A&P Chapter 26

25 July 2022
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53 test answers
question
What is the primary difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion?
answer
Mechanical digestion deals with the physical breakdown of material into smaller units without changing their chemical structure. Chemical digestion breaks chemical bonds to change larger molecules into smaller ones.
question
What specific layer(s) must substances cross to enter the blood or lymphatic capillaires during their absorption?
answer
the epithelium of the mucosa and into blood vessels in the lamina propria
question
Which organs are intraperitoneal?
answer
stomach, most of small intestine, part of large intestine
question
Autonomic reflexes of the digestive tract that do not involved the CNS are termed what?
answer
short reflexes
question
What are the main functions of the saliva?
answer
Moistens ingested food, initiates chemical breakdown of starch, acts as a medium into which food molecules dissolved and can activate taste receptors, cleanses the oral cavity, helps inhibit bacterial growth
question
List the secretory cell types in the stomach and their products.
answer
Surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells secrete mucin. Parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor and HCl. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. G-cells secrete gastrin hormone.
question
Which neural reflex is initiated by food in the stomach and what does it control?
answer
The gastric phase causes increase in stomach motility and secretory activity of gastric cells.
question
What three anatomic structures increase the surface area of the small intestine?
answer
The circular folds are folds of mucosa and submucosa extending toward the lumen. The villi folds are fingerlike projections of the mucosa. The microvilli folds are extensions of the plasma membrane of the simple columnar epithelium.
question
Where do deoxygenated, nutrient-rich blood and oxygenated blood first come together within a liver lobule?
answer
in the hepatic sinusoids
question
What are the primary functions of pancreatic juice?
answer
Provides alkaline fluid to counter acidic chyme, provides enzymes to digest starch, fats, protein, nucleic acids
question
What is the pathway of chyme from its entry into the large intestine until feces is eliminated?
answer
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal
question
What are the general function of bacteria within the large intestine?
answer
breakdown carbohydrates, protein, lipids remaining in chyme; produce B vitamins and vitamin K
question
Which is not a function of the digestive system? Absorption Ingestion Secretion Micturition Elimination
answer
Micturition
question
Which organ is not part of the gastrointestinal tract? Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Oral cavity Liver
answer
Liver
question
Which organ is not considered an accessory digestive organ? Tongue Teeth Pancreas Salivary glands Pharynx
answer
Pharynx
question
Peristalsis: is under voluntary control. involves the opening and closing of muscular sphincters. involves back-and-forth movement for mixing. is the alternating contraction of muscle layers in the GI tract wall that propels materials through the tract. All choices are true.
answer
is the alternating contraction of muscle layers in the GI tract wall that propels materials through the tract.
question
The initial site of both mechanical and chemical digestion is the: stomach. small intestine. esophagus. oral cavity. pharynx.
answer
oral cavity.
question
Which bones form the hard palate? Palatine bones Maxillae and inferior nasal conchae Ethmoid and sphenoid bones Palatine bones and maxillae Maxillae and sphenoid
answer
Palatine bones and maxillae
question
The lining of the gastrointestinal tract that allows for absorption and secretion is: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. nonkeratinized stratfied squamous epithelium. areolar connective tissue. simple columnar epithelium. simple squamous epithelium.
answer
simple columnar epithelium.
question
Substances that are absorbed from the GI tract pass: in between the epithelial cells of the tract wall. through the epithelial cells of the tract wall.
answer
through the epithelial cells of the tract wall.
question
Mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors are found in the: adventitia of the upper portion of the GI tract. epithelium of the inferior portion of the GI tract. mucosa and submucosa of the GI tract along its length. myenteric plexus of the mucosa of the intestine. muscularis interna of the entire length of the GI tract.
answer
mucosa and submucosa of the GI tract along its length.
question
Secretin is a hormone that is secreted by the: stomach. small intestine. large intestine. liver. pancreas.
answer
small intestine.
