Ch. 3

9 September 2022
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1) "All the characteristics and experiences that define each of us as individuals" is the definition of A) ethnicity. B) diversity. C) culture. D) pluralism. E) none of the above.
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Answer: B
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2) Diversity in the workplace can be based on differences in A) ethnic heritage. B) religion. C) age. D) gender. E) all of the above.
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Answer: E
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3) Applied to nonwhite U.S. residents, the term minority is A) increasingly inaccurate. B) still accurate in states such as California and Texas. C) accurate only for the female population. D) the only politically correct option. E) more accurate than ever before.
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Answer: A
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4) Culture influences a person's understanding of A) words. B) nonverbal signals. C) use of time and space. D) roles and status. E) all of the above.
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Answer: E
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5) Many difficulties in intercultural communication occur because people in different cultures have different A) genetics. B) assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate. C) environments. D) media. E) views, but all the same core values.
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Answer: B
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6) When you react ethnocentrically, you A) assume that your culture is superior to others. B) recognize the differences that exist between your culture and other cultures. C) focus on the possibility that your words and actions will be misunderstood. D) show respect for other cultures. E) do all of the above.
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Answer: A
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7) Xenophobia is the fear of A) crises. B) working in unfamiliar environments. C) strangers and foreigners. D) change. E) large cities.
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Answer: C
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8) The practice of accepting multiple cultures on their own terms is known as A) ethnocentrism. B) cultural pluralism. C) ethnography. D) stereotyping. E) dynamics.
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Answer: B
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9) Ethnocentrism can be overcome in part by A) avoiding assumptions. B) judging other groups according to your own standards. C) ignoring the distinctions among cultures. D) remembering that people from other cultures communicate in ways that are inferior to your own. E) asserting the superiority of your own culture.
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Answer: A
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10) Cultural differences appear in a number of important areas, including A) nonverbal signals. B) gender. C) religion. D) attitudes toward work and success. E) all of the above.
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Answer: E
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11) In high-context cultures, A) people rely more on nonverbal circumstances and cues to convey meaning. B) people rely less on the environmental setting to convey meaning. C) the rules of everyday life are highly explicit. D) aggressive negotiation is expected and common. E) all of the above occur.
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Answer: A
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12) To convey meaning in a low-context culture such as the one existing in Germany, people rely more on A) gestures and vocal inflection. B) indirectness and metaphors. C) situational cues. D) explicit verbal communication. E) facial expressions.
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Answer: D
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13) When it comes to decision-making customs, North American executives A) tend to focus on the results of the decisions they face. B) prefer to make their deals slowly, after much discussion. C) spend a lot of time on each little point to display their good faith. D) arrive at decisions through consensus, after an elaborate and time-consuming process. E) will almost always give in if it allows them to avoid offending the other party.
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Answer: A
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14) Compared to low-context cultures, high-context cultures tend to take a(n) ________ approach regarding the meaning of business contracts. A) equally flexible B) more literal C) more flexible D) more aggressive E) none of the above
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Answer: C
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15) People in the United States generally A) view hard-earned material comfort as a worthy goal. B) believe that people who work hard are no better than those who don't work hard. C) condemn materialism and prize a carefree lifestyle. D) spend far less time on the job than German workers. E) view luxury and comfort as harmful.
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Answer: A
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16) Women executives who travel abroad A) can count on being treated with respect, regardless of the countries they visit. B) should always assume that they will not be taken seriously as businesspeople. C) may not be taken seriously as businesspeople, depending on the culture. D) should insist on meeting only with other female executives. E) are almost always treated with more respect outside the U.S.
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Answer: C
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17) Asking a colleague "How was your weekend?" is A) an effective greeting in any culture. B) accepted in the U.S., but considered intrusive in some cultures. C) never acceptable in a business environment. D) grounds for a lawsuit. E) offensive to members of every low-context culture.
