# Week 7 Sampling

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Sampling
The process of drawing a number of individual cases from a larger population
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Why should we sample
To learn something about a group without having to study the whole group
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2 examples of what sampling should be
Representative - Sample should be proportionate to the population from which it was drawn Non-representative - Sample is not proportionate to the population from which it was drawn
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2 TYPES of sampling
Probability sampling - Sample is drawn in a way that gives every member of the population a chance to be included. Non-probability sampling - Sample is drawn in a way that DOES NOT give every member of the population a chance to be included.
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Sampling frame
A list or description of elements that approximates the elements in the population
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Sampling error
Any difference between the sample characteristics and the equivalent characteristics in the sampling frame
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Probability sampling METHODS
- Simple random sample - Systematic random sample - Stratified random sample - Multistage random sample
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Describe a simple random sample (probability)
Samples are chosen at random eg. Samples chosen using a random number table
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Describe a systematic random sample (probability)
The first element is selected randomly, then every other element is selected at an interval eg. population = 100 sample size = 10 100 10 = 10 sample will be random number (6) 16, 26, 36.....
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describe a stratified random sample (probability)
Divides the population into strata (groups) and then randomly samples within each strata
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Describe a multistage random sample (probability)
Population elements are grouped into clusters random sample of clusters is drawn random sample of population elements in clusters is drawn
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Why we use probability sampling
- Ensures Representativeness - Ensures generalisibility
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NON-probability sampling METHODS
- Quota sample - Convenience sample - snowball sample
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Why we use NON-probability sampling
- Cheaper - Quicker - Can be used to find hidden population samples
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Describe quota sampling (Non-probability)
- Uses quotas - Represents certain characteristics in proportion to the related population - Selects a set number of the most accessible elements who possess characteristics of intrest
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Describe convenience sampling (Non-probability)
- Samples selected based on what is most convenient to the researcher - Inexpensive, quick and can yield interesting results
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Describe snowball sampling (Non-probability)
- Researcher identifies first sample element - Sample element refers researcher to other sample elements - Can be used where gaining samples may be difficult
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Sampling error is the extent to which the sample differs from the target population
True
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Your lecturer used students enrolled in her class as participants in a survey. This is an example of a
convenience sample
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A "person on the street" interview is an example of what form of sampling?
convenience
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Snowball sampling is a great technique to select a sample in projects involving hidden populations
True
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You wish to study the hierarchy within juvenile gangs, in particular how gang leaders are selected. What sampling technique would be best?
snowball sampling
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My sample was drawn as follows: (1) group participants within schools (2) randomly select 100 schools (3) randomly select 100 students from each selected school. This is an example of a:
multistage cluster sample
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The actual list of elements from which the sample is randomly selected is called the