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bias sample

answer

Some members of the pop. of interest are more likely to be included in the sample

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representative sample

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All members of the population have an equal chance of being included in the sample

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self-selection sampling (biased)

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Sample has only people who volunteered to participate

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cluster sampling (prob)

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Clusters of participants w/i a population are randomly selected and all members are used

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multistage sampling (prob)

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2 random samples are selected: a random sample of clusters, then a random sample of people w/i the cluster

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stratified random sampling (prob)

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Researchers select demographic categories to represent % in population and uses random selection

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oversampling (prob)

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Researcher intentionally overrepresents one or more groups

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oversampling (prob)

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Researcher decides that 4% of the population isn't enough to be representative, so they sample 10%

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systematic sampling (prob)

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Researcher uses a computer or a random number table to select 2 random numbers

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self-selected, convenience, snowball, purposive, quota

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What are the 5 types of non-probability samples?

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snowball sampling (biased)

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Researchers find rare individuals and ask participants to bring friends (hard-to-access population)

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quota sampling (biased)

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Researcher identifies subsets in the population and sets a target number for each category
(80 African Americans, 80 Latinos)

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random sampling

answer

What is most important for enhancing external validity?

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1,000

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What sample size is often cited as the optimal balance between accuracy and effort?

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simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, oversample, multistage sampling

answer

What are the 6 types of probability sampling?

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purposive sampling (biased)

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If researchers want to study only certain kinds of people, they recruit only those participants

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frequency claim

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Typically, in which type of claim is it most important to have a random sample?

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sampling error (random error)

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No 2 samples will be the same; there's always variation

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sample bias (random error)

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Sample is systematically bias

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Increase sample size, estimate using stats

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How can you reduce sampling error?

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sample bias (constant error)

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Selected based on ease or any other systematic difference (self-selection)

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sample isn't representative

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Why does sample bias reduce external validity?

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simple random sampling (prob)

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Identify all members of the pop & randomly sample

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high external validity

answer

If you conduct a study w/i representative sample, you have...

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oversampling

answer

In which type of sampling
do researchers adjust final results?

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systematic sampling

answer

Researcher starts with the 4th person and then count off every 7th person