Äč A. ‚Äčendorphin. B. ‚Äčghrelin. C. ‚Äčleptin. D. ‚Äčinsulin. E. ‚Äčthyroxine.
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C. Leptin
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The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:‚Äč A. ‚Äčsatiety. B. ‚Äčappetite. C. ‚Äčhunger. D. ‚Äčobesity. E. ‚Äčsatiation.
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B. Appetite
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All of the following are involved in signaling satiation except:‚Äč A. ‚Äčthe stomach. B. ‚Äčthe small intestine. C. ‚Äčthe brain's hypothalamus. D. ‚Äčthe heart. E. ‚Äčthe mouth.
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D. The heart
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Which types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?‚Äč A. ‚Äčhigh in digestible starch B. ‚Äčlowin protein C. ‚Äčhigh in sugar D. ‚Äčhigh in fiber E. ‚Äčlow in fat
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D. high in fiber
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Which type of tissue is particularly abundant in enzymes that engage in thermogenesis but don't accomplish any other work?‚Äč A. ‚Äčlean B. ‚Äčskeletal muscle C. ‚Äčexcess adipose D. ‚Äčbrown adipose E. ‚Äčwhite adipose
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D. Brown adipose
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What is one "outside of the body" factor that contributes to obesity?‚Äč A. ‚Äčthe "built environment," which can discourage physical activity B. ‚Äčeating automatically in response to hunger cues C. ‚Äčspontaneous fidgeting activity D. ‚Äča lack of food availability E. ‚Äčaccess to many supermarkets
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A. the "built environment", which can discourage physical activity
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What is a food desert?‚Äč A. ‚Äčan urban area where people live with no access to any foods for purchase B. ‚Äčan area where no fast-food restaurants are available for quick and easy meals C. ‚Äča rural area where only local supermarkets are available D. ‚Äčan area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants sell food E. ‚Äčan area where only large chain supermarkets sell food
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D. An area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants sell food
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Quick, large changes in weight are most likely the result of all of the following except:‚Äč A. ‚Äčchanges in fat stores. B. ‚Äčchanges in body fluid content. C. ‚Äčchanges in electrolytes and fluid balance. D. ‚Äčchanges in lean tissues such as muscles. E. ‚Äčchanges in bone minerals.
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A. changes in fat stores
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In early food deprivation, the nervous system cannot use ____ as fuel.‚Äč A. ‚Äčfat B. ‚Äčglucose C. ‚Äčprotein D. ‚Äčcarbohydrate E. ‚Äčketones
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A. Fat
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A healthy person starting with average body fat can live totally deprived of food for as long as six to eight weeks due to:‚Äč A. ‚Äčacidosis. B. ‚Äčthermogenesis. C. ‚Äčmetabolism. D. ‚Äčlactic acidosis. E. ‚Äčketosis.
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E. Ketosis
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Energy nutrients can be stored in the body as:‚Äč A. ‚Äčprotein stores andglycogen. B. ‚Äčlean tissue. C. ‚Äčethanol. D. ‚Äčglycogen and fat. E. ‚Äčtriglycerides and lean tissue.
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D. glycogen and fat
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Which statement is FALSE?‚Äč A. ‚ÄčExcess carbohydrate is converted to glycogen orfatand stored. B. ‚ÄčProtein is used to build muscles in response to exercise. C. ‚ÄčAlcohol delivers calories and encourages fat storage. D. ‚ÄčAny food can make you fat if you eat enough of it. E. ‚ÄčExcess amino acids are stored in muscle.
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E. Excess amino acids are stored in muscle
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A very-low-carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by:‚Äč A. ‚Äčaccelerated metabolism. B. ‚Äčketosis. C. ‚Äčincreased appetite, initially. D. ‚Äčslow weight loss. E. ‚Äčgreater long-term weight loss.
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B. Ketosis
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The foods emphasized by high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets clearly raise the risk for:‚Äč A. ‚Äčosteoporosis. B. ‚Äčkidney disease. C. ‚Äčheart and artery disease. D. ‚Äčcancer. E. ‚Äčanorexia nervosa.
