# RBT Exam 2021 study guide

## Unlock all answers in this set

question
Continuous Measurement
Measuring each and every instance of behavior within the entire observation period.
question
What are the 5 types of continuous measurement?
Frequency, Rate, Duration, Inter Rate Response (IRR), and Latency.
question
Frequency
A simple count of the instances of a behavior, represented by a tally. Example; how many times did John hit another student? You would tally every time John hit another student and present the count as a number. John hit another student five times.
question
Rate
A frequency count with a time element. This type of continuous measurement is an important measurement when looking at behaviors which are frequent and short, like hitting, raising hands, flapping hands, disrupting another student, yelling. Example; if you are measuring how many times John hit another student, you would report this as John hits at the rate of five times per hour.
question
Duration
How long a Behavior occurs. To take this type of data you start a stopwatch when the behavior begins and end the stopwatch when the behavior stops. This data is often reported as an average over time, and is for behaviors that are long lasting like tantrums, social play, how long it takes a child to get dressed.
question
Inter Rate Response (IRT)
This is the observed time between responses. To take this type of data you start the stopwatch when the behavior ends and stop the stopwatch when the behavior begins again. This type of data is typically reported as an average. Example; The time between doing math problems, the time between prosocial behaviors.
question
Latency
This is the time from prompt to the start of the behavior. To take this type of data start the stopwatch when the prompt is given and stop the stopwatch when the behavior starts. You might want to take this type of data when there is a delay between the prompts and when the behavior occurs. Example; The time from a prompt to get dressed to a person getting dressed, the time from the instruction to begin a math problem to the response.
question
Discontinuous Measurement
These measurement procedures are classified as samples of the target behavior, but they do not measure every instance of a behavior within the entire observation period. These types of measurement procedures are used when it is too time-consuming to take continuous measurement data.
question
What are the 3 types of Discontinuous Measurement?
Partial interval, whole interval, and momentary time sampling.
question
Partial Interval
A type of discontinuous measurement that records the presence or absence of a behavior during a brief interval of time. Intervals are marked as positive if the target behavior occurred at any time during the interval, and negative if the target behavior did not occur during the entire interval. Example; take an interval of 30 seconds and look for hand flapping behavior. You would mark a positive if the hand flapping behavior occurred at any point during the 30 second intervals, and a negative if it did not.
question
Whole interval
A discontinuous measurement procedure that records the presence or absence of a behavior during the whole interval. Intervals are marked as a positive if the target behavior occurred during the entire interval, and a negative if the target behavior stopped at any time during the interval. Example; if you are doing a 30 second intervals and measuring hand flapping behavior, you would mark it positive if the hand flapping behavior occurred during the entire 30 seconds, or negative if the hand flapping behavior stopped at any point in time during those 30 seconds.
question
Momentary Time Sampling
A discontinuous measurement procedure that records the presence or absence of a behavior at the very end of an interval. Intervals are marked as a positive if the target behavior occurred at the end of the interval, or a negative when the target behavior does not occur at the end of the interval. This procedure is best to do for many clients at the same time. Example; if a teacher is trying to measure task engagement for a group of students during a 30 second interval, if the teacher looked up at the students at the 28 second mark she would mark a positive for those students who are engaged in their tasks at that point in time and a negative for those students who were not engaged in their task when she looked up. Regardless of if they were the entire time.
question
Permanent Product procedures
This type of recording is not recording behaviors, but recording the products that the behavior produces. Example; you could record how many questions a student answered on a worksheet by simply looking at the worksheet after and counting the problems completed. Similarly, you could see a clean room as a result of the child cleaning their room and you would record their behavior as a positive because the end result is a clean room.
question
Provide examples of permanent product recordings?
1) How many items were placed on a shelf 2) how much homework was completed 3) how many bracelets were constructed 4) how many dishes were clean 5) how many scratches a person has. *this is valid because these are all an after product of a behavior occurring.
question
How would summarize different types of data? (Frequency, duration, IRT, latency, and interval data)
1) frequency is summarized as rate over sessions. 2) duration is summarized as total duration over one session. 3) IRT is summarized as an average. 4)Latency is summarized as a average latency to response 5) interval data is summarized as percent intervals with occurrence
question
List some rules for graphing data? (5?)
1) label the horizontal axis (x) with sessions or days 2) label the vertical axis (y) with the type of measurement you are using 3) graph one data point for every session 4) draw vertical phase line to separate phases of treatment 5) use a legend or written names with arrows to label the different behaviors if more than one behavior is depicted on the same graph
question
How should you describe behaviors?
