# EX 4.1

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financial functions
used to analyze -loans -investments - business statistics
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FV (rate, nper,pmt [,pv=0] [,type=0] )
future value in an investment,
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PMT (rate, nper, pv [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the payments required each period on a loan or an investment
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IPMT (rate, per,nper,pv [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the amount of a loan payment devoted to paying the loan interest
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PPMT (rate, per,nper,pv [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the amount of a loan payment devoted to paying off the principal of a loan
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PV (rate,nper,pmt [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the present value of a loan or an investment based on periodic, constant payment
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NPER (rate, pmt,pv [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the number of periods required to pay off a loan or an investment
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RATE (nper,pmt,pv [,fv=0] [,type=0] )
the interest rate of a loan or an investment based on periodic constant payments
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PMT function
used to calculate the payments required to completely repay a mortgage or other type of loan
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the cost of a loan to the borrower is largely based on what three factors
principal, interest, and amount of time required to repat rhe loan
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Principal
the amount of the loan
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interest
the amount added the the principal by the lender [ the borrower is basically buying the right to use the lender's money]
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APR (interest)
annual percentage rate
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annual interest rate is
divided by the number of payments per year EX: 8% annual interest rate, payments made quarterly so the interest rate per quarter 2%
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the number of payment periods is based on
the length of the loan multiplied by the number of payments EX: 10 year loan paid monthly is 120
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what you need to calculate the cots associated with a loan
1) annual interest rate 2) number of payment periods per year 3) length of the loan in terms of the total number of payment periods 4) the amount being borrowed 5) when loan payments are due
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PMT functions syntax broken down
1) rate - interest rate for each payment period 2) nper - the total number of payment periods required to repay the loan 3) pv - present value of the loan or the amount that needs to be borrowed OPTIONAL 4) fv - type=0 by default 5) type - when the interest is charged on the loan type = 0 means at the end of the payment period type = 1 means at the beginning of the period
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rather than entering argument values directly in the PMT function
you should include the loan terms in worksheet cells that are referenced in the function
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PMT function - rate function
must enter rate per period, NOT the annual interest rate
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column or bar
compares values from different categories. Values are indicated by the height of the columns or the length of a bar 1) 2d 3d column 2) 2d 3d bar
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hierarchy
displays data that is organized into a hierarchy of categories where the size of the groups is based on a number 1) treemap 2) sunburst
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waterfall or stock
displays financial cash flow values or stock market data 1) waterfall 2) stock
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line
Compares values from different categories. Values are indicated by the height of the lines. often used to show trends and changes over time 1) 2d 3d line 2) 2d 3d area
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statistic
displays a chart summarizing the distribution of values from a sample population 1) histogram 2) paretp 3) Box and Whisker
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Pie
compares relative of different categories to the whole. values are indicated by the areas of the pie slices 1) 2d 3d pie 2) doughnut
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XY (Scatter)
shows the patterns or relationship between two or more sets of values. Often used in scientific studies and statistical analyses 1) scatter 2) bubble
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compares three sets of values in a three dimensional chart 1) surface 2) radar
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combo
combines two or more chart types to make the data easy to visualize, especially when the data is widely varied 1) clustered column - line 2) clustered column - line on Secondary Axis 3) Stacked area - clustered column
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PivotChart
creates a chart summarizing date from a PivotTable
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How many types of charts and categories
59 types of charts 10 categories
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each slice in a pie chart represents
a single value from a data series
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don't include row or column totals in the pie chart date because
excel treats those totals as another categories
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the data displayed in a chart comes from the charts date source which inckudes
one or more data series and a series of category values
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data series
contains the actual values that are plotted not the chart -placed in subsequent columns or rows
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category values
labels for each data series and used to group those series - usually located in the first row or column
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when the selected range is taller than wide
excel assumes that the category values and data series are laid out in columns
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when the selected range is wider than tall
it is assumed to have category values and data series laid out in rows
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quick analysis tool
charts category shows a list of chart types that are often appropriate for the selected data source
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you can also insert a chart by selecting a chart type in the
charts group on the insert tab
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when you create chart
it is embedded in the worksheet that contains the data source
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you can display the chart alongside the data source and any text that describes the charts meaning and purpose
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a selected chair has a
selection box around the chart and sizing handles that appear along the edges of the selection
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three buttons to the right of a selected chart
chart elements, chart styles button, chart filter
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when you add or remove a chart element
the other elements resize to fit in the unoccupied space a live preview shows that
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another you can add or remove chart element
Add chart element button in the chart layout group on the chart tools designs
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another you can select a chart styles
chart styles gallery in the chart styles group on the chart tools designs tab
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how you can finite a chart style by using formatting specific elements
submenu in chart elements button 2) you can open a format pane which has more options for formatting the selected chart element
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data label location options
1) center on pie slices 2) outside the slices 3) set them as data callouts with each label placed in a text bubble and connected to its bubble with a callout line
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you can also format chart elements using
the formatting buttons on the home tab or on the chart tools format tab
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you can changer the colors of all pie slices by clicking
the chart styles buttons, clicking the color header and then selecting a color schemes
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an exploded pie chart
moves one slice away from the others as if someone were taking the piece away from the pie
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to explode a pie slice
1) first click the pie to select all of the slices, 2) then click the single slice you want to move 3) drag the slice away from the pie
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to explode multiple skuces
select each slice in turn and drag them away
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to explode all slices
select the entire slice and drag the pointer away from the pies ceter
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charts background is called the
chart area
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chart area can be formatted using
1) fill colors 2) border styles 3) special effects
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you can select any chart element
using the chart elements box in the current selection group on the chart tools format tab
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another type of what if analysis
is to filter the data source which limits the data to fewer values
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bar chart
column chart turned on its side
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better to use column/bar charts
when the number of categories is large or the data values are close in value
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clustered column chart
displays the data series in separate columns side by side so that you can compare the relative heights of the columns in three series
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stacked column chart
places the data series values within combined columns showing how much is contributed by each series
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100% stacked columns chart
makes the same comparison as the stacked column chart except that the stacked sections are expressed as percentages
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you can also open the insert chart dialog box