Chap 15

25 July 2022
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question
The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is ________. A) weathering B) jointing C) slumping D) mass wasting E) denudation
answer
E) denudation
question
Which process must take place FIRST during the denudation of a landscape? A) weathering B) mass wasting C) erosion D) They must occur simultaneously. E) None of them must necessarily occur first.
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A) weathering
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Weathering and mass wasting can be classified as ________ processes. A) denudational B) tectonic C) mountain building D) quick E) constructive
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A) denudational
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Denudation is NOT closely related to ________. A) erosion B) biologic weathering C) atmospheric weathering D) mass wasting E) internal processes
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E) internal processes
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________ is(are) the most obvious result of weathering. A) Slumps B) Fragmentation of bedrock C) Earthquakes D) Joints E) Landslides
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B) Fragmentation of bedrock
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Residual rock that has not experienced erosion is termed ________. A) talus B) basalt C) block D) dome E) bedrock
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E) bedrock
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A lava ________ is a small hole which develops in cooling lava when gas is unable to escape as the lava solidifies. A) cavity B) chamber C) pore space D) vesicle E) cavern
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D) vesicle
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Weathering may reach as far as ________ below Earth's surface. A) a few meters B) the outer core C) the bottom of the crust D) hundreds of meters E) a few centimeters
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D) hundreds of meters
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Which of the following is NOT a type of opening along which weathering agents attack bedrock? A) joints B) solution cavities C) batholiths D) lava vesicles E) faults
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C) batholiths
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Like faults, a ________ is a separation in a rock body. A) graben B) slump C) dike D) sill E) joint
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E) joint
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Lava ________ develop when gas is unable to escape as the lava solidifies. A) vesicles B) holes C) tubes D) cavities E) joints
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A) vesicles
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Carbonate rock is closely associated with ________. A) solution cavities B) exfoliation C) vesicles D) hydration E) granular disintegration
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A) solution cavities
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Which of the following is NOT closely related to jointing? A) contraction of sediments after they dry out B) ease of percolation of water into rock C) horizontal and vertical orientation D) vesicles E) Zion Canyon National Park, Utah
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D) vesicles
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A joint can be distinguished from a fault in that ________. A) joints are a feature of cold climates exclusively B) there is no movement along joints C) there is wider separation between two sides D) joints are not found in metamorphic rocks E) there is no difference between joints and faults
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B) there is no movement along joints
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________ are the most common structural features of rocks. A) Solution cavities B) Lava vesicles C) Joints D) Fractures E) Faults
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C) Joints
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The location of features, such as cliffs and valleys might be strongly influenced by the position of ________. A) talus slopes B) rocks which can be exfoliated C) systems of microspaces D) scree E) master joints
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E) master joints
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Large ________ extend for considerable distances and depths through rock. Below the surface, there is minimal separation between the blocks on either side. A) faults B) master joints C) solution cavities D) glory holes E) vesicles
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B) master joints
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Jointing is most regularly patterned in ________. A) soil B) fine-grained rocks C) coarse-grained rocks D) exfoliated rocks E) faulted rocks
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B) fine-grained rocks
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Which of the following landscapes is most closely associated with jointing? A) Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah B) the folded Appalachian Mountains C) the Front Range of the Rockies D) Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park E) Chief Mountain in Glacier National Park, Montana
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A) Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah
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Which of the following is LEAST important in the weathering processes? A) Earthquakes B) Faults C) Joints D) Lava vesicles E) Microscopic open spaces
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A) Earthquakes
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A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called ________. A) hydrolysis B) solifluction C) creep D) exfoliation E) landslide
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D) exfoliation
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In rock, ________ is another term for pressure release. A) rusting B) unloading C) slumping D) creep E) oxidation
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B) unloading
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The most important type of mechanical weathering process is ________. A) salt wedging B) oxidation C) hydrolysis D) frost shattering E) uniformitarianism
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D) frost shattering
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Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and ________. A) evaporates B) expands in volume C) turns acidic D) turns white E) stays in liquid form below 0ยฐCelsius
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B) expands in volume
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Salt wedging is of slight consequence in ________. A) arid regions B) volcanic regions C) regions above the treeline D) marshes E) humid regions
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E) humid regions
