Nutrition Exam II // Ch 5 Mastering Nutrition

25 July 2022
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question
How many different forms of lipids are commonly found in food?
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Three types of lipids—triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols—are commonly found in food.
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Which of the three lipids commonly found in foods are used to manufacture cell membranes?
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Phospholipids-- Phospholipids function as protective membranes both in and surrounding cells, also known as the "lipid bilayer."
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True or False-- Triglycerides are the most common lipid found in foods.
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True
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Which of the following statements regarding the structure of triglycerides is TRUE? A. Fatty acid chains in a triglyceride molecule, which contain a single double bond, are referred to as monounsaturated fatty acids. B. Unsaturated fatty acids have only one shape, referred to as a cis configuration, which bends at the double bond. C. Fatty acid chains in a triglyceride molecule with more than one double bond are referred to as saturated fatty acids. D. A triglyceride consists of a fatty acid with three glycerol molecules attached.
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A Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a three-carbon glycerol backbone. A carbon chain that contains only single bonds is said to be a saturated fat. This refers to the fact that the fatty acids are saturated with as many hydrogens as possible. Saturated fats are found mostly in animal products and are solid at room temperature. Fatty acids with one double bond are known as monounsaturated fats; those with multiple double bonds are called polyunsaturated fats. A double bond indicates a point of unsaturation in the fatty acid.
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Which of the following describes lipids?
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organic nutrients that are insoluble in water
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What is the primary form of fat in the diet?
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triglycerides
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A triglyceride is comprised of
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three fatty acids and one glycerol.
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A fatty acid that contains a chain of ten carbons and one double bond is a
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monounsaturated, medium-chain fatty acid.
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Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
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saturated
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Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
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olive oil and cashew nuts
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Which of the following foods contain a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?
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palm kernel and coconut oils
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Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
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corn oil
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Saturated fats are
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found in whole milk and beef.
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The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called
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hydrogenation.
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Which of the following statements is TRUE about trans fatty acids? They are found only in plant products. They are made by the body in large quantities. They are created during the hydrogenation process. They decrease the risk of developing heart disease.
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They are created during the hydrogenation process.
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Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the likely presence of trans fatty acids in a product? vitamin E liquid corn oil partially hydrogenated vegetable oil lecithin
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partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
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Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids? leafy green vegetables margarine made from corn or safflower oil flax seed oil salmon
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margarine made from corn or safflower oil
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Which of the following is TRUE about essential fatty acids? The body produces essential fatty acids. No vegetables contain essential fatty acids. Consumption of essential fatty acids raises an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. We need to obtain omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids from food.
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We need to obtain omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids from food.
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Why are phospholipids NOT essential nutrients? Phospholipids serve no useful function in the human body. Phospholipids are not naturally found in the healthy body. Beneficial GI bacteria produce phospholipids. Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
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Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
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Which of the following statements is FALSE about sterols? Cholesterol is the most common sterol found in the human diet. The human body produces sterols. Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid. Sterols are found in both plant and animal foods.
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Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid.
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Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid? triglycerides fatty acids sterols phospholipids
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sterols
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One of the two essential fatty acids is alpha-linolenic acid. What is the other one? cholesterol butyric cis linoleic
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linoleic
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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be derived in limited quantities from linoleic acid. trans fat. alpha-linolenic acid. cholesterol.
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alpha-linolenic acid.
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Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation? Hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids. Hydrogenation creates a "heart healthy" product. Hydrogenation is the process in which hydrogen atoms are added to double bonds. Hydrogenation makes a product more solid at room temperature.
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Hydrogenation creates a "heart healthy" product.
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The major form of fat in both food and the body is phospholipids. sterols. glycerols. triglycerides.
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triglycerides.
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Which of the following types of fat is required to be listed on the Nutrition Facts Panel by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration? phospholipids trans fatty acids essential fatty acids sterols
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trans fatty acids
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Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats? beans and rice full-fat dairy products meat nuts and nut butters
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nuts and nut butters
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The most common sterol in our diet is olestra. cholesterol. phytosterol. stanol.
