Ch. 8: Trait Aspects Of Personality

31 March 2023
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question
Which statistical technique was used by Raymond Cattell to derive his 16 basic personality traits?
answer
Factor analysis
question
One important distinction between the trait approach and a learning or conditioning approach is that the trait approach emphasizes:
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The characteristics of the person rather than the situation
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In Allport's view, a person's cardinal dispositions:
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Exert an overwhelming influence on behavior
question
What is one main difference between Jung's type theory and Allport's trait theory?
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Jung's type theory includes a small number of possible types, with each person best matching one, while Allport's trait theory includes a large number of possible traits
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One important feature of the Big Five trait theory, as contrasted with Murray's needs-based approach, is that:
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A person's standing on each of the five dimensions is assessed in Big Five, but the needs approach assesses which need or needs are prominent in an individual
question
In recent years, research studies have indicated that college students are becoming increasingly:
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Extroverted
question
Charlotte is considered by her friends to be very responsible and reliable. They are happy when she comes along on an outing, because they know that somebody will be bringing whatever is likely to be needed, and someone will have researched important information in advance. They also count on Charlotte to talk them out of doing anything dangerous. From the perspective of the Big Five, Charlotte would probably score very high on the dimension of:
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Conscientiousness
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When people rate the personality of another person on the Big Five:
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There is highest agreement on ratings of extroversion, even for raters who do not know the person well
question
Which of the following situations is an example of the concept of "zero acquaintance"?
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Dinesh is evaluating a student who just came into his class, whom he has never metβ€”there has been zero interaction with this person
question
Henry Murray's work on assessing motives revealed that:
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Individuals vary in terms of which motives are most important in their lives
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Which instrument has been used to measure motives?
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Thematic Apperception Test
question
Which of these careers is a more likely choice for someone with the highest levels of dominance and need for power?
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Army general
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In his high-school classes, Torsten is the student who every classmate and every teacher knows by the second day of school. He is the "class clown," always attracting attention with the comments he calls out, and with jokes, pantomime acts, and exaggerated gestures. From the perspective of Henry Murray, what would be Torsten's most prominent need?
answer
Need for exhibition (n Exh)
question
Expressive people tend to be perceived as more ________ than are unexpressive people.
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Attractive
question
Miguel has been assessed as having a high level of dominance. Which of the following behaviors would be surprising to see from him?
answer
Speaking softly