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In frost wedging, the principal force is exerted against the ________ of the confining rock. A) microscopic openings B) bottom C) outside D) walls E) top
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D) walls
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________ might happen directly as the result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape. A) Hydrolysis B) Exfoliation C) A slump D) Soil creep E) Mass wasting
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B) Exfoliation
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Granular disintegration is most closely associated with ________. A) biological weathering B) mass wasting C) landslides D) hydrolysis E) frost wedging
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E) frost wedging
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The peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock is ________. A) explosion B) carbonation C) hydrolysis D) scree E) exfoliation
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E) exfoliation
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In dry climates, ________ is a (are) prevalent process(es). A) salt wedging B) landslides C) carbonation D) hydrolysis E) frost wedging
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A) salt wedging
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Frost wedging is associated with ________ in coarse-grained rocks. A) hydrolysis B) slumping C) granular disintegration D) solution cavities E) faults
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C) granular disintegration
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Frost wedging is NOT a significant agent in producing ________. A) sand B) dust C) mechanical weathering effects D) clay E) large boulders
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B) dust
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Salt wedging is most closely associated with ________. A) chemical weathering B) plant roots C) capillary action D) freeze/thaw cycles E) humid climates
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C) capillary action
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Which of the following is most effective in weathering rock? A) salt wedging B) daily heating and cooling C) fire D) plant roots E) freeze/thaw cycles
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E) freeze/thaw cycles
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Where is the daily temperature change the most significant in rock weathering? A) the humid tropics B) mountain summits C) the Arctic region D) the subtropical deserts E) midlatitude valleys
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B) mountain summits
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Exfoliation is probably the result of unloading and ________. A) jointing B) glaciation C) hydration D) salt wedging E) mechanical weathering
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C) hydration
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Frost shattering is also called frost ________. A) weathering B) exfoliation C) creep D) slump E) wedging
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E) wedging
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As water freezes it expands almost ________ percent and is able to mechanically weather rock. A) 1 B) 75 C) 100 D) 50 E) 10
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E) 10
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The term "exfoliation dome" is best applied to ________. A) Bryce National Park, Utah B) unweathered parent material C) subarctic hillslopes D) Yosemite National Park E) Bunker Hill, Massachusetts
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D) Yosemite National Park
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The chemical union of water with another substance is called ________. A) oxidation B) talus C) hydrolysis D) solifluction E) magma
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C) hydrolysis
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The single most important weathering agent is ________. A) nitrogen B) water vapor C) oxygen D) water E) carbon dioxide
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D) water
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The new substances made through oxidation of existing minerals are ________ than the original minerals. A) less oxygen rich B) less voluminous C) less easily eroded D) more organic E) softer
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E) softer
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Caverns are most closely associated with ________. A) joints B) lava vesicles C) solution cavities D) microscopic open spaces E) faults
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C) solution cavities
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The main chemical weathering processes all take place more or less simultaneously because they all require the presence of ________. A) plants B) air C) hydrogen D) water E) salt crystal growth
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D) water
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Water penetrating into soil promotes chemical weathering by acting as a weak ________. A) acid B) saline solution C) neutral agent D) base E) catalyst
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A) acid
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In percolating rainwater, dissolved gases and the decay products of local vegetation increases the water's capacity to ________. A) drive chemical reactions B) freeze C) undergo mechanical weathering D) condense E) evaporate
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A) drive chemical reactions
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The rotting of rock by the various types of chemical weathering takes place best in ________. A) humid regions B) limestone regions C) arid lands D) polar regions E) upland montane forests
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A) humid regions
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The major end product of chemical weathering is(are) ________. A) sands B) clays C) airborne dust D) talus E) silts
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B) clays
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The most common oxidation effect in the lithosphere is ________. A) talus B) hydrolysis C) scree D) exfoliation E) rusting
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E) rusting
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Which openings in rocks are associated with calcareous rocks? A) joints B) faults C) microscopic openings D) solution cavities E) lava vesicles
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D) solution cavities
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Chemical weathering is speeded because mechanical weathering tends to ________. A) make coarse-grained materials decompose more rapidly than fine-grained materials B) stop when chemical weathering starts C) deliver rocks to where chemical processes are dominant D) prevent moisture from washing away the chemicals E) greatly increase the surface area to be weathered
