What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
A) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
B) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).
C) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
D) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ 2) antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
A) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
B) has pocket-like sacs called haustra
C) does not contain villi
D) is longer than the small intestine
is no longer than the small intestine
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
A) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells
B) parietal cells and glial cells
C) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells
D) serous cells and mucous cells
serous cells and mucous cells
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
A) simple carbohydrates and alcohols
B) fatty acids
C) protein and peptide fragments
D) starches and complex carbohydrates
protein and peptide fragments
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
A) a cyanide derivative
B) nitric oxide
a cyanide derivative
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
B) lamina propria
C) mucosal lining
D) serosal lining
he layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
D) muscularis externa
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
B) mechanical digestion
D) chemical digestion
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins C) cleanses the mouth
D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
B) Brunner's glands
C) parietal cells of the duodenum
D) goblet cells of the small intestine
chief cells of the stomach
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
A) Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport.
B) If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed.
C) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.
D) Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport.
Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.
Hepatocytes do not ______.
A) process nutrients
B) store fat- soluble vitamins
C) produce digestive enzymes
D) detoxify toxic chemicals
produce digestive enzymes
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
A) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
B) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.
C) Bile functions to emulsify fats.
D) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of
) Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
A) fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform
B) fungiform and circumvallate
C) palatine and circumvallate
D) circumvallate and filiform
fungiform and circumvallate
A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his
blood probably indicates ________.
The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
A) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
B) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
C) only salts and minerals
D) only proteases and amylase
electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
A) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
B) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
C) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.
D) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) is the first site where absorption takes place
B) is the only place where fats are completely digested
C) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place
D) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
A) incisor tooth
B) molar tooth
C) canine tooth
D) premolar tooth
Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
A) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
B) There are 32 primary teeth, and by 36 months of age, most children have all 32.
C) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
D) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
A) zymogenic cells
B) mucous neck cells
C) enteroendocrine cells
D) parietal cells
Which of the following is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion?
C) low acidity
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) gastric juice
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
Chyme is created in the_______.
C) small intestine
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
A) absorb bilirubin
B) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
C) synthesize vitamins C and D
D) produce gas
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up 32) of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
B) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
C) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
D) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) mucous neck cells
B) serous cells
C) chief cells
D) parietal cells
If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue
to be cut is the ________.
D) muscularis externa
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to
form the ________.
A) hepatopancreatic ampulla
B) portal vein
C) pancreatic acini
D) bile canaliculus
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
C) lamina propria
The function of goblet cells is to ________.
A) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter
the digestive tract in food
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Select the correct statement about absorption.
A) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.
B) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.
C) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into
D) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be
if intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
D) gastric inhibitor peptide
Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
A) hepatic portal vein
B) superior mesenteric artery
C) celiac artery
D) inferior vena cava
inferior vena cava
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
B) Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches C) the vast array of digestive enzymes
D) the rugae and haustra
plicae circulares, villi, and microvilla
Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
B) production of intrinsic factor
C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
D) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
production of intrinsic factor
Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
B) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
D) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
A) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
B) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
D) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
A) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
B) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.
C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
D) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a
long period of time
B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a
variety of nutrients
C) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required
D) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
A) intrinsic factor
B) gastric lipase
Paneth cells ________.
A) secrete digestive enzymes
B) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
C) secrete hormones
D) secrete bicarbonate ions
secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
A) the rubrospinal tracts
B) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
C) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
D) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Chief cells _________.
A) produce gastrin
B) produce mucin
C) produce HCI
D) produce pepsinogen
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
A) hydrochloric acid
The lamina propria is composed of __________.
A) dense irregular connective tissue
B) loose connective tissue
C) reticular connective tissue
D) dense regular connective tissue
loose connective tissue
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A) oral cavity
B) salivary glands
D) nasal cavity
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) enteroendocrine cells
B) mucous neck cells
C) parietal cells
D) zymogenic cells
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
D) active transport
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
A) in the oral cavity
B) in the pons and medulla
C) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
D) in the walls of the tract organs
in the walls of the tract organs
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
A) distribute hormones throughout the body
B) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low
C) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract D) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
collect absorbed nutrient sfor metabolic processing or storage
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) facilitated diffusion
B) simple diffusion
C) bulk flow
D) active transport
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
A) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
D) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
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