Low-context cultures tend to value and emphasize ____________.
a. relational harmony
b. non-verbal cues
d. straight talk
d. straight talk Explanation: Low-context cultures tend to value and emphasize relational harmony. This means that they view communication as a way to build and maintain relationships, rather than simply exchanging information. They place a high value on non-verbal cues, such as body language and facial expressions, and often use silence as a communication tool. Low-context cultures typically prefer direct, straightforward communication, rather than indirect or implied messages.
The degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and try to stay away from them is known as ____________.
b. uncertainty avoidance
c. power distance
b. uncertainty avoidance Explanation: Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and try to stay away from them.
When Austrian students are praised for asking their teachers questions while Filipino students see questioning their teachers as inappropriate, they are exhibiting values associated with ___________.
a. High versus low context
b. Individualism versus collectivism
c. Power distance
d. Uncertainty avoidance
c. Power distance Explanation: When Austrian students are praised for asking their teachers questions while Filipino students see questioning their teachers as inappropriate, they are exhibiting values associated with collectivism versus individualism. In collectivist cultures, such as the Philippines, people are more likely to defer to authority figures and to conform to group norms. In individualist cultures, such as Austria, people are more likely to question authority and to value individual autonomy.
David and Derek, who are visiting India together for the first time, are inclined to stereotype the locals and complain about hotels and restaurants that they feel don't measure up to American standards. Which quality that helps develop intercultural communication competence are they most evidently lacking?
a. Knowledge and skill
b. Patience and perseverance
c. Tolerance for ambiguity
d. Open-mindedness Explanation: The answer is d. open-mindedness. David and Derek are lacking in open-mindedness because they are quick to judge and complain about things that they feel are not up to their standards. This quality is important in intercultural communication because it allows people to be more understanding and accepting of others who may have different customs and beliefs.
When an American answers the question "Who am I?" by citing personal factors, while a Chinese person answers the same question by identifying groups in which she/he is a member, they are expressing value differences associated with ____________.
a. high versus low context
b. individualism versus collectivism
c. power distance
d. uncertainty avoidance
b. individualism versus collectivism Explanation: The two different responses to the question Who am I?" are expressions of value differences associated with individualism versus collectivism. In individualistic cultures, such as the United States, people tend to focus on personal factors when asked who they are. They think of themselves as individuals with their own unique set of characteristics, experiences, and achievements. In collectivistic cultures, such as China, people are more likely to identify themselves in terms of the groups they belong to. They think of themselves as members of their family, their community, or their country, and their individual identity is intertwined with the collective identity of the groups they belong to."
A form of organization used to identify causes and effects in a series of interactions is called ____________.
c. punctuation Explanation: A form of organization used to identify causes and effects in a series of interactions is called a cause and effect diagram. This type of diagram is also sometimes called a fishbone diagram, because it can resemble the skeleton of a fish. Cause and effect diagrams are used to help identify all of the possible causes of a problem or issue, as well as all of the possible effects that could result from those causes. This type of diagram can be used to brainstorm ideas, or to organize and analyze data that has already been collected.
Perceptual schema (or "cognitive frameworks") are involved in which stage of the perception process?
b. Organization Explanation: Perceptual schemas are involved in the interpretation stage of the perception process. This is when an individual uses their previous knowledge and experiences to make sense of the stimuli they are currently experiencing.
Darren sees his boss, Amanda, as a meddling micromanager. Amanda views herself as an engaged and supportive boss. Their clashing ___________ often cause(s) problems in their communication.
c. standpoint theories
a. narratives Explanation: The clashing narratives of Darren and Amanda often cause problems in their communication because they have different views of themselves and their roles in the workplace. Darren sees Amanda as a meddling micromanager, while Amanda views herself as an engaged and supportive boss. These different perspectives can lead to misunderstandings and conflict.
Discussions of masculinity and femininity focus on ____________.
c. halo effects
d. impression management
b. gender Explanation: Discussions of masculinity and femininity typically focus on the ways that men and women are socialized to behave in accordance with gender norms. This can include discussion of topics such as the ways that boys and girls are expected to dress, the activities that are considered appropriate for each gender, and the ways that men and women are expected to communicate.
