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Sampling

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The process of drawing a number of individual cases from a larger population

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Why should we sample

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To learn something about a group without having to study the whole group

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2 examples of what sampling should be

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Representative
- Sample should be proportionate to the population from which it was drawn
Non-representative
- Sample is not proportionate to the population from which it was drawn

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2 TYPES of sampling

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Probability sampling
- Sample is drawn in a way that gives every member of the population a chance to be included.
Non-probability sampling
- Sample is drawn in a way that DOES NOT give every member of the population a chance to be included.

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Sampling frame

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A list or description of elements that approximates the elements in the population

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Sampling error

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Any difference between the sample characteristics and the equivalent characteristics in the sampling frame

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Probability sampling METHODS

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- Simple random sample
- Systematic random sample
- Stratified random sample
- Multistage random sample

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Describe a simple random sample (probability)

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Samples are chosen at random
eg. Samples chosen using a random number table

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Describe a systematic random sample (probability)

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The first element is selected randomly, then every other element is selected at an interval
eg. population = 100
sample size = 10
100 10 = 10
sample will be random number (6) 16, 26, 36.....

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describe a stratified random sample (probability)

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Divides the population into strata (groups) and then randomly samples within each strata

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Describe a multistage random sample (probability)

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Population elements are grouped into clusters
random sample of clusters is drawn
random sample of population elements in clusters is drawn

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Why we use probability sampling

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- Ensures Representativeness
- Ensures generalisibility

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NON-probability sampling METHODS

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- Quota sample
- Convenience sample
- snowball sample

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Why we use NON-probability sampling

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- Cheaper
- Quicker
- Can be used to find hidden population samples

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Describe quota sampling (Non-probability)

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- Uses quotas
- Represents certain characteristics in proportion to the related population
- Selects a set number of the most accessible elements who possess characteristics of intrest

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Describe convenience sampling (Non-probability)

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- Samples selected based on what is most convenient to the researcher
- Inexpensive, quick and can yield interesting results

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Describe snowball sampling (Non-probability)

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- Researcher identifies first sample element
- Sample element refers researcher to other sample elements
- Can be used where gaining samples may be difficult

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Sampling error is the extent to which the sample differs from the target population

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True

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Your lecturer used students enrolled in her class as participants in a survey. This is an example of a

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convenience sample

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A "person on the street" interview is an example of what form of sampling?

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convenience

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Snowball sampling is a great technique to select a sample in projects involving hidden populations

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True

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You wish to study the hierarchy within juvenile gangs, in particular how gang leaders are selected. What sampling technique would be best?

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snowball sampling

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My sample was drawn as follows:
(1) group participants within schools
(2) randomly select 100 schools
(3) randomly select 100 students from each selected school.
This is an example of a:

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multistage cluster sample

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The actual list of elements from which the sample is randomly selected is called the

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sampling frame

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Your research methods course requires a class project on underage drinking. With the registrar's assistance, you draw a random sample of first-years, second-years and third-years in direct proportion to their makeup in students enrolled at Griffith University. What type of sampling tehcnique have you used?

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proportionate stratified sampling

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The difference between quota sampling and stratified sampling is:

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although both "group" participants by an important characteristic, stratified sampling relies on random selection within each group, while quota sampling relies on convenience sampling within each group.

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The sampling frame is the list of each member of the sample

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False
By definition, the sampling frame is a list of all the elements in the target population (not just the sample).