You should always describe behavior in observable and measurable terms. This should be thorough enough and complete that any person could read it and understand what the behavior is and begin collecting data on the behavior even if they weren't there to see it happen. Example; instead of saying a child was aggressive or angry, you could say the client was hitting and pinching.
question
Preference assessment
A set of procedures used to determine if one or more stimuli may function to increase the rate of a specific behavior or behaviors when delivered following the occurrence of that behavior. Trying to determine which reinforcers are the most effective.
question
Free Operant Preference Assessment
This type of preference assessment is a simple observation procedure with no manipulation that allows the client to freely choose which items they play with or use. The therapist observes which items the client interacts with, records the time spent with each item, and ranks the items by the amount of time the client spent with them.
question
Single Item Preference Assessment
The therapist will present one item at a time to the client and record whether they consume/interact with the item, makes no response to it, or avoids it. The therapist should present three items total, and tally the number of time each item was consumed/interacted with.
question
Paired/Forced Choice Preference Assessment
The therapist presents two items to the client for about 30 seconds and records which item the client chooses.
question
Multiple stimulus preference assessment with replacement (MSW)
Present multiple items at a time to a client for 30 seconds, allow the client to pick an item then selected items are returned to the array, and this is done repeatedly.
question
Multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO)
The therapist presents multiple items at the same time to the client for 30 seconds and records which item the client chooses to interact with. Instead of returning the item back to the choices, the item is then set to the side.
question
How will an RBT help their supervisor?
RBTs will help their supervisor assess where their clients ability and social skills, language skills, academics, self help skills, daily living skills, job skills, coping skills etc.
question
Baseline
Baselining is finding out where a clients skills or behaviors are before beginning therapy. Example; Present a prompt and record the learners response. Typically three baseline data points will be sufficient.
question
Skill assessments
These assessments determine where a clients skills are. The most commonly used of this type of assessment in ABA is; verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program (VB-MAPP), assessment of basic language and learning skills - revised (ABLLS-R).
question
Curriculum-Based Assessment
This type of assessment or measurement is the repeated, direct assessment of targeted skills in basic areas such as math, reading, writing, spelling. Example; measuring how many words a client could read in a minute.
question
Define social skills
These types of skills are used to communicate and interact with people. They can include both verbal and nonverbal communication and personal appearance.
question
Define Daily living skills
These skills are those that people use every day to function. Example; personal hygiene and grooming, dressing, toileting, laundry, meal preparation and eating, safety skills.
question
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
This type of assessment is a set of procedures used to determine why someone is engaging in maladaptive behavior. They are typically done prior to beginning ABA therapy and are usually done by BCBAs.
question
Indirect functional behavior assessment (FBA) procedures
Part of an FBA may include record reviews, interviews, and rating scales.
question
Direct Functional behavior assessment (FBA) procedures
Part of an SBA will include direct observations and skill assessments. These procedures involve observing the client and recording what is seen.
question
Analog or functional analysis assessment
This assessment is when a behavior analyst manipulates the environment to determine the function of the behavior. *This is not a job for RBT's but they could be asked to help.
question
Antecedent Behavior Consequence (ABC) data collection
This type of data collection records what happened before the behavior occurred (antecedent), records what the behavior looked like in observable and measurable terms (behavior), and records what happened immediately after the behavior (consequence).
question
Behavior intervention plan (BIP)/behavior reduction plan (BRP)
This type of plan is a set of procedures used to reduce maladaptive behaviors.
question
Skill Acquisition Plan
This type of plan is a set of procedures used to increase the skills of a client and will outline the terminal goals of the client.
question
What are the 7 components to a skills plan?
1) terminal goals for clients 2) instrumental goals for clients (the steps to reach the terminal goals) 3) what type of technique should be used to teach the skill 4) what type of prompting should be used 5) what is mastery of the goal/how many times does a client need to perform the scale without prompting to determine mastery 6) what type of reinforcement strategies will be used 7) a plan for generalization and maintenance
question
Preparing for a Session
1) review notes from previous session. 2) minimize distractions in the area. 3) gather reinforcers and materials needed 4) read the scale plan as a reminder of the goals and techniques required * An RBT should take about 15 minutes at the beginning of a session or before a session to prepare.
question
Reinforcer
Any consequence that increases a behavior Example; if your client is screaming I want a cookie and you give them a cookie, the client is more likely to scream in the future to receive a cookie.
