question

A political research center obtains a list of phone numbers for all registered voters in Texas and uses a random number generator to select 1,000 of the phone numbers to call. They ask each voter which gubernatorial candidate they plan to vote for in the upcoming election. What sampling method is being used?
Select one:
a. simple random sampling Correct
b. stratified random sampling
c. systematic sampling
d. multistage sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Simple Random Sampling β The research center has a list of the entire population, and they are randomly sampling from that population.
The correct answer is: simple random sampling

question

How are quota sampling and stratified random sampling similar?
Select one:
a. Both identify subgroups that need to studied. Correct
b. Both result in representative samples.
c. Both result in nonrepresentative samples.
d. Both randomly sample subgroups to be studied.

answer

The correct answer is: Both identify subgroups that need to studied.

question

The directors of an annual community concert want to find the musical preferences of the audience. The ushers place a survey card on every sixth seat beginning with the second seat (2 and 6 were chosen from a random number table). All of the cards are returned as the audience leaves. Which type of sampling is being used?
Select one:
a. stratified random sampling
b. multistage sampling
c. cluster sampling
d. systematic sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Obtaining a Representative Sample: Probability Sampling Techniques β This is systematic sampling as it involves sampling every nth member of the audience, starting at a random point, where n is chosen at random also.
The correct answer is: systematic sampling

question

A political research center obtains a list of phone numbers for all registered voters in Texas and uses a random number generator to select 1,000 of the phone numbers to call. They ask each voter which gubernatorial candidate they plan to vote for in the upcoming election. What is the population of interest that the research center wants to generalize to?
Select one:
a. all Americans
b. all Texans Incorrect
c. all of the people likely to vote for the Republican candidate for governor
d. all registered voters in Texas

answer

FEEDBACK: Simple Random Sampling β The sample will be representative of the population that it was sampled from β all registered voters in Texas.
The correct answer is: all registered voters in Texas

question

________ is when you study every member of a population.
Select one:
a. A census Correct
b. A representative sample
c. Oversampling
d. A biased sample

answer

FEEDBACK: Populations and Samples β A census is when every member of a population is studied.
The correct answer is: A census

question

Dr. Rhodes is interested in how differing levels of light affect how people perceive color. He finds participants for this research study by making an announcement in several psychology classes at his university. What kind of sampling method is Dr. Rhodes using?
Select one:
a. snowball sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. convenience sampling Correct
d. systematic sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Ways to Get a Biased Sample β Dr. Rhodes is using a sample of people who are readily available to participate β a convenience sample.
The correct answer is: convenience sampling

question

Dr. Lawrence is the director of Counseling Services at her university. She is planning to conduct a survey of 100 students at the university to see how aware they are of the counseling services that are offered at the university. She wants the proportion of males and females in her sample to reflect the proportion in the university as a whole (55 percent female and 45 percent male). Dr. Lawrence plans to stand in the Student Union and ask people to participate until she has given the survey to 55 females and 45 males. Is Dr. Lawrence collecting a representative sample?
Select one:
a. Yes, because all of the students in her sample attend her university.
b. No, because 100 people is not enough for a representative sample.
c. Yes, because the sample includes a representative proportion of males and females.
d. No, because the participants are selected nonrandomly.

answer

FEEDBACK: Quota Sampling β In quota sampling participants are chosen nonrandomly so it is not a representative sampling method.
The correct answer is: No, because the participants are selected nonrandomly.

question

What kind of sample is best for external validity?
Select one:
a. a sample that can be collected as quickly as possible
b. a sample where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected Correct
c. a sample that includes the majority of the population
d. the largest sample possible

answer

FEEDBACK: Generalizability: Does the Sample Represent the Population? β In terms of external validity, the best sample is a representative sample β one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
The correct answer is: a sample where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

question

The superintendent of schools in a small town in Ohio made a lot of policy changes to the way school administration worked in his district. A researcher at a nearby university wanted to look at what teachers in his district thought about the changes. The researcher made a list of all of the schools in the district and used a random number generator to select a sample of five schools from the district. Then the researcher interviewed every teacher at each of those five schools. What sampling method did the researcher use?
Select one:
a. systematic sampling
b. cluster sampling Correct
c. simple random sampling
d. purposive sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Cluster Sampling and Multistage Sampling β In cluster sampling, clusters of participants (schools) within a population of interest (the school district) are randomly selected, and then all individuals in each selected cluster are included in the study.
The correct answer is: cluster sampling

question

Which of the following does NOT result in a biased sample?
Select one:
a. Snowball sample
b. Purposive sample
c. Convenience sample
d. Systematic sample

answer

The correct answer is: Systematic sample

question

Dr. Jennings is doing a study on the experience of being a racial minority on a college campus. He goes to the Asian Student Association, Black Student Union, and Hispanic Student Group on his campus to recruit participants for his study. Dr. Jennings only includes Asians, African-Americans, and Hispanic participants in his study. What type of sampling is Dr. Jennings using?
Select one:
a. systematic sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. quota sampling
d. purposive sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Purposive Sampling β Purposive sampling is when only a certain kind of people are sampled and when those people are sampled in a non-random way.
The correct answer is: purposive sampling

question

Which of the following is considered a biased sampling method?
Select one:
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. stratified random sampling
d. convenience sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Convenience Sampling β A convenience sample is chosen on the basis of who is easy to access. This is not typically representative of the entire population from whom the researchers wish to generalize.
The correct answer is: convenience sampling