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cholesterol.
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How many double bonds does a saturated fatty acid contain between carbons? none one two more than two
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none
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Every carbon atom in a saturated fat is saturated with ___________. cortisol insulin hydrogen cholesterol
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hydrogen
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Which group of foods is a good source of polyunsaturated fats? Whole grains, beans, quinoa Butter, whole milk, eggs Cashews, olive oil, canola oil Corn oil, walnuts, Safflower oil, tuna
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Corn oil, walnuts, Safflower oil, tuna
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An example of a compound synthesized from cholesterol is ________. pancreatic lipase vitamin D insulin vitamin B12
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vitamin D
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Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature. True False
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True
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Only plants can synthesize cholesterol. True False
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False
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In general, animal-based fats are high in saturated fats. True False
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True
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Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids. True False
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True
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Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape. True False
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False
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Even if the Nutrition Facts panel states 0 g trans fats, the product could still have 1/2 g of trans fat per serving. True False
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True
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Saturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature. True False
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False
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The term "monounsaturated" describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain. True False
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True
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Lipids with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids with a phosphate group are known as sterols. True False
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False
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Several recent research studies have indicated people who eat an ounce or two of nuts each day in addition to their usual diet did NOT gain weight as would be expected from their increased caloric intake. True False
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True
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Fat provides ______ kcals of energy per gram. 12 7 9 4
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9
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Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs? lipoproteins adipose tissue liver beta cells of the pancreas
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adipose tissue
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How many Calories does 25 grams of fat provide? 23 kilocalories 2,250 kilocalories 225 kilocalories 100 kilocalories
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225 kilocalories
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During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat? insulin lipoprotein lipase estrogen adrenaline
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adrenaline
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Yesterday Nadia consumed 250 grams of carbohydrate, 75 grams of protein, and 60 grams of fat. What percentage of Calories of her day's intake came from fat? 29% 13% 35% 15%
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29%
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What role do polyunsaturated fatty acids play in the brain and spinal cord? They block the production of vessel-clogging cholesterol. They regulate calcium within normal ranges. They help transmit information between cells of the brain and spinal cord. They deplete the brain's glycogen levels.
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They help transmit information between cells of the brain and spinal cord
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A meal containing 10 g of fat provides _____ kcal from fat. 100 70 40 90
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90
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Fat is the most energy-dense of all the macronutrients. True False
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True
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Fat is digested and absorbed by the same process that digests and absorbs carbohydrates and proteins. False True
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False
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Most of the triglycerides in food reach the stomach without being chemically digested. True False
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True
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Which of the following statements is false? Once absorbed, dietary fat is transported from the intestinal cells to the blood through the lymph fluid. Bile plays a role in digestion. Significant chemical digestion begins in the duodenum. Fats are nonessential nutrients.
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Fats are nonessential nutrients.
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Lipids enter the bloodstream directly after digestion. True False
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False
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Which enzyme is responsible for the majority of the digestions of lipids? pancreatic lipase gastric lipase bile lingual lipase
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Pancreatic Lipase
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What are micelles? emulsifiers used to break fat globules into small droplets during digestion a type of lipoprotein needed to absorb lipids lipid-digesting enzymes located in the small intestine clusters of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and other lipids surrounded by bile salts that transport lipids across the cell membrane of the villi
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clusters of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and other lipids surrounded by bile salts that transport lipids across the cell membrane of the villi
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Which of the following organs does NOT assist in the digestion of lipids? liver large intestine gallbladder pancreas
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large intestine
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The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine. stomach. large intestine. liver.
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small intestine.
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To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as hydrochloric acid. lipase. bile. bicarbonate.
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bile
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Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine? chylomicron sterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipid
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chylomicron
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Fat leaves the chylomicron and moves into adipose cells when the chylomicron comes into contact with insulin. adrenaline. lipoprotein lipase. trypsin.