question
Cholecystokinin is a(n) _________ released by the _________. enzyme, stomach enzyme, small intestine enzyme, gall bladder hormone, small intestine hormone, gall bladder
answer
hormone, small intestine
question
Which of the following is considered to be one of the primary digestive system hormones? Bile Gastrin Hydrochloric acid Pancreatic amylase
answer
Gastrin
question
An enzyme that is found within saliva is salivary: pancreatase. nuclease. amylase. protease. pepsin.
answer
amylase.
question
Most saliva is produced by the _________ gland. parotid submandibular sublingual lingual buccal
answer
submandibular
question
Lysozyme within saliva primarily functions to: moisten and disperse food. initiate the chemical breakdown of starch. inhibit bacterial growth. wash materials off teeth.
answer
inhibit bacterial growth.
question
The central cavity of a tooth is filled with: cementum. dentin. pulp. enamel. calcium phosphate.
answer
pulp.
question
Which is the layer of the serous membrane that directly covers the surface of internal organs? Omental layer Visceral peritoneum Parietal peritoneum Rectal peritoneum Muscularis mucosa
answer
Visceral peritoneum
question
The term "retroperitoneal" may be used to describe the location of certain abdominal organs. This means that such organs are located: between the visceral and parietal layers of the peritoneum. posterior to the parietal peritoneum. in the peritoneal cavity. between folds of the parietal peritoneum. deep to the visceral peritoneum.
answer
posterior to the parietal peritoneum.
question
Which organ is retroperitoneal? Stomach Jejunum Transverse colon Pancreas Cecum
answer
Pancreas
question
The pharyngeal phase of swallowing is a voluntary process that is controlled by the cerebral cortex. True False
answer
False
question
The esophagus: secretes digestive enzymes from its mucosa. is located anterior to the trachea. opens to the stomach at the pyloric sphincter. contains both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers. is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
answer
contains both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers.
question
The inferior esophageal sphincter is also known as the: cardiac sphincter. pyloric sphincter. pharyngoesophageal sphincter. pharyngealgastric sphincter. esophageal hiatus.
answer
cardiac sphincter.
question
Of the five types of secretory cells in the gastric glands, which ones secrete pepsinogen? Chief cells Parietal cells Surface mucous cells Mucous neck cells Enteroendocrine cells
answer
Chief cells
question
Which phase of digestion involves the thought, smell, and sight of food? Gastric phase Cephalic phase Enteric phase Colic phase
answer
Cephalic phase
question
The presence of food in the stomach triggers the release of a hormone that stimulates contraction of the pyloric sphincter. Specifically, these events involve release of: secretin in the cephalic phase of digestion. gastrin in the gastric phase of digestion. CCK in the intestinal phase of digestion. lipase in the intestinal phase of digestion. chyle in the secretory phase of digestion
answer
gastrin in the gastric phase of digestion.
question
Cholecystokinin decreases stomach motility and inhibits release of gastrin. True False
answer
True
question
"Segmentation" within the small intestine refers to the: propulsion of material between the segments of the GI tract. division of function between the different segments of the small intestine. back-and-forth motion that mixes chyme with glandular secretions. gastroileal reflex that moves materials from the stomach to the large intestine.
answer
back-and-forth motion that mixes chyme with glandular secretions.
question
Villi: are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. generate movement of materials in the large intestine. increase surface area in the small intestine. contain both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers. all choices are correct.
answer
increase surface area in the small intestine.
question
Protein digestion begins in the ________. stomach. mouth. esophagus. small intestine. large intestine.
answer
stomach.
question
Lacteals: are found only in the large intestine. absorb the products of fat digestion. secrete intestinal juice. connect directly to the liver. all choices are correct.
answer
absorb the products of fat digestion.