question

RESEARCH STUDY 7.1
Professor Kramer has decided to measure how happy his students are with his teaching this semester. He is teaching two classes this semester-Psychology and Law and Introduction to Neuroscience. He gives his students a survey.
Refer to Research Study 7.1 to answer the following six questions.
In the above scenario, Dr. Kramer needs to avoid which of the following if he hopes to avoid having a biased sample?
Select one:
a. Sampling only those students who volunteer to complete the survey
b. Sampling only those students who finish the survey
c. Sampling only those students who come to class frequently Correct
d. Sampling only those students who sign the consent form

answer

The correct answer is: Sampling only those students who come to class frequently

question

Mr. Stratford is the president of a national organization of lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender people in the United States. He wants to survey 1,000 members of his organization about the position they want the organization to take on several political issues. He knows that transgender people make up only 5 percent of his organization, but he wants to make sure that their views are accurately represented. He decides that he will randomly sample 100 transgender members and then adjust the final results so that transgender people are weighted to their actual proportion in the organization. Is Mr. Stratford collecting a representative sample?
Select one:
a. No, because the transgender people are over-represented in the final sample.
b. Yes, because the transgender people in the final sample were sampled randomly from the population of transgender people in the organization. Correct
c. No, because straight people are not included in the sample.
d. Yes, because 1,000 people is enough to make a representative sample.

answer

FEEDBACK: Oversampling β Oversampling is a variation of stratified random sampling. Since people are randomly selected from the population, it is a representative sample.
The correct answer is: Yes, because the transgender people in the final sample were sampled randomly from the population of transgender people in the organization.

question

A ________ is the entire set of people in which the researchers are interested.
Select one:
a. representative sample
b. quota sample
c. population Correct
d. biased sample

answer

FEEDBACK: Populations and Samples β A population is the entire set of people or products in which you are interested.
The correct answer is: population

question

Which of the following is true of sample size?
Select one:
a. It primarily affects statistical validity. Correct
b. It primarily affects internal validity.
c. It primarily affects construct validity.
d. It primarily affects external validity.

answer

The correct answer is: It primarily affects statistical validity.

question

A college administrator knows that 70 percent of the students at his college are from out of state, so he decides to make sure that he includes 70 out-of-state students and 30 in-state students in his survey about admission practices at the college. He has a list of all of the out-of-state and all of the in-state students currently enrolled at the college. He randomly selects 70 students from the out-of-state list and 30 students from the in-state list. What sampling method is he using?
Select one:
a. quota sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. multi-stage sampling
d. stratified random sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Stratified Random Sampling β In stratified random sampling, the researcher selects particular demographic categories on purpose and then randomly selects individuals within each of the categories.
The correct answer is: stratified random sampling

question

Dr. Cyril conducts a simple random sample of 500 men who became fathers for the first time in the last year. He finds that 23% of them report being unsure of their ability to be good fathers, plus or minus 4%. If Dr. Cyril increased his sample size to 1,000, which of the following would happen?
Select one:
a. Statistical validity would become negatively affected.
b. The true estimate would increase.
c. External validity would become less important.
d. The margin of error would become smaller.

answer

The correct answer is: The margin of error would become smaller.

question

Which of the following is considered a representative sampling method?
Select one:
a. snowball sampling
b. convenience sampling
c. systematic sampling Correct
d. self-selected sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Systematic Sampling β Systematic sampling is a representative sampling method of sampling that involves selecting two random numbers (i.e., 2 and 4). The first number tells you where to start sampling (the second person) and the second number tells you how often to sample (every fourth person).
The correct answer is: systematic sampling

question

Dr. Lawrence is the director of Counseling Services at her university. She is planning to conduct a survey of 100 students at the university to see how aware they are of the counseling services that are offered at the university. She wants the proportion of males and females in her sample to reflect the proportion in the university as a whole (55 percent female and 45 percent male). Dr. Lawrence plans to stand in the Student Union and ask people to participate until she has given the survey to 55 females and 45 males. What type of sampling method is Dr. Lawrence going to use?
Select one:
a. stratified random sampling
b. multi-stage sampling
c. cluster sampling
d. quota sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Quota Sampling β In quota sampling the researcher identifies subsets of the population of interest and then sets a target number for each category in the sample.
The correct answer is: quota sampling

question

Mr. Stratford is the president of a national organization of lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender people in the United States. He wants to survey 1,000 members of his organization about the position they want the organization to take on several political issues. He knows that transgender people make up only 5 percent of his organization, but he wants to make sure that their views are accurately represented. He decides that he will randomly sample 100 transgender members and then adjust the final results so that transgender people are weighted to their actual proportion in the organization. What type of sampling is Mr. Stratford using?
Select one:
a. cluster sampling
b. oversampling Correct
c. snowball sampling
d. quota sampling

answer

FEEDBACK: Oversampling β Oversampling is when the researcher intentionally overrepresents one or more groups.
The correct answer is: oversampling

question

A sample is always __________ a population.
Select one:
a. larger than
b. smaller than Correct
c. the same size as
d. unrelated to

answer

FEEDBACK: Populations and Samples β A population is the entire set of people a researcher is interested in, and a sample is a smaller set taken from that population.
The correct answer is: smaller than

question

Typically, in which type of claim is it most important to have a random sample?
Select one:
a. association
b. frequency Correct
c. causal
d. anecdotal

answer

FEEDBACK: When a Representative Sample is Not a Top Priority β Random sampling is linked to external validity and that is often the main concern in frequency claims. Associations and causes can often be determined without random samples.
The correct answer is: frequency

question

Which of the following is most important for enhancing external validity?
Select one:
a. random assignment
b. using measures that are valid and reliable
c. random sampling Correct
d. a large sample size

answer

FEEDBACK: Random Sampling Versus Random Assignment β Random sampling enhances external validity, and random sampling enhances internal validity.
The correct answer is: random sampling