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Answer: B
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18) Meeting a deadline is generally less important than building a relationship for businesspeople in A) technical career fields. B) low-context cultures. C) high-context cultures. D) high-paying positions. E) environments that emphasize teamwork and collaboration.
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Answer: C
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19) When it comes to planning for the future, A) people of all cultures view it as a valuable task. B) individual views may differ, but it is not a cultural issue. C) some societies tend to view it as a waste of time. D) younger workers tend to place more value on it than older counterparts. E) none of the above.
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Answer: C
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20) Associating youth with strength and age with declining powers is A) a universal trait that characterizes all cultures. B) common in European cultures, but not in the U.S. C) common in the U.S., but not in many Asian societies. D) an outdated practice. E) a politically correct approach.
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Answer: C
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21) When adapting to other cultures, the "Golden Rule" is A) a helpful principle to follow. B) less effective than treating others the way they want to be treated. C) helpful, but only in Asian countries. D) helpful only when dealing with others in their "golden" years. E) none of the above.
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Answer: B
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22) Learning about an unfamiliar culture A) can be accomplished only by living among its people. B) is generally a waste of timeā€”no one in business expects you to do so. C) is a worthy undertakingā€”even if you learn only a small amount. D) requires at least one year of study before it is meaningful. E) is a bad idea, since it almost always leads to overconfidence and embarrassing mistakes.
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Answer: C
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23) If you will be living in another country where English is not the official language but you will be doing business in English, you A) will not need to learn that country's language. B) should learn only those words that are absolutely necessary for getting around. C) will show respect by making an effort to learn the language. D) should only deal with natives who can speak English. E) demand that a translator be present for all conversations.
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Answer: C
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24) Letters from Japanese businesspeople tend to be ________ than those written in the United States. A) more direct B) less direct C) less interesting D) shorter E) better illustrated
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Answer: B
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25) In general, business correspondence in other countries is often ________ ________ than that written by U.S. businesspeople. A) less formal B) more formal C) more humorous D) less direct E) none of the above
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Answer: B
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26) When writing for multicultural audiences, it is often helpful to A) use simple sentences and short paragraphs. B) be direct and assertive. C) address international correspondence exactly as you would in the U.S. D) explain that you aren't sure about what they expect. E) apologize in advance for any mistakes.
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Answer: A
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27) When writing letters to businesspeople in other countries, you should A) use an informal, friendly tone. B) keep your sentences and paragraphs long. C) be vague and general in your wording. D) make generous use of transitional words and phrases. E) use the passive voice exclusively.
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Answer: D
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28) When preparing a message to someone from another culture, you should A) never write more than a single paragraph. B) assume that the audience is familiar with common U.S. phrases and references. C) be sure to remove all graphics, in case they might offend someone. D) be careful to express numbers and dates in the format used in that person's culture. E) write in simple sentences only.
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Answer: D
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29) When writing to audiences whose first language is not English, using humor is generally A) a bad idea, since jokes usually depend on culture-specific information. B) an excellent way to establish a positive relationship. C) acceptable, but only in high-context cultures. D) acceptable, but only in low-context cultures. E) a good way to establish rapport, but only if you stick to ethnocentric jokes.
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Answer: A
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30) Which of the following sentences contains an idiomatic expression? A) Our monthly sales quota is unrealistic. B) We don't expect to meet our monthly sales quota. C) Making our monthly sales quota will be a piece of cake. D) The sales quota is very reasonable. E) These products are all quite popular.
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Answer: C
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31) To English-speaking U.S. listeners, Arabic speech may sound A) excited or angry. B) disinterested. C) timid. D) excessively soft. E) all of the above.
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Answer: A
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32) When speaking in English to people who use English as a second language, the best approach is to A) forget about feedback; just make sure you get your message across. B) repeat your sentences often, a little louder each time. C) speak slowly and clearly. D) use plenty of adjectives such as fantastic and fabulous. E) limit your sentences to no more than 5 words each.