question
Which of the following is the correct order of small intestine regions that food passes through during digestion? Ileum - duodenum - jejunum Jejunum - duodenum - ileum Duodenum - ileum - jejunum Ileum - jejunum - duodenum Duodenum - jejunum - ileum
answer
Duodenum - jejunum - ileum
question
Which region of the digestive tract moves material by peristalsis, haustral churning, and mass movement? Large intestine Small intestine Stomach Esophagus Pharynx
answer
Large intestine
question
What is the primary function of the large intestine? Storage of vitamins and minerals Protein digestion and nutrient absorption Water and electrolyte absorption Secretion of water, salts, sodium bicarbonate, and enzymes None of the choices is correct
answer
Water and electrolyte absorption
question
What structures comprise a portal triad? Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic vein, and hepatic duct Branches of the common bile duct, central vein, and hepatic artery Branches of the hepatic duct, cystic duct, and central vein Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic duct Branches of the cystic duct, central vein, and hepatic artery
answer
Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic duct
question
Vagus nerve activity ________ release of pancreatic juice. stimulates inhibits
answer
stimulates
question
Which is an accurate description of glucose and sucrose? Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a polysaccharide, both molecules are starches. Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a disaccharide, both molecules are carbohydrates. Glucose is a disaccharide, sucrose is a monosaccharide, both molecules are lipids. Glucose is a disaccharide, sucrose is a glycolipid, both molecules are essential nutrients. Glucose is a monoamine, sucrose is a dipeptide, both molecules are acidic.
answer
Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a disaccharide, both molecules are carbohydrates.
question
Amylase from saliva digests: lipids. protein. glucose. starch.
answer
starch.
question
The enzyme pepsin becomes active when pH is: high. low.
answer
low.
question
Pepsinogen is an: active enzyme that is released in the small intestine and digests carbohydrates. inactive precursor to the enzyme pepsin that digests proteins in the stomach. active enzyme that digests proteins within the small intestine. inactive precursor to a nonspecific enzyme that is synthesized in the pancreas and released in the small intestine.
answer
inactive precursor to the enzyme pepsin that digests proteins in the stomach.
question
Proteolytic enzymes secreted from the pancreas are activated: once they reach the pancreatic duct. within the lumen of the small intestine. in secretory vesicles within pancreatic secretory cells. once they reach the large intestine.
answer
within the lumen of the small intestine.
question
Bile salts are: amphipathic. hydrophilic. hydrophobic.
answer
amphipathic.
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question
What is the primary difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion?
answer
Mechanical digestion deals with the physical breakdown of material into smaller units without changing their chemical structure. Chemical digestion breaks chemical bonds to change larger molecules into smaller ones.
question
What specific layer(s) must substances cross to enter the blood or lymphatic capillaires during their absorption?
answer
the epithelium of the mucosa and into blood vessels in the lamina propria
question
Which organs are intraperitoneal?
answer
stomach, most of small intestine, part of large intestine
question
Autonomic reflexes of the digestive tract that do not involved the CNS are termed what?
answer
short reflexes
question
What are the main functions of the saliva?
answer
Moistens ingested food, initiates chemical breakdown of starch, acts as a medium into which food molecules dissolved and can activate taste receptors, cleanses the oral cavity, helps inhibit bacterial growth
question
List the secretory cell types in the stomach and their products.
answer
Surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells secrete mucin. Parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor and HCl. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. G-cells secrete gastrin hormone.
question
Which neural reflex is initiated by food in the stomach and what does it control?
answer
The gastric phase causes increase in stomach motility and secretory activity of gastric cells.
question
What three anatomic structures increase the surface area of the small intestine?
answer
The circular folds are folds of mucosa and submucosa extending toward the lumen. The villi folds are fingerlike projections of the mucosa. The microvilli folds are extensions of the plasma membrane of the simple columnar epithelium.
question
Where do deoxygenated, nutrient-rich blood and oxygenated blood first come together within a liver lobule?
answer
in the hepatic sinusoids
question
What are the primary functions of pancreatic juice?
answer
Provides alkaline fluid to counter acidic chyme, provides enzymes to digest starch, fats, protein, nucleic acids
question
What is the pathway of chyme from its entry into the large intestine until feces is eliminated?
answer
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal
question
What are the general function of bacteria within the large intestine?