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lipoprotein lipase.
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Fatty acids released from storage travel in the blood attached to the protein lysine. albumin. cysteine. methionine.
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albumin.
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The spherical compounds made up of bile and phospholipids that transport dietary fat into the intestinal mucosal cells are the salivary enzymes. micelles. chylomicrons. albumins.
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micelles.
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Fatty acids can be used _______ by cells for energy. eventually immediately partially occasionally
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immediately
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The gallbladder, liver, and _______ assist in fat digestion. spleen large intestine pancreas stomach
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pancreas
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Fat is digested more easily than carbohydrate or protein. True False
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False
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The enzyme ___________________, secreted in the stomach, begins the digestion of some triglycerides.
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Gastric lipase
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The most common fat in foods are made up of three fatty acids attached to a three-carbon glycerol backbone and are called _______________
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Triglycerides
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This enzyme, which breaks down triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids, is called ___________
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Pancreatic lipase
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__________ are carriers made up of bile and phospholipids that can trap monoglycerides and fatty acids and transport digested fats from food to the enterocytes.
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Micelles
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When fat enters the small intestine, the gallbladder releases an emulsifier called __________ to break up the large fat globules into smaller fat droplets.
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Bile
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The _________ releases bile into the small intestine.
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gallbladder
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__________ is a lipid with a multiple-ring structure, and is an important component of cell membranes.
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Cholesterol
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_______ are phospholipids that are used to make bile.
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Lecithins
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_______ are lipoproteins produced in the enterocyte that carry fats and cholesterol from the intestine through the lymph system and to the bloodstream.
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Chylomicrons
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Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat? steamed broccoli canola oil skim milk butter
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butter
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The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is what percentage of total energy intake? no more than 35% no more than 15% no more than 50% no more than 20%
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no more than 35%
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Which of the following foods contains hidden fats? chocolate cake olive oil zucchini butter
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chocolate cake
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Which of the following species of fish would likely contain the highest levels of contaminants? flounder swordfish mahi-mahi salmon
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swordfish
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Which of the following health problems has been associated with consumption of fat replacers? elevated blood cholesterol levels mild gastrointestinal discomfort hypertension allergies
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mild gastrointestinal discomfort
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Which of the following is a fat replacer? saccharin trans fat olestra phosphate
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olestra
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How much trans fat is recommended in the diet? as little as possible 20% of total energy intake 9% of total energy intake 3% of total energy intake
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as little as possible
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The label on a box of chocolate cookies claims that they are "low-fat." By law, each serving must contain at least 50% less fat as compared to a standard serving. less than 0.5 grams of fat. 3 grams or less of fat. at least 25% less fat as compared to a standard serving.
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3 grams or less of fat.