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Answer: C
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33) During conversations with non-native English speakers, you should A) immediately rephrase statements they don't seem to understand. B) avoid paying too much attention to nonverbal feedback. C) avoid including any words or phrases from their native language. D) write everything down before you say it, and show it to the other person as you speak. E) do none of the above.
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Answer: E
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34) When speaking with someone from another culture, avoid A) talking down to the other person. B) using any foreign phrases. C) paying any attention to the person's body language. D) asking for clarificationā€”it might offend them. E) doing all of the above.
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Answer: A
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35) If you translate a message from English into another language, it is a good idea to A) translate it word for word. B) have it back-translated. C) use several translators. D) rely on internet translators alone, since they are usually more accurate than humans. E) do all of the above.
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Answer: B
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36) Communication and culture A) are completely unrelated. B) are only slightly related. C) are so closely related that separating the two is virtually impossible. D) were once closely related, but have become separate thanks to the Internet. E) present challenges, but all of them can be overcome by learning the language of your audience.
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Answer: C
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37) Cultural competency refers to A) the ability to adjust one's communication style to accommodate cultural differences. B) a state of being economically independent according to the standards of a particular culture. C) the ability to speak more than one language. D) a broad knowledge of culture, including music, art, and theatre. E) none of the above.
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Answer: A
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38) Most people belong to A) only one culture. B) only one culture at a time, but it can change over their lifetime. C) several different cultures. D) all culturesā€”although most do not realize it. E) no culture at all, due to increased globalization.
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Answer: C
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39) When it comes to core values, A) all cultures are basically the same. B) the U.S. has a lot in common with Japanese and Arab cultures. C) cultures no longer have any. D) every culture values individualism and old-fashioned hard work. E) many cultures have very little (or nothing) in common with others.
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Answer: E
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40) Openness and inclusiveness A) are not characteristics of many cultures, whose members display a general unwillingness to accommodate outsiders. B) characterize all cultures, wherever they are found. C) are not truly characteristic of any culture, although some try to claim them. D) are typical only of small, dying cultures. E) will eventually weaken and destroy any culture.
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Answer: A
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41) Which of the following is not a common nonverbal difference among various cultures? A) personal space B) formality C) facial expressions D) greetings E) tone of voice
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Answer: E
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42) Compared to younger employees, older workers A) are less respected in all cultures. B) are more respected in all cultures. C) can offer broader experience and high degrees of "practical intelligence." D) are generally not highly respected in Asian societies. E) almost never find themselves in generational conflict with coworkers.
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Answer: C
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43) Companies concerned that religious differences may cause friction among employees A) must still, by law, allow workers to engage in religious activities at work. B) have, in many cases, forbidden employees from engaging in religious activities at work. C) should hire workers who are all of the same religion. D) have found that it rarely occurs, no matter the size of their workforce. E) have found that it is best to let employees work out differences on their own, even when it interferes with productivity.
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Answer: B
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44) Ability differences among employees and customers A) have led many companies to make websites more accommodating to persons with disabilities. B) disappear when those individuals enter workplaces. C) sometimes cause problems when individuals access the Internet, but only in rare cases. D) are important, but not related to culture. E) are impossible to accommodate when it comes to web accessibility.
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Answer: A
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45) When adapting to business cultures, a sense of humor A) is inappropriate and unprofessionalā€”business is no laughing matter. B) can help people move past awkward and embarrassing moments. C) is helpful unless you are in a management or executive position. D) is accepted and helpful in many cultures, but not in the U.S. E) will not help, since humor does not transfer from one culture to another.
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Answer: B
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46) If you are preparing to conduct business with others from a different culture, A) anything less than a year's worth of research and practice will not make a difference. B) you shouldn't waste time trying to learn about the unfamiliar cultureā€”just do what comes naturally. C) unless you can immerse yourself completely in the unfamiliar culture, your efforts will not pay off. D) even a small amount of research and practice will help you get through most business situations. E) you should expect them to set aside their expectations and accommodate yours.