question
Punisher/punishment
Any consequence that decreases a behavior. Example; if you reprimand a client for jumping on the couch, the client is less likely to jump on the couch in the future.
question
Unconditioned reinforcement
The effectiveness of the reinforcer IS NOT dependent on the learning history. Also known as primary reinforcers. Example; food, water, warmth, pleasure, air.
question
Conditioned reinforcers
The effectiveness of the reinforcer IS dependent on the learning history. Also known as secondary reinforcers. Example; electronics, money, toys, music.
question
Positive reinforcement
Adding something to the environment to increase the future probability of the behavior occurring. Example; giving a client a cookie for cleaning up toys is adding a cookie and increases the probability that the client will clean up toys in the future in hopes of receiving a cookie. As well as giving a client a hug for saying thank you, or giving a client screen time for doing math work.
question
Negative reinforcement
Removing something from the environment to increase the future probability of the behavior occurring. Examples; putting on your seatbelt in the car to stop the seatbelt warning noise in your car OR when a client cries when he sees math homework so the homework is removed and the crying stops, but in the future the crying continues when the client sees homework.
question
Positive punishment
Introducing something that will increase the future probability that the behavior will decrease. Example; you touch a hot pot and your hand gets burned so in the future you are less likely to touch a hot pot.
question
Negative punishment
Taking something away that will increase the future probability that the behavior will decrease. Example; A student yells out in class and the teacher takes away a token therefore the student is less likely to yell in the future.
question
continuous reinforcement
Is a schedule in which the therapist reinforces every correct response of the target behavior Example; if the target behavior is having the client say hello, then every single time they say hello they will receive a reinforcement.
question
intermittent reinforcement
All other schedules when reinforcement does not occur after every response. There are four types of intermittent reinforcement. Example; giving reinforcement every third response or giving reinforcement about every five responses.
question
Fixed ratio (FR) Schedule
Providing reinforcement on a fixed response ratio. Example; If you were providing reinforcement on FR2, every two times the client correctly responds they would be provided with reinforcement.
question
Fixed interval (FI) schedule
Providing reinforcement on an interval/average time ratio. You provide reinforcement on the first correct after an interval of time. Example; If you were using FI3, you would provide reinforcement on the first correct response after 3 minutes had passed. If you were using FI5, you would provide reinforcement on the first correct response after 5 minutes had passed.
question
Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule
Providing reinforcement on a variable response ratio. Examples; If you were providing reinforcement on VR2, on the average of 2 correct responses the client correctly responses they would be provided reinforcement. So you take the average of the correct responses to find your VR schedule.
question
Variable Interval (VI) Schedule
Providing reinforcement on a variable/average time ratio. You provide reinforcement on the first correct after an average interval of time. Example; if you were using VI three, you would provide reinforcement on the first correct response after an average of three minutes had passed. The schedules might look like this: reinforce first correct response after one minute, three minutes, five minutes. The average of one, three, and five is three, so it is a VI3.
question
Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
A teaching method in which learning trials are presented in quick succession, with a clear beginning and clear into each trial. Immediately after the first trial a new trial begins.
question
Components of a discrete trial
1.) The instruction is delivered by the technician 2.) The learner responds 3.) the consequence is delivered by the technician Example; if the target behavior is to touch the nose the discrete trial could go like this; 1) deliver the SD: "touch your nose" 2) learner response: touches nose 3) consequence: The technician says "Good job!" and records the data
question
Naturalistic teaching procedures
Also known as natural environment training, pivotal response training, milieu teaching, and incidental teaching. This form of client directed learning looks natural in it's delivery and is embedded into play or every day routines. The reinforcers are related to the teaching.
question
Breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units, the product of this is a series of sequentially ordered steps. Example; instead of just brushing teeth it would be broken down into a series of steps like: 1) get out toothbrush and toothpaste 2) wet toothbrush and apply toothpaste 3) brush the outside surfaces of the upper teeth 4) brush the chewing surfaces of the upper teeth 5) brush the inside surfaces of the upper teeth 6) brush the outside surfaces of the lower teeth 7) brush the chewing surfaces of the lower teeth 8) brush the inside surfaces of the lower teeth 9) brush the tongue using small strokes 10) rinse mouth 11) rinse toothbrush 12) put away toothbrush and toothpaste
question
To create a task analysis;
You can observe a competent individual perform a task, consult with experts or persons skilled in performing the task, or perform the task yourself to create this.