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E) greatly increase the surface area to be weathered
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Calcium bicarbonate produced in the chemical weathering process of carbonation ________. A) is rare B) eventually transforms into diamonds C) is difficult to remove from the spot where it was formed D) is very soluble E) is very resistant to erosion
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D) is very soluble
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Which sort of rocks are most susceptible to hydrolysis? A) metamorphic B) sedimentary C) plutonic D) unjointed E) igneous
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E) igneous
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Invariably, hydrolysis makes a mineral ________. A) redder B) denser C) take up more volume D) more acidic E) more beautiful
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C) take up more volume
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Which of the following processes is most closely associated with "rusting"? A) oxidation B) carbonation C) hydrolysis D) hydration E) nivation
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A) oxidation
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From a chemical standpoint, the three reacting agents of greatest importance to weathering are ________. A) hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen B) oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide C) argon, aluminum, and calcium D) water vapor, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide E) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water
answer
E) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water
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Oxidation of aluminum causes which of the following colors on the surfaces of rocks? A) light purple B) grayish-blue C) reddish brown D) black E) lime green
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C) reddish brown
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Which material is most resistant to chemical weathering? A) limestone B) gypsum C) quartz D) dolomite E) iron-bearing rocks
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C) quartz
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Which of the following can occur far below the surface in the tropics? A) hydrolysis B) soil formation C) oxidation D) differential weathering E) carbonation
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A) hydrolysis
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Which of the following is NOT associated with biological weathering? A) formation of rock joints B) disintegration of rock by burrowing animals C) expansion of rock cracks by tree roots D) flaking of rock particles because of lichens present E) leaching of nutrient minerals from rocks
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A) formation of rock joints
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Which of the following processes is NOT associated with the biological weathering of he landscape? A) photosynthesis B) wedging by roots C) ion exchange by lichens D) the burrowing of animals E) wetting and drying of lichens
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A) photosynthesis
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If no water is involved, rocks can mechanically weather if they undergo ________ temperature change cycles. A) a dozen B) two C) millions of D) hundreds of E) thousands of
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C) millions of
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Weathering is deepest ________. A) at high latitudes B) on ocean floors C) in the middle latitudes D) in the humid tropics E) at high altitudes
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D) in the humid tropics
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Gravity is the main force impelling movement in all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) slide B) creep C) hydrolysis D) solifluction E) fall
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C) hydrolysis
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Mass wasting is associated with which speed of movement? A) imperceptibly slow B) a few centimeters per day C) 100 kilometers per hour D) a few meters per year E) a wide variety of speeds
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E) a wide variety of speeds
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Mass movements are likely to happen after ________. A) heavy rains B) denudation C) material has been moved to the talus cone D) summer E) erosion is finished
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A) heavy rains
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Clays are sometimes instrumental in mass movements because of their ability to ________. A) move uphill B) capture sunlight C) become translucent D) absorb water E) become smaller over time
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D) absorb water
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With the passage of time, all talus migrates ________. A) downslope B) upslope C) very quickly D) only when there are earthquakes E) out of the ravine
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A) downslope
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The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational action is called ________. A) exfoliation B) creep C) vesicles D) slump E) talus
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E) talus
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The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscapes is ________. A) mud slide B) permafrost C) rock glacier D) solifluction E) mass wasting
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D) solifluction
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The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is ________. A) exfoliation B) creep C) solifluction D) landslide E) mudflow
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B) creep
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The single most important mechanism of transport for weathered overburden in the subarctic zones is ________. A) mass wasting B) frost wedging C) hydrolysis D) exfoliation E) oxidation
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A) mass wasting
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The best example of a product of mass wasting is ________. A) limestone B) faults C) scree D) exfoliation domes E) sandstone monoliths
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C) scree
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A result of soil creep might be ________. A) an earthquake along a fault B) a house engulfed in mud C) a landslide D) a sinking land surface E) a tilted fence post
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E) a tilted fence post
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Which of the following is thought to transfer materials WITHOUT the lubricating effect of water? A) mudflow B) landslides C) solifluction D) debris flows E) rock glaciers