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Answer: D
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47) When writing to audiences whose first language is not English, using plenty of transitions A) helps readers follow your train of thought. B) is insulting, since it will seem that you are talking down to them. C) will confuse readers, since it will make your message longer. D) is useful only if your readers belong to a high-context culture. E) should be avoided, since it will make your writing sound simple and unsophisticated.
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Answer: A
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48) Citing numbers and dates A) does not differ among cultures. B) differs slightly among cultures, but is consistent among all that are low-context. C) varies so widely among cultures that it is impossible to accommodate expectations. D) should be done carefully when communicating with audiences from other cultures. E) should always follow European style, unless you are communicating with others in the U.S.
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Answer: D
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49) In conversations with others whose first language is not English, you should A) not interrupt, even if you do not understand or need to correct a misconception. B) refuse to speak unless a translator is present. C) warn them up front that, because of language differences, nothing you say should be taken as contractual or binding. D) use exaggerated facial expressions and hand gestures to make sure your point gets across. E) always demand that a witness be present.
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Answer: A
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50) In conversations with a nonnative English speaker with whom you have a longstanding business relationship, you notice that he consistently makes language mistakes that could hurt his credibility. In response, you should A) ignore the errorsā€”correcting him could compromise your business interactions. B) interrupt him and point out the errors, then explain that no one will take him seriously unless he gets his act together. C) politely offer advice on the appropriate words and phrases to use. D) imitate the errors yourself in the hope that he will recognize the need to correct them. E) encourage him to watch network television news programs and model his speech patterns after those of the newscasters.
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Answer: C
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51) International business communication has been hampered by tightening trade barriers throughout the world.
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F
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75) Machine translation software is generally far more effective than human translators.
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F
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74) In intercultural conversations, speaking slowly is usually regarded as a sign of disrespect.
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F
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73) Foreign language instruction is one area where social networking technology has failed to have much of an impact.
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F
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72) In general, when writing to someone in another country, U.S. businesspeople should be a bit more formal than they would be otherwise.
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T
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71) When conducting business with others who speak a language other than English, it is best to avoid trying to speak any words or phrases in their language.
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Answer: FALSE
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70) There are no differences between English as it is written in the U.S. and English as it is written in the United Kingdom.
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Answer: FALSE
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67) Evidence suggests that whatever the culture, men and women tend to have slightly different communication styles.
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T
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69) When communicating with people from other cultures, it is best to apologize when you make a mistake.
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Answer: TRUE
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68) People in the United States are generally accustomed to having less privacy at work than their counterparts in other cultures.
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Answer: FALSE
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65) Following the "Golden Rule" is an effective strategy for adapting to other cultures.
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F
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66) When traveling to another country to conduct business, you should assume that frequent eye contact is regarded as a sign of honesty and openness in any culture.
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Answer: FALSE
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61) In low-context cultures, businesspeople tend to focus on the results of the decisions they face.
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T
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64) In many Asian societies, younger employees generally avoid disagreeing with senior executives in public.
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Answer: TRUE
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63) In general, attitudes toward work and success are consistent across the world.
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Answer: FALSE
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62) In some cultures, planning for the future is regarded as a waste of time.
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Answer: TRUE
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58) Studies have shown that people often have cultural biases of which they're not even consciously aware.
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Answer: TRUE
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60) Members of low-context cultures place more emphasis on nonverbal communication than on verbal communication.
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Answer: FALSE
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59) Cultural context refers to the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understanding that conveys meaning between members of the same culture.
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Answer: TRUE
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52) Although U.S. business is becoming more international and more culturally diverse, intercultural skills are still low on the list of companies' employee requirements.
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F
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57) When ethnocentric people stereotype an entire group of people, they are usually justified in doing so.
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Answer: FALSE
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56) Ethnocentrism is the tendency to have an equally unbiased view of all ethnic groups.
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Answer: FALSE
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55) Culture is inborn, not learned.
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Answer: FALSE
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54) Most people belong to only one culture.
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Answer: FALSE
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53) A group of men and women of various ages working together is an example of cultural diversity.
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Answer: TRUE