question
Behavior chain
Sequence sequence of behaviors that must be performed correctly. The steps are tight sequentially to a client. It allows the client to learn complex skills that require many small steps.
question
Forward chaining
This begins with the first behavior in the sequence of steps. The client learns to perform the first step independently, the therapist performs all the other steps.
question
Backwards Chaining
This training begins with the last behavior in the sequence of steps. The therapist performs all but the last step until the client masters that last step. Then the therapist performs all but the last two steps until the client masters the last two steps, and so on.
question
This training is provided for every behavior in the sequence or steps during every training session. Therapist assistance (prompting) is provided on every step.
question
discrimination training
This procedure involves reinforcing one behavior and extinguishing the behavior in the presence of other stimuli. Example; A client would receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a red car, however, they would not receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a green car.
question
Discriminative stimuli (SD)
A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced Example; if a client would receive a cookie if they said read in the presence of a red car the red car is the SD. If you say "touch nose" and the client touches their nose, then saying touch nose is the SD.
question
S-Delta
A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will not be reinforced. Example; A client would receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a red car however they would not receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a green car. The green car would be an S-Delta.
question
Stimulus generalization
This occurs when stimuli that share similar physical characteristics with the controlling stimulus invoke the same behavior as the controlling stimulus. Example; A child calling all dogs Bella because the child's dog is named Bella, a baby calling both mom and dad dada.
question
stimulus discrimination
Occurs when new stimuli, similar or not similar, to the controlling stimulus does not invoke the same response as the controlling stimulus. Example; A client would receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a red car however they would not receive a cookie if they said red in the presence of a green car.
question
Prompting
A cue or hint meant to induce a person to perform a desired behavior.
question
Types of prompts
Full physical, partial physical, model, verbal, gestural, proximity, visual.
question
Physical prompts
A prompt in which you provide some amount of physical assistance in order to help the learner do the expected behavior. These can either be full physical or a partial physical.
question
Full physical prompts
These prompts are where you give the learner full physical guidance. Example; when teaching a child to follow in instruction to put a doll and it's cradle you might deliver the instruction, immediately followed by a full physical prompt to help the learner respond correctly.
question
Partial physical prompt
This prompt is a physical prompt in which less than the full amount of physical assistance is provided. Example; when teaching a child to follow in instruction to put a doll and it's cradle, you might deliver the instruction, and assist the learner in picking up the doll and guiding their arm toward the cradle then letting go of the learner.
question
Model prompt
A prompt in which you demonstrate the desired response. Can be a physical (clapping) or vocal (saying thank you) demonstration of the desired behavior. Example; when teaching a client how to clap you may show them how to do this skill by doing it your self.
question
Verbal prompt
Supplementary words, instructions, or questions to assist a learner and demonstrating a correct response. Example; when teaching an individual with autism to brush his teeth, you may provide verbal prompts for each step (remember to spit the water)
question
Gestural prompt
A prompt where you indicate the correct response by gesturing in someway. Example; when asking a learner to pass a fork during a meal, you may point to the requested utensil among those on the table.
question
Proximity prompt
A prompt where the stimulus that corresponds to the correct response is place closer to the learner than other stimuli. Example; if there are three cards on the table and you want the learner to point to a duck you might slide the duck card closer to the learner and keep the other two cards farther away.
question
Visual prompt
Often used to help clients with transitions and schedules. Example; your supervising BCBA might create a visual schedule that depicts the sequence of events to take place during a therapy session.
question
Includes procedures were fewer prompts are provided at the beginning of a teaching interaction and gradually more intrusive prompts are faded in when the learner needs help. Example; visual prompts gradually increased to a full physical prompt.
question
You begin the teaching interaction by providing a prompt that you are sure will help the loan or make the correct response, then you fade the prompts out. Example; going from a partial physical prompt to a vocal prompt then to no prompts needed.
question
Time Delay Prompt Fading
A time delay that occurs after instruction before before the prompt. Example; A child my reach for a teddy bear, you would withhold the teddy bear until the child made a vocalization. You would wait three seconds between withholding the bear and giving a prompt for the vocalization.
question
Generalization
Spreading the effects of training to other trainings in settings critical to ensure the ABA effects do not only take place during ABA training. * The two types of generalization are stimulus generalization and response generalization
question
Maintenance
Probing the client to ensure that they are still able to do mastered skills. Example; if the client mastered labeling the color red, you would check that the client could still say read through sessions.