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Which of the following is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, yet neutral in flavor, making it a good choice for cooking oil? corn oil canola oil coconut oil butter
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canola oil
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One of your friends is trying to decrease his intake of saturated fat. Which of the following items would you recommend he choose to add to his coffee? half-and-half fat-free milk or 1% milk nondairy creamer whipping cream
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fat-free milk or 1% milk
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Which of the following will help keep saturated fat intake at a healthy level? keeping cholesterol intake below 300 mg/day avoiding fatty fish, such as salmon choosing hydrogenated vegetable shortening instead of butter eating fewer than 1,500 cal per day
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keeping cholesterol intake below 300 mg/day
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Diets extremely low in fat may be deficient in ________. calories energy beneficial bacteria essential fatty acids
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essential fatty acids
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The recommended intake of saturated fats is less than ________ of total energy intake. 10 to 35 percent 20 to 35 percent 10 to 15 percent 7 to 10 percent
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7 to 10 percent
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To increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids, include fish, canola oil, ground flax seeds, or _____ in your diet. dairy foods red meat walnuts cheese
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walnuts
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High fat intake is especially difficult to avoid if you regularly eat ___________. fast food fruit and fruit drinks whole grains dessert
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fast food
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The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is ______ of total energy. 35 to 55 percent 20 to 35 percent 30 to 45 percent 7 to 10 percent
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20 to 35 percent
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People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories. True False
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False
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Americans consume adequate amounts of linoleic acid but not enough ALA, EPA, or DHA. True False
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True
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Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy. True False
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False
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Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature. True False
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False
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Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity. True False
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False
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The human body cannot make cholesterol; thus, it is an essential nutrient we must consume in our diet in moderation. True False
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False
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Which of the following foods is the best source of monounsaturated fatty acids? corn oil skim milk peanut oil sour cream
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peanut oil
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Which of the following foods is the best source of polyunsaturated fatty acid? steak avocado corn oil olive oil
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corn oil
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Which of the following foods contains primarily saturated fats? olive oil peanuts skim milk butter
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butter
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Foods contain only one type of fatty acid, either saturated or unsaturated, but never both. True False
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False
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Which type of fatty acid is most common in animal-based foods, such as steak, butter, and milk? polyunsaturated fat saturated fat monounsaturated fat
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saturated fat
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Research has found the strongest association between dietary fat intake and what type of cancer? colon breast prostate lung
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prostate
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Diets high in trans and what other type of fatty acid contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer? linoleic saturated polyunsaturated monounsaturated
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saturated
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The main ingredient in many current fat blockers is ________. sucrose cholesterol chitosan glycerol
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chitosan
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Fat blockers are said to decrease the amount of fat absorbed in the ________. pancreas stomach small intestine abdomen
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small intestine
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Which class of lipoproteins contains the MOST protein compared to lipid? low-density lipoproteins high-density lipoproteins very-low-density lipoproteins chylomicrons
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high-density lipoproteins
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Which of the following statements regarding lipoproteins is TRUE? Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are formed in the small intestines to transport absorbed dietary lipids. As the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) deposit triglycerides in the cells, they become denser and are classified as low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Plaque is a build-up of lipoproteins in the bloodstream. The enzyme lingual lipase is responsible for removing triglycerides transported by the LDL.
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As the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) deposit triglycerides in the cells, they become denser and are classified as low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).
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Cholesterol transported from the cells to the liver by HDL can then be used to synthesize bile. False True
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True
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The study on cholesterol levels and memory indicates that people at age 55 with low levels of HDL had a __________% increased risk for memory loss. 27 40 53 55
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27
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What should be avoided or eliminated from the diet to improve blood levels of good cholesterol? cranberry juice trans and saturated fats canola or peanut oils poly- and monounsaturated fats
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trans and saturated fats
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Dr. Johnson states that __________ is the most important lifestyle change to improve cholesterol levels. exercising regularly quitting smoking avoiding trans fats losing weight
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exercising regularly
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Atherosclerosis is a disease of narrowing of the _______. arteries sinus passages brain stem esophagus
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arteries
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Hypertension (high blood pressure) signals an increased risk of heart attack and ________. cancer diabetes stroke osteoporosis
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stroke
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Which is the correct sequence of events in the development of atherosclerosis? Inflammation, arterial injury, plaque formation, fatty streak formation Arterial injury, fatty streak, plaque formation, inflammation Inflammation, arterial injury, fatty streak, plaque formation Arterial injury, inflammation, fatty streak, plaque formation
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Arterial injury, inflammation, fatty streak, plaque formation
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What is not a common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD)? Diabetes Hypertension Stroke Coronary heart disease
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Diabetes
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How does atherosclerosis contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease? Lipid buildup leads to impaired blood flow. Accumulation of plaque decreases blood-clotting ability. It leads to elevated circulating blood glucose levels. Decreased cholesterol circulation leads to decreased oxygen circulation.
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Lipid buildup leads to impaired blood flow.
