Chp 14 Physio

25 July 2022
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question
Which of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance
answer
pressure = flow × resistance
question
What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
answer
mean arterial pressure
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In comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit
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has lower resistance to blood flow
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Which of the following would increase the rate of blood flow through a blood vessel?
answer
increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel
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Which of the following equations is correct?
answer
cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate
question
Which of the following is NOT a component of the microcirculation?
answer
veins
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The lumen of every blood vessel is lined by a monolayer of what cell type
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endothelial cells
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What is/are the component(s) of a blood vessel's extracellular matrix that provide(s) the tensile strength required to withstand pressure?
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collagen
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The elastic nature of the largest blood vessel's walls allows them to act as a ________, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
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pressure reservoir
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The blood vessels of largest diameter are the ________, and the blood vessels with the thickest walls are the ________.
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veins : arteries
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What component of artery walls allows them to store energy that is later used to maintain continuous blood flow through the circulatory system?
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elastin
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Arteries have ________ compliance and ________ resistance to flow.
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low : low
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What is a measure of the change in vascular volume as pressure within the vessel is altered
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compliance
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Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily by what blood vessels
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arterioles
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In the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across which blood vessels
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arterioles
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The total cross-sectional area is greatest in which blood vessels
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capillaries
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The contractile activity of smooth muscle cells within which type of blood vessel is primarily involved in the control of the organ blood flow and mean arterial pressure?
answer
arterioles
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Blood flow velocity is inversely proportional to the pooled surface area of a structure; therefore, it is greatest in the ________ and slowest in the ________.
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arteries : capillaries
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Which of the following statements about smooth muscle in arterioles is FALSE
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The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.
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What is the purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle contractile activity
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regulate mean arterial pressure
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Which of the following chemicals' concentration is NOT increased by an elevation in metabolic activity
answer
oxygen
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Chemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following
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relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
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What is a decrease in tissue oxygen called?
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hypoxia
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What is an increase in blood flow in response to an increase in tissue metabolic activity called?
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active hyperemia
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In response to a decrease in tissue metabolic activity, tissue oxygen concentrations ________, which causes a(n) ________.
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increase : constriction of the arterioles
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A decrease in pressure within an arteriole will initiate a(n)
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myogenic response
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Which of the following accurately compares active hyperemia to reactive hyperemia?
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One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.
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An increase in the concentration of which of the following within the interstitial space surrounding an arteriole would cause that vessel to constrict?
answer
oxygen
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Which of the following would decrease mean arterial pressure
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increase in arteriole diameter
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What type of adrenergic receptor is found in the smooth muscle of most systemic arterioles?
answer
alpha only
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The effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon which of the following
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relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors
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In cardiac and skeletal muscle vasculature, the distribution of alpha and beta receptors is such that epinephrine will
answer
induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.