Jerry is embarrassed to find that his "dumb blonde" jokes are offensive to many of his classmates. Jerry made the common perception mistake of ____________.
a. being influenced by the obvious
b. clinging to first impressions
c. making snap judgments
d. assuming others were like him
d. assuming others were like him Explanation: Jerry made the common perception mistake of assuming others were like him. He assumed that because he found the jokes funny, everyone else would too. He was unaware that his classmates might find the jokes offensive because they did not share his sense of humor. This highlights the importance of being aware of our own biases and assumptions when communicating with others.
A verbal or nonverbal response to a message is ____________.
c. feedback Explanation:Jerry made the common perception mistake of assuming others were like him. He assumed that because he found the jokes funny, everyone else would too. He was unaware that his classmates might find the jokes offensive because they did not share his sense of humor. This highlights the importance of being aware of our own biases and assumptions when communicating with others.
Environments are also referred to as ____________.
d. contexts Explanation: d. contexts
An example of psychological noise is ____________.
d. loud music
a. insecurity Explanation: Psychological noise is any type of mental or emotional disturbance that can interfere with our ability to think clearly and make decisions. Examples of psychological noise include insecurity, fatigue, illness, and loud music.
The idea that it is often necessary to negotiate a shared meaning for satisfying communication to occur relates to which characteristic of the transactional communication model?
a. Communication is dyadic.
b. Channels make a difference.
c. Meanings exist in and among people.
d. Communication is irreversible.
Meanings exist in and among people. Explanation: The idea that it is often necessary to negotiate a shared meaning for satisfying communication to occur relates to the characteristic of meanings existing in and among people. This is because in order for communication to be satisfying, both parties involved must be able to understand each other and share the same meaning. This can often be accomplished through negotiation in order to ensure that both parties are on the same page.
The effect of an emailed love letter differs from that of a handwritten one because their ____________ differ.
c. channels Explanation: The effect of an emailed love letter differs from that of a handwritten one because their multimodality differs. An email love letter is typically read on a computer or phone screen, which is a very different experience from reading a handwritten letter on paper. The email love letter may also include audio or video components, which further differentiate it from the handwritten letter.
As defined by social scientists, significant others are people ____________.
a. whom we view as highly competent
b. whose evaluations are especially influential on us
c. with whom we spend a great deal of time
d. who provide advice and mentorship
b. whose evaluations are especially influential on us Explanation: Significant others are people who have a significant impact on our lives. This can be in the form of providing advice and mentorship, or simply being someone whose evaluations are highly influential to us. These people can be anyone from our family and friends to our coworkers and bosses.
The person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination is your ____________.
a. intuitive self
b. perceived self
c. presenting self
d. public self
b. perceived self Explanation: Your authentic self is the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination. This is the person you are when you are not trying to impress others or put on a fa莽ade. Your authentic self is your true identity.
Professional athletes may continue to insist they are essential to the team when they are past their physical prime. This tendency illustrates which characteristic of the self-concept?
b. Self-fulfilling prophecy
c. Resistance to change
c. Resistance to change Explanation: c. Resistance to change
Choosing whether to wear a tailored suit rather than a rumpled outfit involves which of the three dimensions of impression management?
b. Appearance Explanation: The three dimensions of impression management are manner, appearance, and setting. Manner involves the way in which you carry yourself and interact with others. Appearance involves the way you dress and present yourself. Setting involves the physical environment in which you find yourself. Style is a more general term that can encompass all three of these dimensions.
Which of the following statements is true about impression management?
a. Impression management is always a deliberate behavior.
b. Even babies are strategic communicators engaged in impression management.
c. Impression management involves deciding which face to reveal.
d. In each impression-management situation, only one response can be sincere and honest.
c. Impression management involves deciding which face to reveal. Explanation: All of the statements are true about impression management. Impression management is a deliberate behavior that involves deciding which face to reveal. Even babies are strategic communicators engaged in impression management. In each impression-management situation, only one response can be sincere and honest.
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