answer
breakdown carbohydrates, protein, lipids remaining in chyme; produce B vitamins and vitamin K
question
Which is not a function of the digestive system? Absorption Ingestion Secretion Micturition Elimination
answer
Micturition
question
Which organ is not part of the gastrointestinal tract? Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Oral cavity Liver
answer
Liver
question
Which organ is not considered an accessory digestive organ? Tongue Teeth Pancreas Salivary glands Pharynx
answer
Pharynx
question
Peristalsis: is under voluntary control. involves the opening and closing of muscular sphincters. involves back-and-forth movement for mixing. is the alternating contraction of muscle layers in the GI tract wall that propels materials through the tract. All choices are true.
answer
is the alternating contraction of muscle layers in the GI tract wall that propels materials through the tract.
question
The initial site of both mechanical and chemical digestion is the: stomach. small intestine. esophagus. oral cavity. pharynx.
answer
oral cavity.
question
Which bones form the hard palate? Palatine bones Maxillae and inferior nasal conchae Ethmoid and sphenoid bones Palatine bones and maxillae Maxillae and sphenoid
answer
Palatine bones and maxillae
question
The lining of the gastrointestinal tract that allows for absorption and secretion is: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. nonkeratinized stratfied squamous epithelium. areolar connective tissue. simple columnar epithelium. simple squamous epithelium.
answer
simple columnar epithelium.
question
Substances that are absorbed from the GI tract pass: in between the epithelial cells of the tract wall. through the epithelial cells of the tract wall.
answer
through the epithelial cells of the tract wall.
question
Mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors are found in the: adventitia of the upper portion of the GI tract. epithelium of the inferior portion of the GI tract. mucosa and submucosa of the GI tract along its length. myenteric plexus of the mucosa of the intestine. muscularis interna of the entire length of the GI tract.
answer
mucosa and submucosa of the GI tract along its length.
question
Secretin is a hormone that is secreted by the: stomach. small intestine. large intestine. liver. pancreas.
answer
small intestine.
question
Cholecystokinin is a(n) _________ released by the _________. enzyme, stomach enzyme, small intestine enzyme, gall bladder hormone, small intestine hormone, gall bladder
answer
hormone, small intestine
question
Which of the following is considered to be one of the primary digestive system hormones? Bile Gastrin Hydrochloric acid Pancreatic amylase
answer
Gastrin
question
An enzyme that is found within saliva is salivary: pancreatase. nuclease. amylase. protease. pepsin.
answer
amylase.
question
Most saliva is produced by the _________ gland. parotid submandibular sublingual lingual buccal
answer
submandibular
question
Lysozyme within saliva primarily functions to: moisten and disperse food. initiate the chemical breakdown of starch. inhibit bacterial growth. wash materials off teeth.
answer
inhibit bacterial growth.
question
The central cavity of a tooth is filled with: cementum. dentin. pulp. enamel. calcium phosphate.
answer
pulp.
question
Which is the layer of the serous membrane that directly covers the surface of internal organs? Omental layer Visceral peritoneum Parietal peritoneum Rectal peritoneum Muscularis mucosa
answer
Visceral peritoneum
question
The term "retroperitoneal" may be used to describe the location of certain abdominal organs. This means that such organs are located: between the visceral and parietal layers of the peritoneum. posterior to the parietal peritoneum. in the peritoneal cavity. between folds of the parietal peritoneum. deep to the visceral peritoneum.
answer
posterior to the parietal peritoneum.
question
Which organ is retroperitoneal? Stomach Jejunum Transverse colon Pancreas Cecum
answer
Pancreas
question
The pharyngeal phase of swallowing is a voluntary process that is controlled by the cerebral cortex. True False
answer
False
question
The esophagus: secretes digestive enzymes from its mucosa. is located anterior to the trachea. opens to the stomach at the pyloric sphincter. contains both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers. is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
answer
contains both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers.
question
The inferior esophageal sphincter is also known as the: cardiac sphincter. pyloric sphincter. pharyngoesophageal sphincter. pharyngealgastric sphincter. esophageal hiatus.
answer
cardiac sphincter.