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Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) primarily transport _____ to the body's cells. triglycerides micronutrients lymph proteins
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triglycerides
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Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) primarily transport _____ to the body's cells. triglycerides micronutrients lymph proteins
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triglycerides
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________, which transports cholesterol to cells of the body, has the highest cholesterol content of lipoproteins. Chylomicrons High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
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Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
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Making which dietary change can help lower LDL cholesterol levels? Decrease dietary saturated fat intake Decreasing dietary intake of fiber Eat most calories at one meal, preferably before 6:00 p.m. Increase alcohol consumption to two to three drinks per day for cardiovascular benefits
answer
Decrease dietary saturated fat intake
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The DASH diet can be helpful in reducing risk for CVD by ____. lowering blood lipid levels and lowering blood pressure lowering blood glucose increasing dietary sodium decreasing diastolic, but not systolic, blood pressure
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lowering blood lipid levels and lowering blood pressure
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What is the leading cause of death in the United States? diabetes heart disease infection cancer
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heart disease
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An optimal systolic blood pressure reading would be less than 60 mmHg. 120 mmHg. 80 mmHg. 200 mmHg.
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120 mmHg.
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You would be diagnosed with true hypertension if your systolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to 140 mmHg or your diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to 90 mmHg. 120 mmHg. 140 mmHg. 160 mmHg.
answer
90 mmHg.
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Which of the following is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease? being overweight gender age family history
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being overweight
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A nonspecific marker of inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease is HDL-cholesterol. hypertension. C-reactive protein (CRP). LDL-cholesterol.
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C-reactive protein (CRP).
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What lifestyle changes can a person take to improve his or her blood lipid profile? decrease intake of soluble fiber decrease amount of physical activity lower intake of saturated fat and trans fat maintain lower-than-normal body weight
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lower intake of saturated fat and trans fat
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The production of endogenous very-low-density-lipoproteins (VLDL) is decreased by exercise. simple sugars. dietary cholesterol. extra Calories.
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exercise.
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A desirable total blood cholesterol level, associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, is less than 300 mg/dL. 40 mg/dL. 200 mg/dL. 100 mg/dL.
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200 mg/dL.
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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends a reduction in dietary sodium intake to how many mg per day? less than 3,600 less than 3,300 less than 200 less than 2,300
answer
less than 2,300
question
Which of the following sequences BEST summarizes the gradual development of atherosclerosis? blood vessel inflammation, heart attack damages arteries, tissue damage, immune response, lipids accumulate, plaque forms excess dietary cholesterol, plaque accumulation, blood vessel inflammation, blood glucose increase, immune response, cell damage artery cells injured, inflammation, blood lipids accumulate, fatty streaks form, plaque accumulates, diminished blood flow, tissue damage plaque ruptures blood vessels, immune response, inflammation, cholesterol accumulation, vessels narrow and harden, plaque repairs damage
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artery cells injured, inflammation, blood lipids accumulate, fatty streaks form, plaque accumulates, diminished blood flow, tissue damage
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Brad has recently increased his weekly intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Over time, which of the following effects would he likely NOT experience? reduction in blood triglycerides increase in risk for cardiovascular disease increase in HDLs reduction in inflammation
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increase in risk for cardiovascular disease
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Hypertension is often a sign of underlying atherosclerosis. True False
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True
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Primary or essential hypertension, accounting for approximately 45-55% of people, is hereditary. True False
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True
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High blood levels of LDL-cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease. True False
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true
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High blood levels of HDL-cholesterol is associated with a low risk for coronary artery disease. True False
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true
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Minimizing your intake of unsaturated fatty acids as much as possible will lower your risk of heart disease. True False
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False
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Diabetes decreases an individual's risk for developing heart disease. True False
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false
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Fatty streaks in blood vessels indicate the presence of atherosclerosis. True False
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true
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Plaque minimizes the accumulation of cholesterol at the sites of damaged blood vessels. True False
answer
false