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E) rock glaciers
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Where the land is flat, ________ exerts a minimal influence on topographic development. A) biological weathering B) gravity C) mechanical weathering D) water E) chemical weathering
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B) gravity
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________ and amount of moisture present can be used to classify types of mass wasting. A) Amount of mechanical weathering B) Gravity C) Temperature D) Speed of movement E) Amount of chemical weathering
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D) Speed of movement
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Mass wasting is most likely during ________. A) the perihelion of Earth to the Sun B) heavy rain C) joint formation D) freezing temperatures E) daytime
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B) heavy rain
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Clay is a facilitator for mass wasting because clay ________. A) dissolves when wet B) absorbs water C) particles are larger than sand D) has solution cavities E) particles are so small
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B) absorbs water
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________ is a facilitator of mass wasting. A) Talus B) Clay C) Gravel D) Friction E) Calcium carbonate
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B) Clay
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________ often initiates mass wasting in subarctic and high latitudes. A) The heaving of frozen groundwater B) Short day lengths C) Heavy snow D) Cold temperatures E) Greater gravity nearer the poles
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A) The heaving of frozen
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Within 5%, the typical angle of repose is ________. A) 15% B) 90% C) 35% D) 55% E) 5%
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C) 35%
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One sub-surface material which intensifies the process of earthquakes and mass movement is ________. A) batholiths B) clay C) calcium carbonate D) boulders E) scree
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B) clay
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Clays which change to a near-liquid state as a result of sudden disturbance are ________ clays. A) sandy B) scree C) quick D) talus E) mudflow
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C) quick
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When fragments deposited by mass movement are at the ________, they are in a fine balance between the pull of gravity and the cohesion and friction of the rock material. A) size of clay B) bottom of the talus slope C) terminal velocity D) angle of repose E) top of the hill
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D) angle of repose
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In mountain areas, when large amounts of rock fragments move downslope of their own weight, they are called ________. A) veins B) laccolith C) slumps D) rock glaciers E) dikes
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D) rock glaciers
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In ________ there is a rough sorting of particles, with larger pieces farther downslope. A) faulting B) a flow C) a mudslide D) a rockfall E) soil creep
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D) a rockfall
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"The angle of repose" is a term most closely associated with ________. A) talus B) exfoliation C) chemical weathering D) mudflows E) mechanical weathering
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A) talus
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________ move downslope as much as 160 kilometers per hour. A) Solifluction lobes B) Landslides C) Slump blocks D) Rock glaciers E) Debris flows
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B) Landslides
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A slope collapse with a backward rotation is a ________. A) debris flow B) rock slide C) rock glacier D) talus slope E) slump
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E) slump
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Landslides are often responsible for the formation of ________. A) hydrolysis B) reverse faults C) basins D) lakes E) jointing
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D) lakes
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A slump is a downslope movement with a ________. A) sag pond B) lava vesicle C) backwards rotation D) tsunami E) plateau formation
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C) backwards rotation
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The mass-wasting type characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is the ________. A) slump B) solifluction C) rock glacier D) debris flow E) primary joint
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A) slump
question
Which of the following is NOT closely associated with large landslides? A) Earthquakes B) Solifluction C) Fault zones D) Heavy rains E) Large joints
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B) Solifluction
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A massive pile of highly irregular debris in the form of a low-lying ridge or cone on a valley bottom is a topographic result of a ________. A) rock glacier B) fault C) joint D) landslide E) rock fall
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D) landslide
question
Undercutting of a bank by its stream may trigger ________. A) solifluction B) movement of a rock glacier C) soil creep D) a landslide E) an earthquake
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D) a landslide
question
The La Conchita landslides are most closely associated with ________. A) problems in Mexico B) an earthquake C) causes that are no longer active D) an unsafe dam E) cracks underneath cliff houses
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E) cracks underneath cliff houses
question
Which of the following mass movements involves the greatest amount of water? A) slump B) flow C) slide D) solifluction E) rockfall
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B) flow
question
A mudflow including numerous larger blocks of material is a(n) ________. A) slump B) debris flow C) earth slide D) earth flow E) rock glacier
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B) debris flow
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Which of the following form of mass wasting is relatively fast and wet compared to the others? A) solifluction B) slump C) mudflow D) rock glacier E) creep
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C) mudflow
question
An earthflow is most conspicuous in ________ where a bulging lobe of material pushes out onto a valley floor. A) its center B) landslide zones C) its lower reaches D) its upper reaches E) rock glacier zones
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C) its lower reaches
question