question
Of the five types of secretory cells in the gastric glands, which ones secrete pepsinogen? Chief cells Parietal cells Surface mucous cells Mucous neck cells Enteroendocrine cells
answer
Chief cells
question
Which phase of digestion involves the thought, smell, and sight of food? Gastric phase Cephalic phase Enteric phase Colic phase
answer
Cephalic phase
question
The presence of food in the stomach triggers the release of a hormone that stimulates contraction of the pyloric sphincter. Specifically, these events involve release of: secretin in the cephalic phase of digestion. gastrin in the gastric phase of digestion. CCK in the intestinal phase of digestion. lipase in the intestinal phase of digestion. chyle in the secretory phase of digestion
answer
gastrin in the gastric phase of digestion.
question
Cholecystokinin decreases stomach motility and inhibits release of gastrin. True False
answer
True
question
"Segmentation" within the small intestine refers to the: propulsion of material between the segments of the GI tract. division of function between the different segments of the small intestine. back-and-forth motion that mixes chyme with glandular secretions. gastroileal reflex that moves materials from the stomach to the large intestine.
answer
back-and-forth motion that mixes chyme with glandular secretions.
question
Villi: are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. generate movement of materials in the large intestine. increase surface area in the small intestine. contain both smooth and skeletal muscle fibers. all choices are correct.
answer
increase surface area in the small intestine.
question
Protein digestion begins in the ________. stomach. mouth. esophagus. small intestine. large intestine.
answer
stomach.
question
Lacteals: are found only in the large intestine. absorb the products of fat digestion. secrete intestinal juice. connect directly to the liver. all choices are correct.
answer
absorb the products of fat digestion.
question
Which of the following is the correct order of small intestine regions that food passes through during digestion? Ileum - duodenum - jejunum Jejunum - duodenum - ileum Duodenum - ileum - jejunum Ileum - jejunum - duodenum Duodenum - jejunum - ileum
answer
Duodenum - jejunum - ileum
question
Which region of the digestive tract moves material by peristalsis, haustral churning, and mass movement? Large intestine Small intestine Stomach Esophagus Pharynx
answer
Large intestine
question
What is the primary function of the large intestine? Storage of vitamins and minerals Protein digestion and nutrient absorption Water and electrolyte absorption Secretion of water, salts, sodium bicarbonate, and enzymes None of the choices is correct
answer
Water and electrolyte absorption
question
What structures comprise a portal triad? Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic vein, and hepatic duct Branches of the common bile duct, central vein, and hepatic artery Branches of the hepatic duct, cystic duct, and central vein Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic duct Branches of the cystic duct, central vein, and hepatic artery
answer
Branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic duct
question
Vagus nerve activity ________ release of pancreatic juice. stimulates inhibits
answer
stimulates
question
Which is an accurate description of glucose and sucrose? Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a polysaccharide, both molecules are starches. Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a disaccharide, both molecules are carbohydrates. Glucose is a disaccharide, sucrose is a monosaccharide, both molecules are lipids. Glucose is a disaccharide, sucrose is a glycolipid, both molecules are essential nutrients. Glucose is a monoamine, sucrose is a dipeptide, both molecules are acidic.
answer
Glucose is a monosaccharide, sucrose is a disaccharide, both molecules are carbohydrates.
question
Amylase from saliva digests: lipids. protein. glucose. starch.
answer
starch.
question
The enzyme pepsin becomes active when pH is: high. low.
answer
low.
question
Pepsinogen is an: active enzyme that is released in the small intestine and digests carbohydrates. inactive precursor to the enzyme pepsin that digests proteins in the stomach. active enzyme that digests proteins within the small intestine. inactive precursor to a nonspecific enzyme that is synthesized in the pancreas and released in the small intestine.
answer
inactive precursor to the enzyme pepsin that digests proteins in the stomach.
question
Proteolytic enzymes secreted from the pancreas are activated: once they reach the pancreatic duct. within the lumen of the small intestine. in secretory vesicles within pancreatic secretory cells. once they reach the large intestine.
answer
within the lumen of the small intestine.
question
Bile salts are: amphipathic. hydrophilic. hydrophobic.
answer
amphipathic.