question
Shaping
Defined as differentially reinforcing successive approximations toward a terminal behavior. The general rule is that you are reinforcing any behavior that is a closer approximation of the target behavior than the behavior you reinforced last. Example; if you wanted a client to say ball you would first reinforce the sound "B", once the client had mastered "B" you would reinforce "BA", and finally reinforce "ball".
question
Token economies
These are reinforcement systems that employ a monetary system (token reinforcers) and a back up reinforcer. They employ widespread use of tokens within groups of individuals.
question
7 Components of a behavior reduction plan
1) operational definition 2) Function of Behavior 3) antecedent strategies 4) replacement behavior 5) consequence strategies 6) people responsible 7 emergency measures
question
4 Functions of behavior
Tangible, escape, attention, and sensory stimulation
question
Establishing/Motivating operations
This refers to instances when something is made more valuable by deprivation. Example; if you are hungry you are more likely to engage in food seeking behavior. The hunger is the establishing operation.
question
Abolishing operation
This is when something is made less valuable by satiation. Example; if you are full you are less likely to engage in food seeking behavior. The feeling of fullness is the abolishing operation.
question
Non-contingent reinforcement
This is providing reinforcement to a client regardless of Behavior. Example; providing a client five minutes of attention every hour, this will make it less likely for the client to engage in maladaptive behaviors for attention.
question
This is a technique where you increase the demand over time; used to decrease behaviors with the function of escape. Example; first presenting a small amount of vegetable and increasing it over time or first presenting one math problem and increasing the amount of problems over time.
question
This technique is changing how the client does work, making it more preferred by the client. Example; using your favorite character for counting, allowing the learner to use a favorite pencil, and identifying real objects rather than pictures of objects.
question
High probability sequence/behavior momentum
Providing 3 to 4 demands with high compliance (a demand where you are sure the client can do it) and presenting the demand with low compliance at the end of the sequence. Must be done quickly while keeping demands simple. Example; bite of pasta, bite of pasta, bite of pasta, then bite of vegetables. OR; several easy math problems followed by hard math problem, putting on several pieces of clothing which are easy and then putting on the one harder piece of clothing.
question
Choice
Giving the client a choice during therapy, choice increases compliance and provides the learner a sense of control. Example; which color should we use? Which game should we play? Which animal do you want?
question
Differential reinforcement procedures
When a therapist reinforces a prosocial behavior that can take the place of the maladaptive behavior.
question
4 Differential reinforcement procedures
Differential reinforcement of other behavior(DRO), differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior(DRI), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), differential reinforcing lower rates of behavior (DRL).
question
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
Reinforcing another behavior other than the maladaptive behavior. The other behavior to be reinforced can be anything and is reinforced if the maladaptive did not occur for a specific amount of time.
question
Differential reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
Reinforcing behavior that cannot physically be engaged in at the same time as the maladaptive behavior. Example; reinforcing hugging instead of hitting, reinforcing hands in pocket instead of pinching, or reinforcing singing instead of yelling.
question
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)
This is reinforcing a behavior that meets the same function of the maladaptive behavior Example; if the client is tantruming for attention you could reinforce asking to play a game. Both tantruming and asking to play a game will gain attention.
question
Differential reinforcing lower rates of behavior (DRL)
This is typically reserved for behaviors that are socially acceptable but make her too often. Using this procedure, reinforcement is delivered if a behavior occurs below a predetermined criterion. Example; James uses socially appropriate behavior to greet peers but does so up to 10 times in one class. His teacher decides to use DRL to lower the rate of his behavior but she does not want to eliminate it completely. She decides to deliver reinforcement (computer time) to James if he greets peers five or fewer times during the class. If he greets peers more than five times, he does not receive reinforcement.
question
Extinction
Removing whatever was reinforcing the maladaptive behavior. Extinction procedures are always used with differential reinforcement. If you are going to reduce the maladaptive behavior must increase in adaptive behavior. This can be applied to attention extinction, tangible extinction, and escape extinction.
question
Attention extinction (Planned Ignoring)
Ignore the behavior and provide no attention for the behavior. Immediately provide attention once the behaviors over and praise them for calming down, using words etc.
question
Tangible extinction
Do not provide access to the item during the maladaptive behavior. Keep the item out of sight and stay strong, behaviors can escalate when a client knows they will not get the item. Example; when a child cries for a candy bar in the supermarket do not give the candy bar to the child
question
Escape extinction