Creep associated with animals and resembling a faint network of trails is called ________. A) oxidation B) a terracette C) a seiche D) hydrolysis E) solifluction
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B) a terracette
question
The process of creep works ________. A) universally B) only in deserts C) only in the tundra D) only in the mountains E) only in the tropics
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A) universally
question
The process of solifluction works ________. A) universally B) mainly in the tropical rainforest C) mainly in the tundra D) underwater E) mainly in the midlatitudes
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C) mainly in the tundra
question
Typically, solifluction lobes move a few ________ per year. A) kilometers (miles) B) meters (feet) C) tens of meters (tens of feet) D) tens of kilometers (tens of miles) E) centimeters (inches)
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E) centimeters (inches)
question
Which of the following is the slowest of all types of mass movement? A) landslide B) slump C) rockfall D) solifluction E) earthflow
answer
D) solifluction
question
No matter where you go, which of the following is almost certainly acting on the landscape around you? A) mudflow B) rock glaciers C) solifluction D) landslides E) creep
answer
E) creep
question
In freeze/thaw or wet/dry conditions in soil creep, an individual soil particle tends to ________. A) slide downhill and then be lifted vertically B) be lifted vertically C) be lifted vertically and placed at the same spot D) be lifted vertically from the ground surface and placed slightly downhill E) slide downhill
answer
D) be lifted vertically from the ground surface and placed slightly downhill
question
Soil creep is unimportant in arid regions since lack of water removes the primary ________. A) lubricant B) reason for landslides C) binder D) cement E) catalyst
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A) lubricant
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The slight displacement of human-built structures such as fence posts and telephone poles is subtle evidence that ________ has(have) occurred. A) rock glaciers B) landslides C) rockfalls D) soil creep E) mudflows
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D) soil creep
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It is clear that some rocks will never weather, waste, or erode. True/False
answer
False
question
Mechanical and chemical weathering usually act in concert with one another. True/False
answer
True
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Generally, joints do not exist below one meter from Earth's surface. True/False
answer
False
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Joints and solution cavities are different names for the same feature. True/False
answer
False
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Usually, the number of faults in an area is a much greater number than the number of joints. True/False
answer
False
question
When water freezes, it decreases in density and expands in volume. True/False
answer
True
question
Salt wedging is a form of physical weathering especially prevalent in the humid tropics. True/False
answer
False
question
Angular rocks and boulders on high mountain peaks were produced by frost shattering. True/False
answer
True
question
Exfoliation is a type of weathering which is produced by hydrolysis. True/False
answer
False
question
Salt wedging is a weathering process which is unimportant in humid regions. True/False
answer
True
question
Exfoliation appears to involve both mechanical and chemical weathering agents. True/False
answer
True
question
Brush fires and forest fires speed the process of mechanical weathering. True/False
answer
True
question
Oxidation in rocks is often initiated by oxygen dissolved in water. True/False
answer
True
question
Oxidation produces compounds which are more easily eroded than the original rock. True/False
answer
True
question
Mechanical weathering is more effective than chemical weathering in the breakdown of the individual grains of a large rock. True/False
answer
False
question
Chemical weathering is at its peak in high northern latitudes. True/False
answer
False
question
Plant roots are agents of weathering. True/False
answer
True
question
Any downward movement of broken rocks owing to gravity is called mass wasting. True/False
answer
True
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Gravity is the energizing force in mass wasting. True/False
answer
True
question
Water is the energizing force in mass wasting. True/False
answer
False
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Mass wasting is generally the second step in a three-step system of denudation True/False
answer
True
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Mass wasting and denudation are synonymous terms. True/False
answer
False
question
Mass wasting and weathering are synonymous terms. True/False
answer
False
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Landslides are the most common form of mass wasting. True/False
answer
False
question
Debris flows are mass movements that occur on slopes in arid regions. True/False
answer
True
question
Clayey soils or clayey subsoils greatly facilitate mass movement. True/False
answer
True
question
The steepest angle that can be assumed by loose fragments on a slope without downslope movement is the angle of repose. True/False
answer
True
question
The angle of repose is the same for all materials. True/False
answer
False
question
Rock glaciers form on flat surfaces. True/False
answer
False
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A talus slope has a characteristic angle of repose of about 35 degrees. True/False
answer
True
question
A crescent-shaped scarp on a high slope often appears above a rock glacier. True/False
answer
False
question
Talus slopes are normally gently concave upward, with the steepest angle near the apex of the cone. True/False
answer
True
question
A common maximum speed for landslides is about 500 kilometers per hour. True/False
answer
False
question
Sometimes, landslides come down into a valley and then race upslope on the other side. True/False
answer
True
question
Mudflows tend to follow the local drainage network. True/False
answer
True
question
In a flow, the center moves faster than the outer edges True/False
answer
True
question
A mudflow is a slope collapse with a backward rotation. True/False
answer
False
question
Mudflows are potentially more dangerous to humanity than earthflow True/False
answer
True
question
Soil creep is generally faster on water-saturated slopes than on dry ones. True/False
answer
True
question
Burrowing animals, earthquakes, and thunder are all significant contributors to soil creep. True/False
answer
True
question
Where solifluction occurs, drainage channels are usually scarce. True/False
answer
True
question
In extreme cases, soil creep can carry materials as much as a kilometer downhill in a single year. True/False
answer
False
question
Soil creep, because it is so common, produces a rich array of landforms. True/False
answer
False
question
The "active layer" of permafrost must melt for solifluction to occur. True/False
answer
False