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C. Heart and artery disease
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Fad diets are successful in the short term because they:‚Äč A. ‚Äčalter the body's metabolism. B. ‚Äčreduce satiety and hence appetite. C. ‚Äčprovide the best balance of energy nutrients for weight loss. D. ‚Äčinduce a calorie deficit. E. ‚Äčare easy to follow.
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D. Induce a calorie deficit
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An eating pattern of foods high in ____ is associated with being overweight.‚Äč A. ‚Äčplant proteins B. ‚Äčnonnutritive sweeteners C. ‚Äčnutrient density D. ‚Äčenergy density E. ‚Äčcarbohydrates
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D. Energy Density
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One of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management is:‚Äč A. ‚Äčan increase in appetite immediately after exercise. B. ‚Äčan increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy. C. ‚Äčbeing able to eat high-calorie snacks. D. ‚Äčsignificantly raising the BMR for several hours after exercise. E. ‚Äča significant reduction in food cravings.
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B. An increase in lean muscle tissue, which burn more energy
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Which strategy would be most appropriate for an obese individual with a BMI of 40 or above who is healthy?‚Äč A. ‚Äčan herbal supplement B. ‚Äčsurgery such as a gastric bypass C. ‚Äčliposuction or lipectomy D. ‚Äčan ephedrine-containing dietary supplement E. ‚Äčstarting an intense, self-directed diet and exercise program
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B. Surgery such as gastric bypass
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Complications immediately following obesity surgery often include all of the following except:‚Äč A. ‚Äčdehydration. B. ‚Äčinfection. C. ‚Äčhigh blood pressure. D. ‚Äčnausea. E. ‚Äčlow blood glucose.
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C. High blood pressure
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Successful weight maintainers:‚Äč A. avoid weighing themselves on a scale more than monthly.‚Äč B. ‚Äčavoid weight-loss support programssuch as Weight Watchers. C. ‚Äčmonitor energy nutrient proportions rather thanoverall food energy of the diet. D. ‚Äčhave never experienced weight cycling. E. ‚Äčexercise regularly.
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E. Exercise regularly
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The accumulation of excess visceral fat in the body may lead to health complications because:‚Äč A. ‚Äčthe fat is more quickly mobilized and released into the bloodstream as HDL cholesterol. B. ‚Äčit can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease. C. ‚Äčthe fat accumulates in the upper chest area, which can interfere with lung function. D. ‚Äčthe fat distribution is resistant to physical exercise. E. ‚Äčit is associated with the "pear" body profile.
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B. It can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease
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Mary has a waist circumference of 38 inches. Based on this information, you conclude that:‚Äč A. ‚Äčshe is probably between and 25 and 35 years old. B. ‚Äčshe has a large amount of subcutaneous fat. C. ‚Äčshe is at very low risk for insulin resistance. D. ‚Äčshe exhibits an unhealthful "pear-like" body shape. E. ‚Äčshe is at an increased risk for chronic disease.
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E. She is at an increased risk for chronic disease
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A woman who is a varsity soccer player has a BMI of 26, a waist circumference of 32, and 23percent body fat. What would you say about her body composition?‚Äč A. she is obese and at risk for developing chronic diseases‚Äč B. ‚Äčshe has a high level of visceral fat accumulation C. ‚Äčher performance will be affected by her body fat accumulation D. ‚Äčshe is within recommendations for waist circumference and percent body fat E. ‚Äčher BMI puts her in the overweight category,which trumps waist circumference and body fat percentage
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D. She is within recommendations for waist circumference and percent body fat
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Your mom is overweight and thinks it's too late to get in shape. What might you recommend as a reasonable first weight goal?‚Äč A. ‚Äčto try a liquid diet B. ‚Äčto stop gaining weight C. ‚Äčto set a goal of reducing her body weight by 15 percent D. ‚Äčto set a goal of reaching her optimal weight E. ‚Äčto reduce her number of meals a day
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B. to stop gaining weight